1989 Atlantic hurricane season

Infobox hurricane season
Basin=Atl
Year=1989
Track=1989 Atlantic hurricane season map.png First storm formed=June 24, 1989
Last storm dissipated=December 4, 1989
Strongest storm name=Hugo
Strongest storm pressure=918
Strongest storm winds=140
Total depressions=15
Total storms=11
Total hurricanes=7
Total intense=2
Fatalities=112
Da

Inflated=1
five seasons=1987, 1988, 1989, 1990, 1991
The 1989 Atlantic hurricane season officially began on June 1, 1989, and lasted until November 30, 1989. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin.

The most notable storm of 1989 was Hurricane Hugo, which tracked across the Lesser Antilles and into South Carolina; Hugo killed 76 and caused $10 billion ($17.4 billion in 2008 US dollars) in damage, becoming the costliest Atlantic hurricane until Hurricane Andrew in the 1992 season and has since fallen to the ninth costliest hurricane. Hurricane Dean caused some damage and injuries on Bermuda in August. Tropical Storm Allison caused inland flooding from Texas to Mississippi, doing $500 million (1989 USD) in damage and killing eleven. Hurricane Chantal was responsible for $100 million (1989 dollars) in damage when it made landfall at High Island, Texas, killing thirteen. Hurricane Jerry caused 70 million dollars in damage to Texas in October, as well as killing 3 people.

Storms

Tropical Depression One

Infobox Hurricane Small
Basin=Atl



Track=
Formed=June 15
Dissipated=June 16
1-min winds=30
Pressure=
Tropical Depression One was a brief tropical cyclone which formed in the southern Gulf of Mexico on June 15. The depression was absorbed into a larger extratropical system the next day.cite web|author=Lixion A. Avila|title=Atlantic Tropical Systems of 1989|year=1989|publisher=National Hurricane Center|accessdate=2008-10-11|url=http://ams.allenpress.com/archive/1520-0493/118/5/pdf/i1520-0493-118-5-1178.pdf]

Tropical Storm Allison

Infobox Hurricane Small
Basin=Atl


Track=Allison 1989 track.pngFormed=June 24
Dissipated=July 1
1-min winds=45
Pressure=999
A tropical depression formed off the Mexican coast on June 24 from a tropical wave influenced by the remnants of Hurricane Cosme of the 1989 Pacific hurricane season. It was upgraded to Tropical Storm Allison two days later and made landfall near Freeport. Although it rapidly became extratropical over land, the remnants wandered over the southern United States for several days bringing heavy rains. The maximum amount measured in the storm was 25.67" at Winnfield, Louisiana. [cite web|author=National Climatic Data Center|title=Tropical Storm Allison 1989 Rainfall Graphics|year=1989|publisher=National Hurricane Center|accessdate=2008-10-11|url=http://www.hpc.ncep.noaa.gov/tropical/rain//allison1989.html] The storm reached as far north as Indiana before turning south again and finally dissipating over Arkansas on July 7.

Eleven deaths by drowning were attributed to the rains associated with Allison, and flood damage in Texas, Louisiana and Mississippi was estimated at $500 million (1989 USD).

Tropical Storm Barry

Infobox Hurricane Small
Basin=Atl


Track=Barry 1989 track.pngFormed=July 9
Dissipated=July 14
1-min winds=45
Pressure=1005
Tropical Storm Barry developed out of a tropical wave which moved off the west coast of Africa on July 7. The wave quickly developed a low-level circulation by July 9 and was designated Tropical Depression Three. The depression was located midway between Africa and the Lesser Antilles and traveling to the northwest in response to a area of high pressure located north of the Azores. The depression was upgraded to Tropical Storm Barry on July 11. Barry slowly intensified and reached its peak intensity of 50 mph (85 km/h) the next day. By July 13, Barry weakened back to a depression and dissipated shortly after while located 545 mi (880 km) northeast of the Lesser Antilles. [cite web|author=MBL|title=Tropical Storm Barry Tropical Cyclone Report Page One|year=1989|publisher=National Hurricane Center|accessdate=2008-10-11|url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/atlantic/atl1989-prelim/barry/prelim01.gif]

Hurricane Chantal

Infobox Hurricane Small
Basin=Atl


Track=Chantal 1989 track.pngFormed=July 30
Dissipated=August 3
1-min winds=70
Pressure=984
Chantal developed from an Intertropical Convergence Zone disturbance first observed near Trinidad, but did not become a storm until north of Yucatan on July 31. It strengthened to a Category 1 hurricane before landfall at High Island, Texas on August 1. The storm's surface circulation dissipated in southwest Oklahoma, but its mid-level circulation persevered; recurving northeastward across the central Plains through the Great Lakes and through New York state. [cite web|author=National Climatic Data Center|title=Hurricane Chantal 1989 Rainfall Graphics|year=1989|publisher=National Hurricane Center|accessdate=2008-10-11|url=http://www.hpc.ncep.noaa.gov/tropical/rain//chantal1989.html]

13 deaths were reported, including 10 crew of the oil-rig construction vessel "Avco 5" which capsized off Morgan City, Louisiana. Damage caused by wind and flooding was estimated at $100 million (1989 USD).

Hurricane Dean

Infobox Hurricane Small
Basin=Atl


Track=Dean 1989 track.pngFormed=July 31
Dissipated=August 9
1-min winds=90
Pressure=968
Hurricane Dean developed as a tropical storm in the mid-Atlantic on August 1 and became a hurricane the next day. Initially headed for the Leeward Islands, it swung to the north, with the eye passing over Bermuda on August 6. It later passed over Nova Scotia and Newfoundland before losing tropical characteristics.

Damage in Bermuda approached $9 million (1989 USD), with 16 persons injured. No significant damage was reported from Canada.

Tropical Depression Six

Infobox Hurricane Small
Basin=Atl



Formed=August 16
Dissipated=August 16
1-min winds=30
In mid August, Tropical Depression Six formed from a tropical wave. Later in the day, wind shear caused the system to degenerate into a wave. The wave eventually split in two, with the south part eventually becoming Pacific hurricane Lorena.

Hurricane Erin

Infobox Hurricane Small
Basin=Atl


Track=Erin 1989 track.pngFormed=August 18
Dissipated=August 27
1-min winds=90
Pressure=968
An organized tropical wave was seen emerging off the coast of Africa on August 16 by METEOSAT imagery. Once the system emerged off the coast of Africa into the cool eastern Atlantic Ocean, its convection diminished but left a small, well-organized low-level circulation. Slowly the tropical wave began to regain its convection and it became a tropical depression just southeast of the Cape Verde Islands early on August 18 based on DVORAK satellite observations. Erin became a tropical storm on August 19 while 500 miles west of Cape Verde. The interaction between the tropical depression, a tropical wave moving through the central Atlantic, and a subtropical system to the north, caused Erin to move north-northwestward. Erin continued to be steered north-northwestward until August 21, when it turned northwards. It became a hurricane on August 22 after being in the environment of the northeastern quadrant of an upper-level low, which caused the stream above to become weaker and more conflicting. Erin slowed and began to move more northwestward while northeast of the upper-level low. However, shortly afterward, a wave moving westward into Erin forced it to move north and eventually north-northeast. Erin then began weakening and degenerated into a tropical storm. It became extratropical on August 27. It did not approach land. [cite web|author=Jim Gross|title=Hurricane Erin Tropical Cyclone Report Page One|year=1989|publisher=National Hurricane Center|accessdate=2008-10-11|url= http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/atlantic/atl1989-prelim/erin/prelim01.gif]

Hurricane Felix

Infobox Hurricane Small
Basin=Atl


Track=Felix 1989 track.pngFormed=August 26
Dissipated=September 10
1-min winds=75
Pressure=979
Felix became a storm August 26 north of Cape Verde. It headed generally northwards with varying intensity, eventually becoming a hurricane on September 7. It became extratropical two days later without approaching land. Felix took 13 days to reach hurricane strength, a record that would later be tied by Hurricane Irene in 2005.

Tropical Depression Nine

Infobox Hurricane Small
Basin=Atl



Formed=August 28
Dissipated=August 30
1-min winds=30
Tropical Depression Nine formed on August 28 from a tropical wave. It degenerated into an open wave by August 30. The wave crossed the ocean and entered the Pacific, where it eventually became Hurricane Octave.

Hurricane Gabrielle

Infobox Hurricane Small
Basin=Atl


Track=Gabrielle 1989 track.pngFormed=August 30
Dissipated=September 13
1-min winds=125
Pressure=927
Gabrielle developed south of Felix and took a more westerly course. It became a tropical storm by August 31 and developed into a Category 4 major hurricane by September 3. It continued northwards, merging with a non-tropical storm off Newfoundland on September 13.

Although it never approached land, it was a large and powerful storm that generated swells up to 20 feet all the way from the Caribbean to Canada. These were responsible for eight deaths on the East Coast of the United States.

Hurricane Hugo

Infobox Hurricane Small
Basin=Atl



Track=Hugo 1989 track.pngFormed=September 10
Dissipated=September 25
1-min winds=140
Pressure=918
A tropical wave became a tropical depression off the coast of Africa on September 10. It moved to the west, reaching tropical storm strength on September 11 and hurricane status September 13. As Hugo approached the Lesser Antilles, it rapidly intensified to a 160 mph Category 5 hurricane on September 15, though weakened to a Category 3 while passing through the Lesser Antilles. After crossing Puerto Rico on September 18, Hugo weakened to a 105 mph Category 2 hurricane, but as it accelerated to the northwest, it again restrengthened. Just prior to hitting near Charleston, South Carolina on September 22, it reached winds of 140 mph and rapidly weakened as it turned to the northeast. Hugo became extratropical on September 23 over northwestern Pennsylvania and dissipated on September 25 while south of Greenland.

While crossing through the Caribbean, Hugo was responsible for $3 billion (1989 USD) in damages and 28 deaths. In the United States, the hurricane caused $7 billion (1989 USD) in damages and 21 deaths, mostly in South Carolina. A devastating hurricane, at the time it was the costliest in US history , although it is now 8th, causing great damage in the Caribbean and South Carolina.

Tropical Storm Iris

Infobox Hurricane Small
Basin=Atl


Track=Iris 1989 track.pngFormed=September 16
Dissipated=September 21
1-min winds=60
Pressure=1001
Iris developed 400 miles east of Barbados from a tropical wave following the one which spawned Hugo. It reached tropical storm strength on September 18 but outflow from Hugo prevented further strengthening. The storm tracked north of the Lesser Antilles and had dissipated north-east of the Turks Islands by September 22. It brought further heavy rains to regions already drenched by Hugo, but no further damage or casualties were reported.

Tropical Depression Thirteen

Infobox Hurricane Small
Basin=Atl



Formed=October 2
Dissipated=October 3
1-min winds=30
Tropical Depression Thirteen was a short lived tropical cyclone during early October. The depression lasted twenty-four hours before dissipating.

Hurricane Jerry

Infobox Hurricane Small
Basin=Atl


Track=Jerry 1989 track.pngFormed=October 12
Dissipated=October 16
1-min winds=75
Pressure=983
Jerry developed from an African tropical wave, but no development occurred before it crossed the Yucatán Peninsula into the Bay of Campeche. There it became a tropical storm on October 13. It tracked generally northwards and reached hurricane strength on Galveston Island on October 15. The remnants moved through the Tennessee Valley ahead of a frontal zone, and eventually offshore the coast of the Mid-Atlantic states. [cite web|author=National Climatic Data Center|title=Hurricane Jerry 1989 Rainfall Graphics|year=1989|publisher=National Hurricane Center|accessdate=2008-10-11|url=http://www.hpc.ncep.noaa.gov/tropical/rain//jerry1989.html]

Three people died when an automobile was blown off the Galveston, Texas seawall and State Highway 87 was washed away from High Island, Texas to the eastern portion of Sea Rim State Park. This was the last time that Highway 87 was open to traffic across much of Jefferson County due to increasing erosion; as of 2005 the area was used for sunbathers as the damaged highway continued to crumble into the Gulf of Mexico. Damage is estimated at $70 million (1989 USD, $110 million 2005 USD). [cite web|author=Bob Case and Max Mayfield|title=1989 Monthly Weather Review|year=1990|publisher=National Hurricane Center|accessdate=2008-10-11|url=http://www.hpc.ncep.noaa.gov/tropical/rain//chantal1989.html]

Tropical Storm Karen

Infobox Hurricane Small
Basin=Atl


Track=Karen 1989 track.pngFormed=November 28
Dissipated=December 4
1-min winds=50
Pressure=1000
Karen developed into a tropical storm south of the Isle of Youth on November 30. It wandered southwest and lost its circulation by December 4. The remnants passed over Nicaragua.

Karen brought heavy rain to western Cuba, causing damage to property and crops. No casualties were reported. Karen was unusual because the storm did not make landfall in the Caribbean.

Accumulated Cyclone Energy (ACE) Rating

The table on the right shows the ACE for each storm in the season. ACE is, broadly speaking, a measure of the power of the hurricane multiplied by the length of time it existed, so storms that last a long time (like Dean and Erin) as well as particularly strong hurricanes (like Hugo and Gabrielle), have high ACEs. ACE is only officially released for full advisories on tropical systems at or exceeding 34 knots (39 mph, 63 km/h) or tropical storm strength. Subtropical storms are not included in season totals. The ACE for 1989 fell into the "Above Normal" category, which is a season that produces an ACE greater than the long term average of 89.5 and has more storms than a normal season.

Storm names

The following names were used for named storms that formed in the north Atlantic in 1989. The names not retired from this list were used again in the 1995 season. This is the same list used for the 1983 season except for Allison, which replaced Alicia. Storms were named Allison, Erin, Felix, Gabrielle, Hugo, Iris, Jerry, and Karen for the first time in 1989. Names that were not assigned are marked in tcname unused.

Retirement

The World Meteorological Organization retired one name in the spring of 1990: Hugo. It was replaced in the 1995 season by Humberto.

eason effects

This is a table of the storms in 1989 and their landfall(s), if any. Deaths in parentheses are additional and indirect (an example of an indirect death would be a traffic accident), but are still storm-related. Damage and deaths include totals while the storm was extratropical or a wave or low.TC stats table end|num-cyclones-text=15 cyclones|dates=June 24 – December 4|max-winds=160|min-press=918
num-cyclones-text=15 cyclones|tot-ace=135.233|num-landfalls=7|tot-da
10,739|tot-deaths=112

See also

*List of Atlantic hurricanes
*List of Atlantic hurricane seasons

References

External links

* [http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/general/lib/lib1/nhclib/mwreviews/1989.pdf Monthly Weather Review]
* [ftp://ftp.nhc.noaa.gov/pub/storm_archives/atlantic/prelimat/atl1989/ Detailed information on all storms from 1989]
* [http://www.hpc.ncep.noaa.gov/tropical/rain/1989.html U.S. Rainfall caused by 1989 tropical cyclones]
* [http://weather.unisys.com/hurricane/atlantic/1989/index.html UNISYS hurricane tracks for 1989]


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