Arabization (Arabic: تعريب "ArabDIN|Taʿrīb") describes a growing cultural influence on a non-Arab area that gradually changes into one that speaks Arabic and/or incorporates
Arab culture. It was most prominently achieved during the 7th century Arabian Muslim conquestswhich spread the Arabic language, culture, and--having been carried out by Arabian Muslims as opposed to Arabian Christians or Arabian Jews--the religion of Islamto the lands they conquered. The result: some elements of Arabian origin combined in various forms and degrees with elements taken from conquered civilizations and ultimately denominated "Arab", as opposed to "Arabian".
It should be noted that the Arabs were not the first
Semitic peopleswho migrated out of the peninsula (see: Aramaeans, Canaanites, Akkadianswho branched into the Northern Semitic civilizations Assyrians, Phoenicians, Babylonians, Hebrewsand Amorites) [http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0003-0279(1919)39%3C243%3ATHOTS%3E2.0.CO%3B2-Q] part of Qahtanthe origin of the Arabs. However, pre Islamic Modern Arabicscript groups are mainly the Ghassanids, Nabataeans, while the Kinditesused the South Arabian MusnadScript.
Early Islamic Arabization
Syria/Iraq 7th century
After Islam the Arab tribes unified under the banner of Islam and flooded into
Byzantine Syriaand SassanidAssyria and Mesopotamia, within few years the major garrison towns developed into the major cities. The local Aramaicspeaking population which shared a very close Semitic linguistic/genetic ancestry with the Qahtaniand AdnaniMuslims and were somewhat Arabized, although Neo-Aramaicspeaking minorities persist to the present day.
North Africa and Iberia 7th century
Neither North Africa nor the Iberian Peninsula were strangers to Semitic culture: the
Phoeniciansand later the Carthaginiansdominated the North African and Iberian shores for more than 8 centuries until they were suppressed by the Romans and the following Vandaland Visigothic invasion. In the Inland the Nomadic Berbers allied themselves with the Arab Muslims POV-statement|date=December 2007 and joined them in invading Spain. During this period the Arab tribes mainly settled the old Phoenician/ Carthaginiantowns while the Berbers remained the dominant group inland. The Inland North Africa remained partly Arabized until the 11th century; the Iberian Peninsula, on the other hand, remained Arabized, particularly in the south, until the XVI century.
Banu Hilal in North Africa 1046Ad
Banu Hilal, a populous Arabian tribal confedaration organized by the Fatimids in Egypt, struck first in Libyareducing the Zenataberbers (a berber clan that claimed Yemeni ancestry from pre-Islamic periods) and Sanhajaberber confederation to the small coastal towns. The Banu Hilal, as well as the Banu Muqal, Jashm and others, eventually settled modern Morocco and Algeria and had reduced the Sanhajato isolated mountainous regions.
Banu Sulaym in North Africa 1049Ad
Banu Sulaymanother Bedouin tribal confederation from Nejdfollowed through the trials of Banu Hilaland helped them defeat the Ziridsin the Battle of Gabis1052Ad, and finally taking Kairuanin 1057Ad. The Banu Sulaym mainly settled and completely Arabized Libya.
Banu Kanz Nubia/Sudan 11th-14th century
A Branch of the
Rabi'ahtribe settled Southern Egypt and slowly Arabized the Makurian kingdomin modern Sudanuntil 1315Ad when the Banu Kanzinherited the kingdom of Makuriaand paved the way for the Arabization of the Sudan, that was completed by the arrival of the Jaaliand JuhaynaArab tribes.
Repopulating Crusade-12th century A.D.
After the defeat of the Crusaders, the
Ayyubidsrepopulated the reconquered towns with Arabs mainly from their southern provinces, which are today Yemenand the region of Asirin Saudi Arabia.
Banu Hassan Mauritania 1644-1674AD
The Banu Ma'qil is a Yemeni nomadic tribe that settled in Tunisia in the 13th century. The
Banu Hassana Maqilbranch moved into the Sanhajaregion in what's today the Western Sahara and Mauritania, they fought a thirty years war on the side of the LamtunaArabized Berbers who claimed Himyariteancestry (from the early Islamic invasions) defeating the Sanhaja berbers and Arabizing Mauritania.
In general After the rise of
Islamin the Arabian Peninsula, Arab culture and language spread through trade with African states, conquest, and intermarriageof the local population with the Arabs.] , Iraqand the Sudan. Also, though Yemenis traditionally held to be the homeland of Arabs, most [Nebes, Norbert, "Epigraphic South Arabian," in von Uhlig, Siegbert, "Encyclopaedia Aethiopica" (Wiesbaden:Harrassowitz Verlag, 2005), pps.335.] of the population did not speak Arabic (but instead South Semiticlanguages) prior to the spread of Islam.
The peninsular Arabic language became common among these areas;
dialects also formed. Today, an Arab from the Levantfinds the Arabic of a North African almost incomprehensible. Modern Standard Arabicfunctions as something of a dachsprache, allowing speakers of disparate dialects to communicate.
The influence of Arabic has also been profound in many other countries whose cultures have been influenced by Islam. Arabic is a major source of vocabulary for languages as diverse as Berber, spoken
Hindi, Indonesian, Kurdish, Malay, Persian, Portuguese, Somali, Spanish, Swahili, Turkish, Urdu, as well as other languages in countries where these languages are spoken. For example the Arabic word for book /kita:b/ is used in all the languages listed, apart from Malay and Indonesian (where it specifically means "religious book") and Spanish (which uses the Latin-derived "libro").
The term "Arabised-Arabs" has historically been used to signify Arabs who are descendants of Adnan, the son of
Ishmaeland grandson of Abraham.Fact|date=February 2007
In part of the
Al-Anfal Campaign, Saddam Hussein's Iraqi Ba'athistregime drove hundreds of thousands of Kurdish, Assyrian, [ [http://hrw.org/reports/1993/iraqanfal/ANFAL11.htm 11 ] ] [ [http://www.parliament.nsw.gov.au/prod/PARLMENT/hansArt.nsf/V3Key/LC19930914036 Assyrian Oppression - 14/09/1993 - ADJ - NSW Parliament ] ] [ [http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200203/cmselect/cmintdev/444/444ap06.htm House of Commons - International Development - Appendices to the Minutes of Evidence ] ] and Turkmen [ [http://www.puk.org/web/htm/news/knwsline/nws/16nov02.html IDPs and Ethnic Cleansing Conference ] ] families out of their homes in Kirkukafter a Kurdish revolt, and gave their homes to Arab-speaking oil fieldworkers as well as to other non-Kurdish people whom Saddam moved from southern Iraq to the city. This violent campaign of Arabization was an attempt to transform the historically multi-ethnic city of Kirkuk into an Arab city. Kurdish families were left with no homes after being evicted forcefully by Saddam's Iraqi soldiers, and therefore had to migrate to refugee camps. After the fall of Saddam's regime, many Kurdish families came back to Kirkuk.
In Sudan, the majority of citizens are blacks of various faiths, most who self-identify as Arab on linguistic grounds. In 1983, the Muslim, Arabized Government of Sudan, which came to power in a military coup, imposed
sharialaw upon the largely Christian South. The result was a civil war that raged for 21 years. In other parts of the country, the Nubafor years have been subjected to an aggressive government campaign of Arabization. The government systematically has uprooted many from their lands, and by 2001, forcibly had removed 60,000 Nuba children from their parents to so-called "peace camps" to be Arabized.
The mostly Muslim Nubians in the North face imminent displacement from their lands as the regime of Sudanese president
Omar Hassan al-Bashircompletes the last of three dams along the Nile. Opponents of the dam charge that the government already has sold the land to Egyptian and other Arab interests in the wake of the signing between Egypt and Sudan of the Four Freedoms Agreementin 2004, giving Egyptian nationals the right freely to travel, live, work and own land in Sudan.
In the West,
Janjaweedmilitia, who self-identify as Arab, have been in conflict with the sedentary, largely Muslim populations of the Darfurregion, who do not. The Janjaweed widely are thought to be armed and supported by the Arab government, and there is some evidence of on-the-ground involvement of Sudanese military in the Janjaweed's genocidal campaign against Darfurians. The Sudanese government, while it has admitted to bombing "rebel" villages, has denied any collusion with Janjaweed. To date, at least 200,000 persons have been killed in the conflict, with some estimates as high as 400,000, and 2.5 million displaced.
Algeria and Morocco
In Algeria and Morocco, there is tension between the Berber minority groups (such as the
Kabyle people) and the central Arab government and feel their culture and language are threatened by arabization. Several incidents of strikes and rioting occurred as part of cultural conflicts, for example the death of Lounes Matoub.
* [http://www.islam-watch.org/AnwarSheikh/Islam-Arab-Imperialism.htm Islam: The Arab Imperialism] by Anwar Sheikh
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Look at other dictionaries:
Arabization — (Brit.) n. acquiring Arab customs or culture; makinge something conform to Arab customs or culture; act of causing to acquire Arab customs or culture (also Arabisation) … English contemporary dictionary
Arabization — The Arabization policy was the objective of postcolonial governments in North Africa or the so called Arab Maghrib, and it remains a contested issue down to the present day. The long historical process that has made Arabic the dominant and… … Historical dictionary of the berbers (Imazighen)
Arabization — noun see Arabize … New Collegiate Dictionary
Arabization — See Arabize. * * * … Universalium
Arabization — noun a) that which has been Arabized b) the process of Arabizing … Wiktionary
arabization — ar·ab·i·za·tion … English syllables
arabization — ˌarəbə̇ˈzāshən noun ( s) Usage: usually capitalized : the act or process of arabizing or of being arabized * * * arabizāˈtion or arabisāˈtion noun • • • Main Entry: ↑Arab … Useful english dictionary
Arabize — Arabization, n. /ar euh buyz /, v.t., v.i., Arabized, Arabizing. to place or come under Arab influence or domination: Middle Eastern countries began to Arabize their oil industries. Also, esp. Brit., Arabise. [1880 85; ARAB + IZE] * * * … Universalium
Kirkuk — Infobox Country or territory official name = Kirkuk native name = كهركووك, كركوك nickname = motto = imagesize = image caption = image image shield = mapsize = map caption = Location of Kirkuk in Iraqi map pushpin pushpin label position =… … Wikipedia
Islamization — Part of the Politics series on Islamism … Wikipedia