1986 Atlantic hurricane season
Infobox hurricane season
Track=1986 Atlantic hurricane season map.png
First storm formed=
June 5, 1986
Last storm dissipated=
November 21, 1986
Strongest storm name=Earl
Strongest storm pressure=979
Strongest storm winds=90
Average wind speed=1
five seasons=1984, 1985, 1986, 1987, 1988 The 1986 Atlantic hurricane season officially began on
June 1, 1986, and lasted until November 30, 1986. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin.
The 1986 season had lower than average activity because of an
El Niñoevent, and was the first season since 1972 to have no major hurricanes. Few storms caused significant damage; Hurricane Bonnie caused heavy rains and flooding across southeast Texaswhen it made landfall near Sea Rim State Park. Hurricane Charley caused limited damage in North Carolinaand Massachusetts, but crossed the Atlantic as an extratropical low pressure system and caused considerable damage in Irelandand Great Britain.
Tropical Storm Andrew
Infobox Hurricane Small
Track=Andrew 1986 track.png
Pressure=999Tropical Depression One formed on
June 5north of the Bahamas. It strengthened into Tropical Storm Andrew the next day. Andrew headed along the East Coast of the United States, causing riptides and high surf along the shore but little else. Andrew dissipated south of Cape Cod. One person drowned off the North Carolinacoast in high surf, but no significant damage was reported.
Infobox Hurricane Small
Track=Bonnie 1986 track.png
Pressure=990During late June, a frontal trough drifted into the northeastern
Gulf of Mexico, and by June 22a surface circulation formed. Tracking west-northwestward, it developed into Tropical Depression Two on June 23while located about 330 miles (535 km) south of Pensacola, Florida. The next day, it attained tropical storm status, and with continued favorable conditions attained hurricane status on June 25to the south of Louisiana. Bonnie turned to the northwest and made landfall near Sea Rim State Parkin Texas. The storm quickly weakened over land as it turned to the north and northeast, and on June 28it was absorbed by an approaching frontal zone in southeastern Missouri.
Prior to moving ashore, 22,000 people were evacuated. Upon making landfall, Hurricane Bonnie produced a
storm surgepeaking at 5.2 feet (1.5 m) at Sabine Pass. Rainfall from the storm peaked at 13 inches (330 mm) in Ace, Texas, which caused some street flooding and destroyed a small dam in Liberty County, Texas. The hurricane also spawned eleven tornadoes, which, in combination with moderate winds, destroyed about 25 residencies in southwestern Louisiana. Three storm deaths occurred in the Port Arthur, Texasarea; two deaths occurred from separate car accidents, and another occurred after a partially paralyzed woman died in a house fire. Hurricane Bonnie caused minor damage totaling $2 million (1986 USD, $3.5 million 2006 USD).
Tropical Depression Three
The third tropical depression of the season was detected early on
July 27in the open waters of the Atlantic, north of Bermuda. While about 180 miles north of the island, the storm was moving northward at 15 mphwhile its maximum sustained winds were about 30 mph.cite news|title=Sunday, BC cycle|work=Domestic News|publisher=United Press International|date=1986-07-27|accessdate=2008-09-21] Later that afternoon, aircraft reconnaissance found no well-defined circulation and the storm's status was reduced from a depression. The depression never threatened any land areas.cite news|title=Sunday, AM cycle|work=Domestic News|publisher=The Associated Press|date=1986-07-27|accessdate=2008-09-21]
A tropical disturbance was detected on
August 4in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico along the lower Texas coast. The low-pressure system moved slowly toward land, limiting the system's development.cite news|title=Tropical Disturbance Along Lower Texas Coast|work=Domestic News|publisher=The Associated Press|date=1986-08-05|accessdate=2008-09-21] On August 5, the system was organized enough to become a tropical depression.cite web|url=http://www.hpc.ncep.noaa.gov/tropical/rain/td4of1986.html|title=Tropical Depression of August, 1986|accessdate=2008-09-25|author=David Roth|publisher=Hydrometeorological Prediction Center|location=Camp Springs, Maryland] The storm moved inland overnight, dumping several inches of rain over South Texas and causing street flooding in Brownsvilleand nearby South Padre Island. The system rained up to 4.45 inches in some areas but caused no major problems.cite news|title=Heavy Rains Cause Street Flooding|work=Domestic News|publisher=The Associated Press|date=1986-08-05|accessdate=2008-09-21] This storm was not carried as a depression operationally, and thus has no assigned number.
Infobox Hurricane Small
Track=Charley 1986 track.png
Pressure=987A tropical depression formed off the coast of the
Florida Panhandleand moved inland. The depression moved off the coast near Savannah, Georgiaand strengthened into Tropical Storm Charley. Continuing up the coastline, the storm strengthened into a hurricane before moving across the Outer Banksand Delmarva Peninsula. Charley turned out to sea, became extratropicalin the North Atlantic, and later brought severe weather across Great Britainand Irelandon August 25.
As the hurricane moved up the
East Coast of the United States, it caused moderate yet beneficial rainfall. Charley's wind and slow movement caused 2 to 3 foot higher tides, causing $1.015 million in damage (1986 USD, $1.7 million 2005 USD). Five deaths were reported from the hurricane, of which three were from a plane crash. [ftp://ftp.nhc.noaa.gov/pub/storm_archives/atlantic/prelimat/atl1986/charley/] When it hit Europe as an extratropical storm, Charley's strong winds and rain caused structural damage to houses and bridges, along with large-scale uprooting of trees. Abnormally large amounts of rainfall occurred, particularly in Ireland, resulting in extensive flooding amounting to over 5 inches in an already wet and cold month. Damage amounted to IR£25 million (1986 Irish Pounds, €47 million 2002 Euro, $57.5 million 2005 USD). [http://www.iif.ie/press03/press260203.htm] [http://www.personal.dundee.ac.uk/~taharley/1986_weather.htm]
Tropical Storm Danielle
Infobox Hurricane Small
Track=Danielle 1986 track.png
September 1, a tropical wavemoved off the coast of Africaand headed westward. The disturbance was below the 10 degree latitude as it organized into a tropical depressionon September 7and then a tropical stormlater that day. Danielle peaked as a 60 mph storm on the 8th, while Reconnaissance Aircraftreported gusts of up to hurricane force. After passing through the Lesser Antilles, Danielle encountered vertical wind shear, and on the 10th it dissipated in the central Caribbean Sea. http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/general/lib/lib1/nhclib/mwreviews/1986.pdf] The remnants continued westward and ultimately regenerated into Tropical Storm Lester. [ [http://ams.allenpress.com/archive/1520-0493/115/9/pdf/i1520-0493-115-9-2155.pdf 1986 Pacific Hurricane season] ]
The islands of
Saint Vincent and the Grenadinesexperienced wind gusts up to hurricane force, causing severe power outages and causing roof damage. In the Grenadines, the storm drove a coast guard ship aground, [ftp://ftp.nhc.noaa.gov/pub/storm_archives/atlantic/prelimat/atl1986/danielle/prelim01.gif] ] while five people were injured and hundreds of homes were destroyed. Torrential rainfall produced several mudslides, which, in turn, damaged roads, bridges, electricity, and water services. [ [http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/RWB.NSF/db900SID/OCHA-64C6PP?OpenDocument Relief Web] ] Danielle also destroyed twelve homes on the island of Barbados. [ [http://www.sidsnet.org/docshare/other/20041103160354_BARBADOS_NAR_2004.doc Barbados damage] ] In Trinidad and Tobago, strong flooding of up to four feet caused 27 landslides, destroying four bridges. The storm caused $8 million dollars in damage in Tobago. http://web.archive.org/web/20051223215859/http://nema.gov.tt/resources/downloads/tropicalcyclones.pdf] Total damage from the storm amounted to $9.2 million (1986 USD), mostly to crops, though no deaths were reported. [ [http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/RWB.NSF/db900SID/OCHA-64C6PP?OpenDocument Danielle damage] ]
Infobox Hurricane Small
Track=Earl 1986 track.png
Pressure=979The strongest storm of the season began as a tropical wave off
Africaon September 4. After moving across the tropical Atlantic Oceanit strengthened as Tropical Depression Five on September 10while about 1240 miles (2000 km) east of Puerto Rico. The depression quickly strengthened and reached hurricane strength the next day, peaked as a Category 2on September 12as it made a half circle, weakened to a Category 1 on September 16and bounced back the way it came. Earl then turned north and became extratropicalsoutheast of Newfoundland on September 19. At its peak, Earl had sustained winds of 105 mph (170 km/h) and a minimum central pressure of 979 mbar. [ftp://ftp.nhc.noaa.gov/pub/storm_archives/atlantic/prelimat/atl1986/earl/prelim03.gif]
Infobox Hurricane Small
Track=Frances 1986 track.png
Pressure=1000A tropical depression formed on
November 18and quickly strengthened into a tropical storm. The storm curved northeast and strengthened further, reaching hurricane strength on November 20. However, a high pressure system to the north caused the storm to fall apart. Frances was absorbed by an extratropical low on the 21st.
Accumulated Cyclone Energy (ACE) Rating
The table on the right shows the ACE for each storm in the season. The ACE is, broadly speaking, a measure of the power of the hurricane multiplied by the length of time it existed for, so hurricanes that lasted a long time have higher ACEs.
The following names were used for named storms that formed in the north Atlantic in 1986. No names were retired, so it was used again in the 1992 season. This is the same list used for the 1980 season except for Andrew, which replaced Allen. A storm was named Andrew for the first time in 1986. Names that were not assigned are marked in tcname unused.
World Meteorological Organizationretired no names used in the 1986 season.
List of Atlantic hurricanes
List of Atlantic hurricane seasons
1986 Pacific hurricane season
1986 Pacific typhoon season
1986 North Indian Ocean cyclone season
*Southern Hemisphere tropical cyclone seasons: 1985–86, 1986–87
* [http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/general/lib/lib1/nhclib/mwreviews/1986.pdf Monthly Weather Review]
* [http://www.hpc.ncep.noaa.gov/tropical/rain/1986.html U.S. Rainfall information on tropical cyclones from 1986]
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