Bhubaneswar


Bhubaneswar

Infobox Indian Jurisdiction
native_name = Bhubaneswar
type = capital
latd = 20.27
longd = 85.84
state_name = Orissa
district = Khurda
leader_title = Mayor
leader_name = Mihir K. Mohanty
altitude = 33
population_as_of = 2005
population_total = 800,000 est.
population_density = 4900
area_magnitude =
area_total = 1035
area_telephone = 0674
postal_code = 751 0xx
vehicle_code_range = OR-02
footnotes =
Bhubaneswar audio|Bhubaneshwar.ogg|pronunciation (Oriya: BUbEnSvr, Hindi: भुवनेश्वर, in Sanskrit and Oriya/oDiA, "The Lord of the Universe") is the capital and largest city of the Indian state of Orissa, India. Once the capital of ancient Kalinga, the city has a long history and is today a center for commerce and religious activity. However, the modern city of Bhubaneswar was designed by the German architect Otto Königsberger in 1946. It became the modern capital of the state of Orissa in 1948, a year after India gained its independence from Britain. Before Bhubaneswar, Cuttack was the capital of Orissa until 1947. Both Bhubaneswar and Cuttack are known as the "twin cities" of Orissa. With its vast variety of Hindu temples, Bhubaneswar is often referred to as the temple city of India.

History

The history of the Bhubaneswar-Khurda region goes back 2000 years. Emperor Kharavela established his capital in Sisupalgarh which is on the outskirts of the city. The Hathigumpha inscriptions at the Udayagiri caves and Khandagiri caves are evidence of the region's antiquity. Modern Bhubaneswar was originally meant to be a well planned city with wide roads and many gardens and parks. The plan was made by Otto H. Königsberger , a German town planner. [ [http://orissagov.nic.in/housing&urban/Vision-2030/Concept%20Paper-VISION-2030.pdf Microsoft Word - Concept Paper-07.doc ] ] Though part of the city has stayed faithful to the plan, [cite web
url=http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/routledg/rppe/2006/00000021/00000002/art00002
title=Modernism, modernization and post‐colonial India: a reflective essay
author=Kalia, Ravi
work=Planning Perspectives, Volume 21, Number 2, Number 2/April 2006 , pp. 133-156(24)
publisher=Routledge, part of the Taylor & Francis Group
] it has grown rapidly over the last few decades and has made the planning process unwieldy.

Having merged its intriguing past so uniquely with its modern aspirations, it forms an integral link in the Golden Triangle that incorporates the holy city of Puri and Konark. The area is attractive to tourists for its spiritual significance. To the east are the famous Sun temple of Konark and the Jagannath Temple of Puri. The Lingaraj Temple of old Bhubaneswar, built in the 11th century, is another temple noted for its ancient history. The Khandagiri and Dhauligiri, situated on the outskirts of the city, carry monuments of the Jain monks since the times of the great king Kharavela. Another such monument is the Shantistupa, which was built with Japanese aid, as a symbol of peace at the site where the great Kalinga War took place between Emperor Ashoka and Kalinga (the old empire of Orissa).Bhubaneswar is known for its architecture and ancient temples The imposing spire of the Lingaraj Temple, the quiet beauty of the Vishwa Shanti Stupa and the pink translucence of the Mahavira Jain Temple in nearby Khandagiri, inspire feelings of wonder at their sheer beauty and their cross-cultural permutations.

The State Museum of Bhubaneswar offers an extensive selection of archaeological artifacts, weapons, local arts and crafts as well as insights into Orissa's natural and tribal history. The Tribal Research Institute Museum with its authentic tribal dwellings, created by the tribal craftsmen offers a bird's eye view of the State's tribal heritage.

Geography

Bhubaneswar is situated between 21° 15' North Latitude 85° 15' Longitude and at an altitude of 45 meters above sea level, the average temperatures range between a minimum of around 10 °C in the winter to a maximum of 40 °C to 45 °C in the summer. The south-east monsoons appear in June. The average annual rainfall is 150 cm, most of which is recorded between June and October. This large variation in temperature is because extensive development and the accompanying loss of forest cover provides no hindrance to the heat and cold waves which sweep that region every year from North India.

Geographically, Bhubaneswar is situated in the eastern coastal plains of Orissa and south-west of the river Mahanadi. The city is subdivided into a number of townships and housings. The most notable are the nine units which lie to the west of Janpath, the city's main arterial road. Initially meant to house the bulk of the city's population, the 9 Units are now emerging as commercial districts.

Economy

Bhubaneswar was meant to house the state's machinery and hence was designed to be a largely residential city with outlying industrial areas. The city's economy had few major players till the 1990s and was dominated by Public Sector Units, retail and small scale manufacturing.

With the economic liberalisation policy adopted by the Government of India in the 90s, Bhubaneswar received large investments in the fields of telecommunications, IT and higher education, particularly engineering. The city accounts for almost all of the IT revenue of Orissa and is one of the fastest growing regions in India in this sector. Higher Technical Education is also a big market. The city is home to around 30 engineering colleges (as of 2007) and the number is growing every year. Around 20000 engineers graduate with the Bachelor of Technology (B.Tech) degree every year. The city is also home to many tutorials and coaching institutes who prepare students for various entrance exams. The large density has earned the city the sobriquet of "Kota of the East".

Retail and Real Estate have also emerged as big players. Although the first shopping mall only opened in 2004, the response was positive enough for three more shopping malls to open up in the city. Large corporations like DLF Universal and Reliance Industries have entered the real estate market in the city. Despite this rapid growth, a large number of the populace live in slums and are below the poverty line. Migration from rural areas, especially from the northern districts of Andhra Pradesh, has led to the growth of slums which are a major challenge to the city's growth. The slum dwellers work as auto rickshaw drivers or small vendors but this is not true for everyone. A lot of them are unemployed and are being drawn into crime.

Bhubaneswar has emerged as one of the fastest growing IT hub in India. The Govt has provided with adequate land for the development of IT parks like Infocity 1 & 2. The Info City Bhubaneswar was conceived as a five star park, under the Export Promotion Industrial Parks (EPIP) Scheme to create high quality infrastructure facilities for setting up Information Technology related industries. While Infosys and Satyam Computer Services Ltd. have been present in Bhubaneswar since 1996-97, Tata Consultancy Services (TCS) and Wipro Technologies have acquired land in Infocity recentlyFact|date=February 2008. This has earned the state capital in eastern India the unique distinction of having the presence of the big four i.e. Infosys, Satyam, TCS and Wipro. NetHawk has opened its research and development center in Bhubaneswar since April 2005. MindTree is also allotted 30 acres of land to start its business. On 5th Nov 2007 IBM announced its planning to kick start its SME operation in Bhubaneswar.

In ASIC and Chip Design, ASIC Architect Inc and Perfectus Technology Inc are some of the popular international companies operating from Bhubaneswar. Silicatec is the VLSI training institute in the city.

Other major IT companies including Hexaware Technologies, Ramtech Systems etc have also finalised plans for starting operations at BhubaneswarFact|date=February 2008.

Education

Bhubaneswar is home to several educational and research institutions of state and national importance including IOPB - Institute of Physics, IMMT, Utkal University, OUAT - Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, as well as some private universities geared towards engineering, biotechnology and management. Three new institutions of national importance: IIT, NISER and IIIT are also being developed.

Transport

Bhubaneswar has air and rail linkages with most major cities in India. Biju Patnaik airport, managed by Airport Authority of India, is the only major airport in the state; an international airport is planned for 2010. Bhubaneswar is connected to New Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Hyderabad, Chennai and Bangalore by daily flights. In addition to air transport, Bhubaneswar is well-connected to other major Indian cities by a good networks of highways. The National Highway 5, connecting Kolkata and Chennai passes through the city and is one of India's premier highways being part of the 'Golden Quadrilateral' network.

It is also the headquarters of the East Coast Railways and is connected extensively with all corners of India. Multiple daily connections are available for Kolkata, Kharagpur, Vizag, Vijayawada and Chennai. Within Orissa, there are multiple daily connections to cities such as Cuttack,Sambhalpur, Puri and Berhampur. Daily trains also connect to Delhi and several other cities. There are direct trains to several major Indian cities including Guwahati, Dibrugarh, Durgapur, Ranchi, Bokaro, Gaya, Patna, Muzaffarpur, Varanasi, Allahabad, Lucknow, Kanpur, Agra, Mathura, Haridwar, Panipat, Patiala, Ludhiana, Amritsar, Jodhpur, Jaipur, Kota, Gwalior, Jhansi, Bhopal, Ujjain, Bilaspur, Raipur, Ahmedabad, Surat, Vadodara, Mumbai, Pune, Nagpur, Hyderabad, Warangal, Tirupati, Hubli, Goa, Bangalore, Coimbatore, Trichy, Madurai, Pondicherry, Ernakulam, Thiruvananthapuram andKanyakumari.

An ultramodern railway station is planned in the near future.

Demographics

As of India's 2001 census, [GR|India] Bhubaneswar has a population of 647,302. Males constitute 56% of the population and females 44%. In 2001, the citd has an average literacy rate of 74%, higher than the national average of 65.4%. Ten percent of the population is under 6 years of age.The literacy rate is ever growing with huge student and white collar migrations into the city.

Culture

Bubaneswar is home to several monumental temples of regional and national importance. Apart from the famed Lingaraj Temple, there are also the Raja Rani, Mukteswar, Parsurameswar, Vaital Deul and several others. In nearby Hirapur, there is a Yogini temple of much historic and cultural interest.

At Ratnagiri, Lalitgiri and Udaygiri (on the way to Paradip) Buddhist sites of great historical significance have been excavated. The site at Ratnagiri is the most extensive and the carvings and sculpture exhibit a high level of proficiency and artistic merit.

Khandagiri & Udayagiri (Jain Heritage)

The twin hills of Khandagiri & Udayagiri, 8 km from Bhubaneswar, served as the site of an ancient Jain monastery which was carved into cave like chambers in the face of the hill. Dating back to the 2nd century BC, some of the caves have beautiful carvings. The Rani Gumpha (Queen's Cave), one of the largest and double-storied, is ornately embellished with beautiful carvings. In the Hati Gumpha (Elephant Cave), King Kharavela has carved out the chronicles of his reign.

Lingaraj Temple

The 10th- or 11th-century Lingaraja temple of Bhubaneswar has been described as "the truest fusion of dream and reality." It is dedicated to Shiva. A rare masterpiece, the Lingaraja temple has been rated one of the finest examples of purely Hindu temple in India by Ferguson, the noted art critic and historianFact|date=February 2008. The surface of the 55 m-high Lingaraja temple is covered with carvings. Sculpture and architecture fused elegantly to create a perfect harmony. Devout pilgrims, who wish to go to the Jagannath temple at Puri, must first offer worship at the Lingaraja temple.

Dhauli Giri

Just 8 km away from Bhubaneswar looking down on the plains that bore witness to the gruesome war waged on Kalinga by the Mauryan emperor Ashoka the Great, stand the rock edicts of Dhauli. It was here that Ashoka, full of remorse after the Kalinga War in 261 BC, renounced his blood-thirsty campaign and turned to Buddhism. Ashoka erected two main edicts in Kalinga, one in Dhauli and the other in Jayagarh. The principles of Ashoka which reflect his compassion were inscribed on all the other edicts in his empire except Kalinga. In the Kalinga edicts he warned the people of Kalinga not to revolt and that he would take appropriate action if they did. This is in sharp contrast to all of his other edicts and proof of his political acumenFact|date=February 2008.

The edicts are remarkably well preserved, despite the fact that they date back to the 3rd century BC. A sculpted elephant, the universal symbol of Lord Buddha, tops the rock edicts. The Shanti Stupa or the peace pagoda, built through the Indo-Japanese collaboration, is located on the opposite hill.

Fairs & Festivals

On the day of Ashokashtami in the month of March, the image of Lingaraja (Lord Shiva) and other deities are taken in a procession from Lingaraja Temple to the Rameshwara Temple. Hundreds of devotees participate in pulling the chariot that carries the deities. The deities remain in the Rameshwara Temple for four days.

At the end of January comes Adivasi Mela, a fair that displays the art, artifacts, tradition, culture, and music of the tribal inhabitants of Orissa.

Durga Puja is also an important festival. Various pandals are constructed throughout the city. The largest pujas are: the Shahid Nagar Durga Puja, the Nayapalli Durga Puja, and the Rasulgarh Durga Puja.

Politics

Current MLA from Bhubaneswar Assembly Constituency is Biswabhushan Harichandan of BJP, who won the seat in State elections of 2004 and also in 2000. Previous MLAs from this seat were Biju Patnaik who won this seat in 1995 and 1990 as JD candidate and also in 1985 as JNP candidate, Rama Krushna Pati of CPI in 1980, Satyapriya Mohanty of JNP in 1977. [cite web
url = http://archive.eci.gov.in/March2004/pollupd/ac/states/s18/Partycomp50.htm
title = State Elections 2004 - Partywise Comparision for 50-Bhubaneswar Constituency of ORISSA
publisher = Election Commission of India
accessdate = 2008-09-24
]

Bhubaneswar is part of Bhubaneswar (Lok Sabha constituency). [cite web
url = http://archive.eci.gov.in/se2000/background/S18/Orissa_AC_Dist_PC.pdf
title = Assembly Constituencies - Corresponding Districts and Parliamentary Constituencies of Orissa
publisher = Election Commission of India
accessdate = 2008-09-24
]

References

External links

*
* [http://www.orissaforum.com Orissa Discussion Forum ]
* [http://www.bdabbsr.in Bhubaneswar Development Authority]


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