- Jewish right
The term Jewish right refers to Jews who identify with or support
right-wingor conservative causes. The Jewish right is not a monolithicdesignation. Its application ranges from advocacy of religious morals to conservative politics.
Jewish religious values and conservatism
Several movements in
Orthodox Judaismcan be seen as similar or at least amenable to certain forms of conservatism. For many to most Orthodox Jews Jewish principles of faithcontains belief in a "transcendent moral order", continuity, a tradition of oral law, and requires new statements be compatible with a holy book. These values can be seen as compatible or similar to certain forms of conservatism.
Enlightenment and Emancipation
By the late eighteenth century the
Jewish Emancipationefforts tended to occur more among the secular, liberal and left ends of the political spectrum. In relation to this was the Haskalahmovement which emphasized Enlightenment values among Jews. The European and American right, in this era, tended to support tradition and that primarily meant Christian tradition. Hence religiously orthodox Jewsalso tended to be at a disadvantage in right-wing or conservative politics so many to most early Jewish conservatives/right-wingers were converts to Christianity.Fact|date=September 2007 This led to the Jewish lefttending to be a larger and possibly older movement. Hence in the United Statesin the 2000s Jews were underrepresented among self-described "conservatives." [ [http://sda.berkeley.edu:8080/quicktables/quickoptions.do General Social Survey] ]
Nevertheless, by the close of the nineteenth century, Jews, including those who remained in
Judaism, became more common among conservatives. In the US, for example, Julius Kahnwas elected as a Republican who advocated military preparedness while in Britain Frank Goldsmithwas a Conservative Party member of the Jewish faith.
Anti-communism and Fascism
In the twentieth century many politicians of the right-wing shared a hostility toward
Communismand this hostility had some supporters in the Jewish community. This came either because they viewed Communism as a threat to their religion, society in general, the economy, or all three. In Britain Harold Sorefwas a member of the Conservative Monday Cluband opposed to Communism. Austrian/American Ludwig von Misesopposed Communism on economic grounds and, if not precisely right-wing, became a noted figure to many on the Right. In Germany, apostate Lev Nussimbaumhad an extremist hostility to Socialism and Communism, favoring monarchism and converting to Islam.
In Italy a noticeable minority of Jewish Italians supported both
Benito Mussoliniand Fascism. It is estimated that in 1938, the year antisemitic laws began in Italy, 10,000 Italian Jews belonged to the Italian Fascist Party. [ [http://www.amazon.com/gp/reader/0312421532?p=S00M&checkSum=FLOZxRgpgL7QvZMQDdUn762e6tg1sMhCa5%2FKQZ9elh8%3D "Benevolence and Betrayal: Five Italian Jewish Families Under Fascism" by Alexander Stille, pg 22] ] One of the most significant was Aldo Finzi[ [http://books.google.com/books?id=ilnACY97x4kC&pg=PA120&lpg=PA120&dq=%22aldo+finzi%22+fascist+-wikipedia&source=web&ots=YYx3XSYc9c&sig=ibkrqjxZXVicykoFrdzxkSa8hHc "History of the Holocaust: A Handbook and Dictionary" By Abraham J. Edelheit, Hershel Edelheit] ] who became a member of the Fascist Grand Councilbefore breaking with Fascism in strong terms. A more "loyal" example was Ettore Ovazzawho had been involved in the March on Romeand in 1935 founded the Jewish/Fascist paper " La Nostra Bandiera". Despite the unwavering nature of his Fascism, and his staunch Anti-Zionism, in 1943 he would be massacred by the Nazis. [ [http://www.library.wisc.edu/libraries/dpf/Fascism/Race.html Wisconsin.edu] ]
Revisionist Zionism, religious Zionism, and the Israel right
The more nationalistic faction of Zionism,
Revisionist Zionism, had some right-wing elements. One of their ideologues, Abba Ahimeir, was influenced by Oswald Spenglerand wrote about Fascism. This relates to forms of right-wing politics in Israel that are nationalistic and in some cases expansionist. Yisrael Beiteinumay contain influences from this stream of thought.
Other right-wing parties in Israel have a more religious orientation and are influenced by forms of
Religious Zionism. The Jewish National Frontstates "Torah of Israel is the primary source of human morality" [ [http://www.hazit.co.il/Default.aspx?tabid=324 Hazit site] ] although it states openness to secular members. [ [http://www.hazit.co.il/Default.aspx?tabid=329 Hazit] ] In addition the National Union (Israel)coalition contains Renewed Religious National Zionist Party.
Among the more militant groups
Kach and Kahane Chaihad some supporters outside Israel, but has since been banned.
Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfieldis one of the most known names in British conservative history and although not Jewish by religion, was of Jewish origin and proud of his Jewishness. In the period of Thatcherism, the Conservative Party courted the British Jewish community. The then Chief Rabbi, Immanuel Jakobovits, was a close ally of Margaret Thatcherand some of Thatcher's cabinet members were Jewish, such as Keith Josephand Nigel Lawson. [See also the article on Friedrich Hayek, an ethnically part-Jewish associate of von Mises, for the strong influence of the Austrian schoolon Thatcher.] Recently Michael Howardwas leader of the Conservative Party for two years.
Several Jewish philosophers and politicians would be important to the history of the American Right in the United States.
Frank Meyerwas a co-founder of the " National Review" and noted for Fusionism that mixed libertarianismwith conservatism. Ralph de Toledanowas also an earlier figure for the magazine and wrote for " The American Conservative" in his final years. Irving Kristolis sometimes seen as a founding figure for neoconservatism. Although not conservative themselves several American advocates of anarcho-capitalism, like Murray Rothbard(a disciple of von Mises), were Jewish and influential on elements of the right.
By the 1980s Jewish conservatives and right-wingers began to have more organization. In 1985 the
Republican Jewish Coalitionformed. The group's policy platform objectives include terrorism, national security, United States-Israel relations, US policy concerning the Middle East, immigration, energy policy, education, affirmative action, the Workplace Religious Freedom Act, adoption, crime, taxes, welfare reform, faith-based initiatives, health care, Medicare reform, Social Security reformand government reform. [ [http://www.rjchq.org/PolicyPlatform.asp RJC Platform] ]
Jewish political movements
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