Thomas the Rhymer
:"Not to be confused with
Thomas Rymer, a 17th century English historian."
Thomas Learmont (c. 1220 [ [http://www.fofweb.com/activelink2.asp?ItemID=WE54&SID=&iPin=EML0198&SingleRecord=True Facts On File Online Databases ] ] – c. 1298; [ [http://www.electricscotland.com/HISTORY/other/rymer_thomas.htm Significant Scots - Thomas Rymer ] ] also spelled Learmount, Learmonth, or Learmounth), better known as Thomas the Rhymer or True Thomas [He is also known as Thomas Rhymer, Thomas Rymour, Thomas Rymer, Thomas de Erceldoune, Thomas Rymour de Erceldoune or Thomas of Erceldoune] , was a 13th century Scottish
lairdand reputed prophetfrom Earlston(then called "Erceldoune"). He is also the protagonist of the ballad"Thomas the Rhymer" ( Child Balladnumber 37). [ Francis James Child, "English and Scottish Popular Ballads", [http://www.sacred-texts.com/neu/eng/child/ch037.htm "Thomas Rymer"] ] He is also the probable source of the legend of Tam Lin.
Thomas was born in Erceldoune (also spelled "Ercildoune" - presently
Earlston), Berwickshire, sometime in the 13th century, and has a reputation as the author of many prophetic verses. Little is known for certain of his life but two charters from 1260-80 and 1294 mention him, the latter referring to the "Thomas de Ercildounson son and heir of Thome Rymour de Ercildoun".Francis James Child, "The English and Scottish Popular Ballads", v. 1, p. 317, Dover Publications, New York 1965]
Popular esteem of Thomas lived on for centuries after his death, to the extent that several people have fabricated Thomas' "prophecies" in order to further the cause of
Scottish independence. His reputation for supernatural powers for a time rivalled that of Merlin. Thomas became known as "True Thomas" because he could not tell a lie. Popular lore recounts how he prophesied many great events in Scottish history, including the death of Alexander III of Scotland.
Prophecies attributed to Thomas
*"On the morrow, afore noon, shall blow the greatest wind that ever was heard before in Scotland."::This prophecy predicted the death of Alexander II; the exact nature of the blow only became apparent with the king's death the next day.
*"As long as the Thorn Tree stands":"Ercildourne shall keep its lands."::Of this prophecy, Barbara Ker Wilson writes: In the year the Thorn Tree did fall, all the merchants of Ercildourne became bankrupt, and shortly afterwards the last fragment of its common land was alienated.
*"When the Cows of o' Gowrie come to land":"The Judgement Day is near at hand"::The
Cows of Gowrie, two boulders near Invergowrieprotruding from the Firth of Tay, are said to approach the land at the range of an inch a year.
Yorkwas, Londonis, and Edinburghshall be":"The biggest and bonniest o' the three" [Barbara Ker Wilson, "Scottish Folk-tales and Legends", p. 17, Oxford University Press, London 1954]
*"At Eildon Tree, if yon shall be, a brig ower Tweed yon there may see."
Musicologists have traced the ballad, "Thomas the Rhymer", back at least as far as the 13th century. It deals with the supernatural subject matter of
fairy-folk. The theme of this song also closely relates to another song, that of Tam Lin, which follows the same general topical lines. Its more general theme relates to temptation and mortal pleasures. There is also a 14th century romance "Thomas of Erceldoune", with accompanying prophecies, which clearly relates to the ballad, though the exact nature of the relationship is not clear.
Several different variants of the ballad of Thomas Rhymer exist, most having the same basic theme. They tell how Thomas either kissed or slept with the Queen of
Elflandand either rode with her or was otherwise transported to Fairyland. One version relates that she changed into a hagimmediately after sleeping with him, as some sort of a punishment to him, but returned to her originally beautiful state when they neared her castle, where her husband lived. Thomas stayed at a party in the castle until she told him to return with her, coming back into the mortal realm only to realise that seven years (a significant number in magic) had passed. He asked for a token to remember the Queen by; she offered him the choice of becoming a harper or a prophet, and he chose the latter.
After a number of years of prophecy, Thomas bade farewell to his homeland and presumably returned to Fairyland, whence he has not yet returned. [Thomas the Rhymer, Part Third in
Alfred Noyes(ed)," The Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border: Collected by Sir Walter Scott", London: Melrose, 1908 ]
Thomas' gift of prophecy is linked to his poetic ability, although it is not clear if the name "Rhymer" was his actual surname or merely a soubriquet. He is often linked with "Sir Tristrem", a version of the
Tristramlegend, and some lines in Robert Mannyng's "Chronicle" may be the source of this association. "Sir Tristrem" though, is an adaptation of a mid-12th century, Anglo-Normanromance ascribed to Thomas of Britainand it may be the two Thomases are being confounded.
The German version of "Tom der Reimer" by
Theodor Fontanewas set as a song for male voice and piano by Carl Loewe, his op. 135.The following have each made recordings of the ballad in recent times:
Electric folkband Steeleye Span
** Two different versions for the Now We Are Six album, 1974
** Re-recorded (differently) for
Present--The Very Best of Steeleye Spanalbum, 2002
An outstanding earlier recording, in German, is by Heinrich Schlusnus, on Polydor 67212, of 1938 (78 rpm).
*Criticism: Composer and teacher
R J Stewartprovides a full esoteric exegesis of the ballad in his book "The UnderWorld Initiation".
Rudyard Kipling's poem "The Last Rhime of True Thomas" features Thomas Learmounth, and a king who's going to make Thomas his knight.
Ellen Kushner's "Thomas the Rhymer" is a full-length novel based on the ballad and associated folklore.
**Scottish author Nigel Tranter's 1981 novel "True Thomas" is based on the known facts and legends of Thomas the Rhymer.
**Thomas is a major character in
Alexander Reid's play "The Lass wi the Muckle Mou".
**"Erceldoune", a novella by "
Holy Blood, Holy Grail" co-author Richard Leigh, is based on Thomas the Rhymer, and features a folk-singer named Thomas "Rafe" Erlston. Found in "Erceldoune & Other Stories". ISBN 978-1-4116-9943-4
William Croft Dickinsonwrote a children's book titled "The Eildon Tree" about two modern children meeting Thomas the Rhymer and traveling back in time to a critical point in Scottish history.
*Books referring to:
Patricia Wrede's "Snow-White And Rose-Red" makes use of elements of the ballad, with the Queen of Elfland and two of Thomas's sons appearing as major characters.
**The character True Tom (also Thomas Learmont, Thomas of Erceldoune, Thomas the Rhymer) makes an appearance in
Raymond E. Feist's popular 1988 fantasy novel "Faerie Tale".
**Other fantasy novels, including
Diana Wynne Jones's " Fire and Hemlock", use elements from, and allusions to, the ballad.
**Thomas appears as True Thomas in the
comic book"Aria: Summer's Spell". He is the lost love of the series' protagonist, Kildare, and finally reunites with her in 1960s London.
**True Thomas has a brief appearance in "
The Books of Magic," Book III, "The Land of Summer's Twilight".
**Thomas 'Tom' Learmont is a major character in Mark Chadbourn's fantasy series "The Age of Misrule." The character returned in the "
Kingdom of the Serpent" series. He is often referred to in the stories as True Thomas or Thomas the Rhymer.
**In the novel "
Final Watch" by Sergey LukyanenkoThomas Rhymer appears as the Grand Light Mage Thomas 'Foma' Lermont, head of Scottish Night Watch in Edinburgh.
Seven Soldiers of Victory", a graphic novel series by acclaimed author Grant Morrison, quotes extensively from the ballad and features an alternate depiction of the Queen of Faerie; Spyder, the protagonist to whom the poem is read (who is later employed by the Queen) is named Thomas.
**The novelist Thomas Learmont (b. 1939) uses the pen name Tom Rymour.
**The Russian poet
Mikhail Lermontovbelieved he was a distant relative of Thomas.Thomas Learmont is character in Elizabeth Hand's novel Mortal Love.
* [http://www.dandutton.com/full_index/true_thomas_oc.html Kentucky artist and composer Daniel Dutton's painting of True Thomas]
Dictionary of National Biography"
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Look at other dictionaries:
Thomas The Rhymer — ▪ Scottish poet also called Thomas Learmont , or Thomas Of Erceldoune flourished 1220–97 Scottish poet and prophet who was likely the author of the metrical romance Sir Tristrem, a version of the widely diffused Tristan legend. The… … Universalium
THOMAS THE RHYMER — See RHYMER, THOMAS THE … The Nuttall Encyclopaedia
Ercildoun, Thomas of, or Thomas the Rhymer — (fl. 1220 1297) A minstrel to whom is ascribed Sir Tristrem, a rhyme or story for recitation. He had a reputation for prophecy, and is reported to have foretold the death of Alexander III., and various other events … Short biographical dictionary of English literature
RHYMER, THOMAS THE — or TRUE THOMAS Thomas of Ercildoune, or Earlston, a Berwickshire notability of the 13th century, famous for his rhyming prophecies, who was said, in return for his prophetic gift, to have sold himself to the fairies … The Nuttall Encyclopaedia
Rhymer, Thomas The — see Ercildoun, Thomas of … Short biographical dictionary of English literature
The Famous Flower of Serving-Men — or The Lady turned Serving Man is Child ballad number 106.Francis James Child, English and Scottish Popular Ballads , [http://www.sacred texts.com/neu/eng/child/ch106.htm The Famous Flower of Serving Men ] ] Child considered it as closely related … Wikipedia
The Queen of Elfan's Nourice — or The Queen of Elfland s Nourice is Child ballad number 40, [Francis James Child, English and Scottish Popular Ballads , [http://www.sacred texts.com/neu/eng/child/ch040.htm The Queen of Elfan s Nourice ] ] although fragmentary in form. [Francis … Wikipedia
Thomas le Rimeur — Cet article concerne un roman. Pour le poète, voir Thomas le Rhymer. Thomas le Rimeur (titre original : Thomas the Rhymer) est un roman de fantasy écrit par Ellen Kushner en 1990. Le roman a gagné le prix World Fantasy du meilleur roman et… … Wikipédia en Français
Thomas Rymer — Not to be confused with Thomas the Rhymer, a 13th century Scots laird. Thomas Rymer (c. 1643 December 13, 1713), English historiographer royal, was the younger son of Ralph Rymer, lord of the manor of Brafferton in Yorkshire, described by… … Wikipedia
Thomas of Erceldoune — biographical name flourished 1220 1297 Thomas the Rhymer and Thomas Learmont Scottish seer & poet … New Collegiate Dictionary