1978 Atlantic hurricane season

Infobox hurricane season
Basin=Atl
Year=1978
Track=1978 Atlantic hurricane season map.png First storm formed=January 18, 1978
Last storm dissipated=November 1, 1978
Strongest storm name=Greta
Strongest storm winds=115
Strongest storm pressure=947
Average wind speed=1
Total depressions=
Total storms=12
Total hurricanes=5
Total intense=2
Fatalities=37
Da

Inflated=1
five seasons=1976, 1977, 1978, 1979, 1980
The 1978 Atlantic hurricane season officially began on June 1, 1978, and lasted until November 30, 1978. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin. However, the season had the earliest actual start on record due to an unusual subtropical storm in January.

Tropical Storm Amelia, which killed 30 when it flooded the Guadalupe River in Texas, was the most notable storm of the season. Hurricane Greta caused moderate damage in Central America, avoiding fears that it would be a repeat of the devastating Hurricane Fifi. A very unusual subtropical storm formed in mid-January, the only storm (tropical or subtropical) to do so in the Atlantic basin.

The 1978 season was the last hurricane season when only female names were used for hurricanes and the last season before the modern hurricane naming system was developed.

torms

ubtropical Storm One

Infobox Hurricane Small
Basin=Atl
Type=subtropical


Track=1978 Atlantic subtropical storm 1 track.pngFormed=January 18
Dissipated=January 23
1-min winds=40
Pressure=1002
A meteorological oddity, the first storm of the season developed from an upper level trough on January 18 while 1,725 miles (2,800 km) east-northeast of Puerto Rico. It moved westward, intensifying to a 45 mph (75 km/h) subtropical storm over the central Atlantic Ocean. Climatology prevailed, and the storm dissipated on January 23, 230 miles (370 km) northeast of Puerto Rico.

Subtropical Storm One became the earliest recorded tropical or subtropical storm to form in the Atlantic basin, and the only one to do so at all during January, when it formed on January 18. Note that two storms on record, Hurricane Alice from the 1954 season and Tropical Storm Zeta from the 2005 season have formed during December and lasted into January.

Tropical Storm Amelia

Infobox Hurricane Small
Basin=Atl


Track=Amelia 1978 track.pngFormed=July 30
Dissipated=August 1
1-min winds=45
Pressure=1005
Tropical Storm Amelia formed in the western Gulf of Mexico near Brownsville, Texas on July 30. The storm moved over land, but continued to intensify to a 50 mph tropical storm. Land then took its toll, and the storm dissipated over Texas on August 1. Flooding rains due to torrential rains exceeding 40 inches led to the deaths of 30 people in Texas.

Tropical Storm Bess

Infobox Hurricane Small
Basin=Atl


Track=Bess 1978 track.pngFormed=August 6
Dissipated=August 8
1-min winds=45
Pressure=1005
Tropical Storm Bess formed in the central Gulf of Mexico on August 5. Due to a strong high pressure system over Texas, the storm moved southwestward, strengthening to a 50 mph storm. The storm hit Nautla, Mexico on early August 8, and dissipated later that day.

Hurricane Cora

Infobox Hurricane Small
Basin=Atl


Track=Cora 1978 track.pngFormed=August 7
Dissipated=August 12
1-min winds=80
Pressure=980
The tropical depression that became Hurricane Cora formed on August 7 in the tropical Atlantic. It gradually strengthened to a 90 mph Category 1 hurricane, but weakened to a tropical storm as it moved through the Windward Islands. The storm continued to weaken, and dissipated on August 12 near the island of Aruba.

Tropical Storm Debra

Infobox Hurricane Small
Basin=Atl


Track=Debra 1978 track.pngFormed=August 26
Dissipated=August 29
1-min winds=50
Pressure=1000
Tropical Storm Debra began its life in the central Gulf of Mexico, north of the Yucatán Peninsula on August 26. It moved towards the Louisiana coast, steadily intensifying to a 60 mph storm, and made landfall halfway between Lake Charles, Louisiana and Beaumont, Texas. The highest rainfall report received was from Freshwater Bayou Lock, Louisiana, where 10.81 inches fell. [Hydrometeorological Prediction Center. [http://www.hpc.ncep.noaa.gov/tropical/rain/debra1978.html Tropical Storm Debra.] Retrieved on 2007-02-28.]

Hurricane Ella

Infobox Hurricane Small
Basin=Atl


Track=Ella 1978 track.pngFormed=August 30
Dissipated=September 5
1-min winds=120
Pressure=956
Hurricane Ella formed from a stationary frontal zone in late August over the central Atlantic. It moved west-northwestward, passing Bermuda far to the south, and intensified to a major hurricane. After a brief stall on September 2, Ella accelerated to the northeast, rapidly strengthening to a 140 mph Category 4 hurricane south of Nova Scotia. It brushed the coast of Newfoundland and dissipated out at sea.

Hurricane Flossie

Infobox Hurricane Small
Basin=Atl


Track=Flossie 1978 track.pngFormed=September 4
Dissipated=September 15
1-min winds=85
Pressure=976
Hurricane Flossie formed in the tropical Atlantic on September 4, midway between Cape Verde and the Lesser Antilles. The system moved to the west-northwest, reaching 45 mph winds before upper level shear ripped apart the system. After two days of moving to the northeast, the storm re-strengthened to a tropical storm, and became a hurricane on September 12, located about halfway between Bermuda and the Azores Islands. Cool waters eventually led the system to its extratropical transition on September 16. The strong extratropical cyclone brought winds as high as 104 mph to Fair Isle, Great Britain. [Trevor Harley. [http://www.personal.dundee.ac.uk/~taharley/british_weather_in_septemb.htm British Weather in September.] Retrieved on 2007-02-01.]

Hurricane Greta

Infobox Hurricane Small
Basin=Atl



Track=Greta 1978 track.pngFormed=September 13
Dissipated=September 20
1-min winds=115
Pressure=947
The tropical depression that became Hurricane Greta formed 75 miles west-northwest of Trinidad on September 13. The storm moved through the Central Caribbean, steadily strengthening. When it neared the coast of Honduras it rapidly intensified to a Category 4 hurricane, bringing winds to the country. It stayed offshore, but came to shore at Stann Creek District, Belize on September 19 as a Category 2 hurricane. The storm dissipated the next day, but later redeveloped in the Eastern Pacific as Hurricane Olivia. Luckily, death and damage was much lower than Hurricane Fifi, a similar hurricane that devastated the same area in 1974. This was likely due to the lack of flooding, as well as using proper warnings from the affected countries. In all, Greta caused 5 deaths and over $75 million (2005 USD) in damage.

Tropical Storm Hope

Infobox Hurricane Small
Basin=Atl


Track=Hope 1978 track.pngFormed=September 12
Dissipated=September 21
1-min winds=55
Pressure=987
Tropical Storm Hope formed just off the northeast coast of Florida on September 12. It remained a tropical depression for 3 days as it moved generally eastward. It ultimately attained 65 mph winds over the open Atlantic, but passed cooler waters before it could reach hurricane strength. Still, the storm retained tropical characteristics to nearly 60ºN, not far from Iceland.

Tropical Storm Irma

Infobox Hurricane Small
Basin=Atl


Track=Irma 1978 track.pngFormed=October 2
Dissipated=October 5
1-min winds=45
Pressure=1001
Tropical Storm Irma formed in the northeastern Atlantic Ocean near the Azores on October 2. The storm moved north-northeastward, attaining a maximum windspeed of 50 mph and passing through the Azores before it dissipated on October 5.

Tropical Storm Juliet

Infobox Hurricane Small
Basin=Atl


Track=Juliet 1978 track.pngFormed=October 7
Dissipated=October 11
1-min winds=45
Pressure=1006
Juliet formed from a tropical wave on October 7 about 600 miles east of Puerto Rico. The storm passed north of the island, attained a wind speed of 50 mph, and headed into the open Atlantic before dissipating on October 11 southwest of Bermuda. The highest rainfall report from Puerto Rico was 4.51 inches from Toro Negro Plant. [Hydrometeorological Prediction Center. [http://www.hpc.ncep.noaa.gov/tropical/rain/juliet1978.html Tropical Storm Juliet.] Retrieved on 2007-02-28.]

Hurricane Kendra

Infobox Hurricane Small
Basin=Atl


Track=Kendra 1978 track.pngFormed=October 28
Dissipated=November 1
1-min winds=70
Pressure=990
The final storm of the season formed east of the Bahamas on October 28. The storm strengthened to a Category 1 hurricane with maximum sustained windspeeds of 80 mph, and weakened to a tropical depression on November 1, before dissipating on November 3.

Accumulated Cyclone Energy (ACE) Rating

The table on the right shows the ACE for each storm in the season. The ACE is, broadly speaking, a measure of the power of the hurricane multiplied by the length of time it existed for, so hurricanes that lasted a long time have higher ACEs.

torm names

The following names were used for named storms that formed in the north Atlantic basin in 1978.cite web|author=Associated Press|date=1978-05-31|title=Hedge Bets on Hurricanes|accessdate=2007-12-01|url=http://www.thehurricanearchive.com/Viewer.aspx?
] This was the last year that only female names were used. Names that were not assigned are marked in tcname unused.

Retirement

No names were retired after the 1978 season.

ee also

*List of Atlantic hurricanes
*List of Atlantic hurricane seasons
*1978 Pacific hurricane season
*1978 Pacific typhoon season
*1978 North Indian Ocean cyclone season
*Southern Hemisphere tropical cyclone seasons: 1977–78, 1978–79

References

External links

* [http://www.hpc.ncep.noaa.gov/tropical/rain/1978.html HPC rainfall page for 1978 tropical cyclones]
* [http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/general/lib/lib1/nhclib/mwreviews/1978.pdf Monthly Weather Review]


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