The hilt (sometimes called the haft) of a sword is its handle, consisting of a guard,grip and pommel. The guard may contain a crossguard or quillons. A tassel or sword knot may be attached to the guard or pommel.


The pommel (the name is derived from the Latin for a "little apple") is a counterweight at the top of the handle. Even the lightest of modern fencing weapons use the weight of the pommel to provide a balance that the wielder prefers. In this sense, the pommel has remained one of the few parts of a sword that has more than any other, retained its ancient function. Pommels have come in a wide variety of shapes, including crescents, oblate spheroids, semicircular, and disks.


The grip is the handle of the sword. It was usually of wood or metal, and often covered with shagreen leather or shark skin. Shark skin proved to be the most durable in temperate climates but deteriorated in hot climates, and consequently rubber became popular in the latter half of the 19th century. Alternately, many sword types opt for ray skin instead, referred to in katana construction as the "same". Whatever material covered the grip, it was usually both glued on and held on with wire wrapped around it in a helix.

In full armored battle however, the grip was often only used with one hand (even on two-handed swords), and the blade was gripped partway up, thus allowing the fighter to thrust the blade horizontally, with both hands, into the opponent.


The guard protects the user's hand from the opponent's sword, and also prevents the user's hand from sliding up onto his own blade. This feature barely appears in the earliest swords, such as those of the Bronze Age in the 17th century BC. Later, guards often took the form of a straight crossbar ("quillons") perpendicular to the blade. Beginning in the 16th century in Europe, guards became more and more elaborate, with additional loops and curved bars or branches to protect the hand from cuts. Ultimately, the bars could be supplemented or replaced with metal plates that could be ornamentally pierced. The term "basket hilt" eventually came into vogue to describe such designs.

Simultaneously, emphasis upon the thrust attack with rapiers and smallswords revealed a vulnerability to thrusting. By the 17th century, guards were developed that incorporated a solid shield that surrounded the blade out to a diameter of up to two inches or more. Older forms of this guard retained the quillons or a single quillon, but later forms eliminated the quillons, altogether. This latter form is the basis of the guards of modern foils and épées.


The tassel or sword knot is a lanyard -- usually of leather but sometimes of woven gold or silver bullion or more often metallic lace -- looped around the hand to prevent the sword being lost if it is dropped. Although they have a practical function, sword knots often had a decorative design. For example, the British Army generally adopted a white leather strap with a large acorn knot made out of gold wire for infantry officers at the end of the 19th century; such acorn forms of tassels were said to be 'boxed', which was the way of securing the fringe of the tassel along its bottom line such that the strands could not separate and become entangled or lost. Many sword knots were also made of silk with a fine, ornamental alloy gold or silver metal wire woven into it in a specified pattern. The art and history of tassels are known by its French name, "passementerie", or "Posamenten" as it was called in German. The military output of the artisans called "passementiers" (ornamental braid, lace, cord, or trimmings makers) is evident in catalogs of various military uniform and regalia makers of centuries past. The broader art form of "passementerie", with its divisions of Decor, Clergy and Nobility, Upholstery, Coaches and Livery, and Military, is covered in a few books on that subject, none of which are in English.

Indian swords usually had the tassel attached through an eye right at the end of the pommel.

ee also

* on Wikibooks

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

(of a sword)

Look at other dictionaries:

  • hilt — /hilt/, n. 1. the handle of a sword or dagger. 2. the handle of any weapon or tool. 3. to the hilt, to the maximum extent or degree; completely; fully: to play the role to the hilt. Also, up to the hilt. v.t. 4. to furnish with a hilt. [bef. 900; …   Universalium

  • hilt — /hɪlt / (say hilt) noun 1. the handle of a sword or dagger. 2. the handle of any weapon or tool. –verb (t) 3. to furnish with a hilt. –phrase 4. to the hilt, fully; completely: armed to the hilt. {Middle English hylt, Old English hilt, hilte}… …   Australian English dictionary

  • hilt — [hılt] n [: Old English;] 1.) the handle of a sword or knife, where the blade is attached 2.) to the hilt completely support/defend/back sb to the hilt ▪ I m backing the PM to the hilt on this …   Dictionary of contemporary English

  • hilt — [ hılt ] noun count the handle of a sword or DAGGER (up) to the hilt INFORMAL as much as possible, or to the highest level possible: Mike s colleagues were prepared to defend him to the hilt. The estate was mortgaged up to the hilt …   Usage of the words and phrases in modern English

  • hilt — [hilt] n. [ME hilt < OE, akin to ON hjalt < IE base * kel , to strike, split > L calamitas, harm, OE hild, battle] the handle of a sword, dagger, tool, etc.: see SWORD vt. to provide a hilt for to the hilt thoroughly; entirely …   English World dictionary

  • hilt — O.E. hilt hilt, handle of a sword or dagger, from P.Gmc. *helt (Cf. O.N. hjalt, O.H.G. helza hilt, O.S. helta oar handle ), perhaps from PIE *kel to strike. Formerly also used in plural in same sense as singular …   Etymology dictionary

  • Hilt — Hilt, n. [AS. hilt, hilte; akin to OHG. helza, Prov. G. hilze, Icel. hjalt.] 1. A handle; especially, the handle of a sword, dagger, or the like. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • hilt — [hɪlt] noun to the hilt informal as much as possible, or to the highest level possible[/ex] Mike s friends were prepared to defend him to the hilt.[/ex] …   Dictionary for writing and speaking English

  • hilt — ► NOUN ▪ the handle of a sword, dagger, or knife. ● to the hilt Cf. ↑to the hilt ORIGIN Old English …   English terms dictionary

  • hilt — [[t]hɪ̱lt[/t]] hilts 1) N COUNT The hilt of a sword, dagger, or knife is its handle. ...the hilt of the small, sharp knife. 2) PHRASE: usu PHR after v (emphasis) To the hilt and up to the hilt mean to the maximum extent possible or as fully as… …   English dictionary

  • hilt — UK [hɪlt] / US noun [countable] Word forms hilt : singular hilt plural hilts the handle of a sword or dagger • (up) to the hilt informal as much as possible or to the highest level possible Mike s colleagues were prepared to defend him to the… …   English dictionary

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.