Take-all

"Gaeumannomyces graminis" var "tritici", syn. "Ophiobolus graminis" var "tritici"

A disease of cereal roots common in temperate climates. All varieties of wheat and barley are susceptible. It is an important disease in winter wheat in Western Europe particularly, and is favoured by conditions of intensive production and exacerbated by monoculture.

The fungus attacks the plant roots at any growth stage, early infections causing stunting and yellowing. Affected roots are blackened, sometimes severely. After earing in spring patches of the crop appear stunted. In severe attacks the worst affected plants are bleached and dead even before flowering. These symptoms give rise to an alternative name for the disease, "whiteheads". Yield loss levels of 40 to 50 % are often recorded in severe attacks.

Chemical control measures have traditionally had little success, although a modern seed treatment shows promise. Crop nutrition imbalances exacerbate the disease, as does excessive liming. Modern varieties are stiff and short-strawed which allows relatively high spring nitrogen applications without serious lodging. This can limit damage from the disease.

The most appropriate control measure is the use of a clean one-year break crop of a non-cereal crop. This reduces the fungus to an acceptably low soil contamination level in about 10 months although the existence of volunteer grasses may nullify any beneficial effects.

There exists a phenomenon known as "take-all decline". Experiments performed on the famous "Broadbalk" field at Rothamsted Experimental Station where continuous monoculture winter wheat is grown, show that take-all build-up occurs in successive crops to reach a peak in the 3rd to 5th cropping year, after which the disease declines, ultimately restoring yields to 80 to 90 % of 1st and 2nd year levels. The decline cycle is destroyed by the introduction of a crop other than wheat or barley.

References

Cereal Pests and Diseases (Gair, Jenkins, Lester) 1987 Farming Press ISBN 978-0-85236-164-1


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Take All of Me — is Rebecca St. James 4th single from her album If I Had One Chance To Tell You Something. It was released in October and is based of the Scripture Verse Psalm 146:5: Put your hope in God. The song is not a Rebecca St. James original, but actually …   Wikipedia

  • take-all — ˈ ̷ ̷ˌ ̷ ̷ noun ( s) : a destructive disease of cereal grasses caused by a fungus (Ophiobolus graminis) and characterized by foot rot and partially filled or empty heads and by bleaching of stalks, leaves, and heads called also whiteheads * * *… …   Useful english dictionary

  • Take-All — Hearts The winning of all the counting cards by one player Sometimes called shoot the moon …   The official rules of card games glossary

  • take-all — /tayk awl /, n. Plant Pathol. a disease of wheat, rye, barley and oats, characterized by the blackening and decaying of the base of the stems, caused by a fungus, Ophiobolus graminis. [1875 80] * * * …   Universalium

  • take-all — /ˈteɪk ɔl/ (say tayk awl) noun a disease of wheat caused by the fungus, Ophiobolus graminis, which attacks the base of the plant …   Australian English dictionary

  • Winner-take-all — connotates also the principle of the Plurality voting system. This article is about the computational princible. In the theory of artificial neural networks winner take all networks are a case of competitive learning in recurrent neural networks …   Wikipedia

  • Winner Take All (1932 film) — Infobox Film name = Winner Take All image size = caption = director = Roy Del Ruth producer = Roy Del Ruth writer = Gerald Beaumont (story) Wilson Mizner Robert Lord narrator = starring = James Cagney Marian Nixon music = Leo F. Forbstein W.… …   Wikipedia

  • Winners Take All — Infobox Album Name = Winners Take All Type = Studio Album Artist = Quiet Riot Released = Recorded = Genre = Length = Label = Sony Producer = Reviews = Last album = This album = Next album = Winners Take All is a Quiet Riot compilation album.Track …   Wikipedia

  • Winner Take All (album) — Infobox Album Name = Winner Take All Type = studio Longtype = Artist = The Turbo A.C. s Released = October 20, 1998 Recorded = Genre = Hardcore punk Length = mm:ss Label = Cacophone Records Producer = Dave Lee Kevin Cole Reviews = *Allmusic [http …   Wikipedia

  • Winner Take All — is an American television game show that ran from 1948 through 1952 on CBS. It is notable as the first game show produced by the Mark Goodson and Bill Todman partnership, who would go on to create many more. The program first began in 1946, on… …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.