Ebro


Ebro

Geobox|River
name = Ebro



map_size =
map_caption = Watershed of the Ebro
other_name = _ca. Ebre
other_name1 =
country = Spain
country1 =
length = 910
length_imperial =
watershed = 80093
watershed_imperial =
discharge_location = mouth
discharge_average = 426
discharge_average_imperial =
discharge_max_month =
discharge_max =
discharge_max_imperial =
discharge_min_month =
discharge_min =
discharge_min_imperial =
discharge1_location =
discharge1_average =
discharge1_average_imperial =
source_name =
source_region = Cantabria
source_location = Pico de los Tres Mares
source_country = Spain
source_country1 =
source_elevation = 1980
source_elevation_imperial =
source_lat_d =
source_lat_m =
source_lat_s =
source_lat_NS =
source_long_d =
source_long_m =
source_long_s =
source_long_EW =
mouth_name =
mouth_location = Mediterranean Sea
mouth_region =
mouth_country = Spain
mouth_country1 =
mouth_elevation = 0
mouth_elevation_imperial =
mouth_lat_d = 40
mouth_lat_m = 43
mouth_lat_s = 12
mouth_lat_NS = N
mouth_long_d = 0
mouth_long_m = 51
mouth_long_s = 47
mouth_long_EW = E
tributary_left = Oca, Oja, Tirón, Najerilla, Iregua
tributary_left1 = Cidacos, Alhama, Jalón, Huerva
tributary_left2 = Martín, Guadalope, Matarraña
tributary_right = Nela, Jerea, Bayas, Zadorra
tributary_right1 = Ega, Aragón, Gállego, Segre



image_size =
image_caption = Ebro Delta from space

The Ebro ( _ca. Ebre) is Spain's most voluminous river. Its source is in Fontibre (Cantabria). It flows through cities such as Miranda de Ebro, Logroño, Zaragoza, Flix, Tortosa, and Amposta before discharging in a delta on the Mediterranean Sea in the province of Tarragona.

Name

The Romans named this river "Iber (Iberus Flumen)", hence its current name but probably derives from the greek "Hèvros", "Εβρος". Arguably the whole peninsula and some of the peoples living there were named after the river.

History

In Antiquity, The Ebro was used as the dividing line between Roman (north) and Carthaginian (south) expansions after the First Punic War. When Rome, fearful of Hannibal's growing influence in the Iberian Peninsula, made the city of Saguntum (considerably south of the Ebro) a protectorate of Rome, Hannibal viewed this treaty as an aggressive action by Rome and used the event as the catalyst to the Second Punic War.

One of the earliest Cistercian monasteries in Spain, Real Monasterio de Nuestra Senora de Rueda ("Royal Monastery of Our Lady of the Wheel"), is located on the banks of the Ebro in Aragon. This edifice survives to the present intact, having been established in the year 1202. The monastery is strongly connected to the Ebro, since it used one of the first large waterwheels established in Spain for the production of power. The monastery also diverted flow from the Ebro to create a circulating hydrological central heating system for its buildings.

The river Ebro was the initial starting ground of one of the most famous Republican offensives during the Spanish Civil War, in 1938. The offensive itself, known as the Battle of the Ebro, ended in defeat for the Republican forces, even though they enjoyed initial success in its first stages. However, they were not able to reach the desired objective of Gandesa.

Delta geography

The Ebro delta is one of the largest wetland areas (320 km²) in the western Mediterranean region. The Ebro delta has grown rapidly—the historical rate of growth of the delta is demonstrated by the town of Amposta. This town was a seaport in the 4th Century, and is now located well inland from the current Ebro river mouth. The rounded form of the delta attests to the balance between sediment deposition by the Ebro and removal of this material by wave erosion.

The modern delta is in intensive agricultural use for rice, fruit, and vegetables. The Ebro delta also hosts numerous beaches, marshes, and salt pans that provide habitat for over 300 species of birds. A large part of the delta was designated as [http://www.audouinbirding.com/index.php?id=ebrodelta Ebro Delta Natural Park] in 1983. A network of canals and irrigation ditches constructed by both agricultural and conservation groups are helping to maintain the ecologic and economic resources of the Ebro Delta.

Flow and floods

In Zaragoza from the end of the nineteenth century:

*March 1888: 3,760 m3/s
*January 1891: 3,250 m³/s
*February 1892: 3,790 m³/s
*January 1895: 3,118 m³/s
*March 1930: 3,600 m³/s
*December 1930: 3,000 m³/s
*October 1937: 3,000 m³/s
*January 1941: 4,000 m³/s
*February 1952: 3,260 m³/s
*January 1961: 4,130 m³/s
*November 1966: 3,154 m³/s
*January 1981: 2,940 m³/s
*February 2003: 2,988 m³/s
*March 2003: 2,220 m³/s
*April 2007: 2,282 m³/s.

The Ebro poured 1,874 hm³ in the river delta from 2007-03-27 to 04-11, with an average of 117 hm³/day .

Ecology

The zebra mussel is an invasive species that is extending upstream in Ebro waters.

The Ebro delta has the world's largest colony of Audouin's Gulls.

ee also

*Hydrological transport model

References

*cite web | url=http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Newsroom/NewImages/images.php3?img_id=16617 | title=Ebro River Delta, Northeastern Spain | publisher=NASA Earth Observatory | accessdate=2006-05-24

External links

* [http://www.riverebroapartments.com/birdwatching.htm 300 species of birds spotted on the river Ebro]
* [http://www.audouinbirding.com/index.php?id=ebrodelta The birds and nature in the Ebro Delta]
* [http://www.iberianature.com/material/ebro.html The River Ebro and Delta]
* [http://www.deltarium.es Nature park related to the wildlife of the river Ebro delta]
* [http://earthfromspace.photoglobe.info/spc_ebro_delta.html The Ebro Delta from Space]
* [http://maps.google.com/maps?ll=40.674910,0.689392&spn=0.237964,0.481407&t=k The Ebro Delta at Google Maps]
* [http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=river+ebro+fishing+holidays&btnG=Google+Search River Ebro Fishing guides and accommodation]


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  • ebro — v. ebbro …   Enciclopedia Italiana

  • Ebro — [ā′brō̂; ] E [ ē′brō] river in N Spain, flowing southeast into the Mediterranean: c. 575 mi (925 km) …   English World dictionary


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