Lord's Prayer

For alternative meanings, see: Lord's Prayer (disambiguation), Our Father (disambiguation), and Pater Noster (disambiguation).

The Lord's Prayer (also called the Pater Noster[1] or Our Father[2]) is a central prayer in Christianity. In the New Testament of the Christian Bible, it appears in two forms: in the Gospel of Matthew[3] as part of the discourse on ostentation in the Sermon on the Mount, and in the Gospel of Luke, which records Jesus being approached by "one of his disciples" with a request to teach them "to pray as John taught his disciples."[4] The prayer concludes with "deliver us from evil" in Matthew, and with "lead us not into temptation" in Luke. The liturgical form is Matthean. Some Christians, particularly Protestants, conclude the prayer with a doxology, an addendum appearing in some manuscripts of Matthew.

The prayer as it occurs in Matthew 6:9–13
"Our Father in heaven,
hallowed be your name.
Your kingdom come,
your will be done,
on earth as it is in heaven.
Give us this day our daily bread,
and forgive us our debts,
as we also have forgiven our debtors.
And lead us not into temptation,
but deliver us from evil."
The prayer as it occurs in Luke 11:2-4
hallowed be your name.
Your kingdom come.
Give us each day our daily bread,
and forgive us our sins,
for we ourselves forgive everyone who is indebted to us.
And lead us not into temptation."

The context of the prayer in Matthew is a discourse deploring people who pray ostentatiously: Jesus instructs his listeners to pray in the manner prescribed in the prayer. Taking into account its structure, flow of subject matter and emphases, one interpretation[5] of the Lord's Prayer is as a guideline on how to pray rather than something to be learned and repeated by rote. The New Testament records Jesus and his disciples praying on several occasions, but never this specific prayer, so the application and understanding of the prayer during the ministry of Jesus is unknown.

In Biblical criticism, the prayer's absence in the Gospel of Mark together with its occurrence in Matthew and Luke has caused scholars who accept the two-source hypothesis (against other document hypotheses) to conclude that it is probably a logion original to Q.[6]

On Easter Day 2007, it was estimated that two billion Catholic, Anglican, Protestant and Eastern Orthodox Christians read, recited, or sang the short prayer in hundreds of languages.[7] Although theological differences and various modes of worship divide Christians, according to Fuller Seminary professor Clayton Schmit, "there is a sense of solidarity in knowing that Christians around the globe are praying together..., and these words always unite us."[7]


English versions

James Tissot - The Lord's Prayer (Le Pater Noster) - Brooklyn Museum

There are several different English translations of the Lord's Prayer from Greek or Latin. One of the first texts in English is the Northumbrian translation from around 650. The three best-known are:

These are given here along with the Greek text of Matthew 6:9-13 and the Latin text used in the Catholic Latin liturgy.[8]

The square brackets in three of the texts below indicate the doxology often added at the end of the prayer by Protestants and, in a slightly different form, by Eastern Orthodox ("For thine is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory, of the Father, and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, now and ever, and unto the ages of ages. Amen.").[9] The Anglican Book of Common Prayer adds it in some services but not in all. Older English translations of the Bible, based on late Byzantine Greek manuscripts, included it, but it is excluded in critical editions of the New Testament, such as that of the United Bible Societies. It is absent in the oldest manuscripts and is not considered to be part of the original text of Matthew 6:913. The Catholic Church has never attached it to the Lord's Prayer, but has included it in the Roman Rite Mass as revised in 1969, in which it is separated from the Our Father by a prayer called the embolism spoken or sung by the priest (in the 1975 ICEL English translation: "Deliver us, Lord, from every evil, and grant us peace in our day. In your mercy keep us free from sin and protect us from all anxiety as we wait in joyful hope for the coming of our Savior, Jesus Christ.") that elaborates on the final petition, "Deliver us from evil." For more information on this doxology, see Analysis, below. When Reformers set out to translate the King James Bible, they assumed that a Greek manuscript they possessed was ancient and therefore adopted the phrase "For thine is the kingdom, the power, and the glory forever" into the Lord’s Prayer. Later scholarship demonstrated that the manuscript was actually a late addition based on Eastern liturgical tradition.

Original text in Greek

Πάτερ ἡμῶν ὁ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς·
ἁγιασθήτω τὸ ὄνομά σου·
ἐλθέτω ἡ βασιλεία σου·
γενηθήτω τὸ θέλημά σου,·
ὡς ἐν οὐρανῷ καὶ ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς·
τὸν ἄρτον ἡμῶν τὸν ἐπιούσιον δὸς ἡμῖν σήμερον·
καὶ ἄφες ἡμῖν τὰ ὀφειλήματα ἡμῶν,
ὡς καὶ ἡμεῖς ἀφίεμεν τοῖς ὀφειλέταις ἡμῶν·
καὶ μὴ εἰσενέγκῃς ἡμᾶς εἰς πειρασμόν,
ἀλλὰ ῥῦσαι ἡμᾶς ἀπὸ τοῦ πονηροῦ.

[Ὅτι σοῦ ἐστιν ἡ βασιλεία καὶ ἡ δύναμις καὶ ἡ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας. ἀμήν.]

Latin liturgical version[10]
Pater noster, qui es in caelis:
sanctificetur Nomen Tuum;
adveniat Regnum Tuum;
fiat voluntas Tua,
sicut in caelo, et in terra.
Panem nostrum cotidianum da nobis hodie;
et dimitte nobis debita nostra,
sicut et nos dimittimus debitoribus nostris;
et ne nos inducas in tentationem;
sed libera nos a Malo.[11]
Catholic (without doxology)[12]
and 1928 Anglican BCP (with doxology)[13]
Our Father who art in heaven,
hallowed be thy name.
Thy kingdom come.
Thy will be done
on earth as it is in heaven.
Give us this day our daily bread,
and forgive us our trespasses,
as we forgive those who trespass against us,
and lead us not into temptation,
but deliver us from evil.
[The 1928 BCP adds:
For thine is the kingdom,
and the power, and the glory,
for ever and ever.]
1662 Anglican BCP[14]
Our Father, which art in heaven,
hallowed be thy name;
thy kingdom come;
thy will be done,
in earth as it is in heaven.
Give us this day our daily bread.
And forgive us our trespasses,
as we forgive them that trespass against us.
And lead us not into temptation;
but deliver us from evil.
[For thine is the kingdom,
the power, and the glory,
for ever and ever.]
1988 ELLC[15]
Our Father in heaven,
hallowed be your name,
your kingdom come,
your will be done,
on earth as in heaven.
Give us today our daily bread.
Forgive us our sins
as we forgive those who sin against us.
Save us from the time of trial
and deliver us from evil.
[For the kingdom, the power, and the glory are yours
now and for ever.] Amen.

Other English translations are also used.

Though Matthew 6:12 uses the term debts, the older English versions of the Lord's Prayer uses the term trespasses, while ecumenical versions often use the term sins. The latter choice may be due to Luke 11:4, which uses the word sins, while the former may be due to Matthew 6:14 (immediately after the text of the prayer), where Jesus speaks of trespasses. As early as the third century, Origen of Alexandria used the word trespasses (παραπτώματα) in the prayer. Though the Latin form that was traditionally used in Western Europe has debita (debts), most English-speaking Christians (except Scottish Presbyterians and some others of the Reformed tradition), use trespasses. The Established Presbyterian Church of Scotland, the Church of Christ, Scientist, as well as the Congregational denomination follow the version found in Matthew 6 in the Authorized Version (known also as the King James Version), which in the prayer uses the words "debts" and "debtors".

All these versions are based on the text in Matthew, rather than Luke, of the prayer given by Jesus:

Matthew 6:9–13

"Pray then like this: 'Our Father in heaven, hallowed be your name. Your kingdom come, your will be done, on earth as it is in heaven. Give us this day our daily bread, and forgive us our debts, as we also have forgiven our debtors. And lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil.'"

Luke 11:2–4

And he said to them, "When you pray, say: 'Father, hallowed be your name. Your kingdom come. Give us each day our daily bread, and forgive us our sins, for we ourselves forgive everyone who is indebted to us. And lead us not into temptation.'"


The Lord's Prayer in Greek.

Subheadings use 1662 Book of Common Prayer (BCP) (see above)

"Hallowed be thy name"

Archbishop of Canterbury Rowan Williams explains this phrase as a petition that people may look upon God's name (which is his word, his presence) as holy, as something that inspires awe and reverence, and that they may not trivialize it by making God a tool for their purposes, to put others down or make themselves feel safe. He sums up the meaning of the phrase by saying: "Understand what you're talking about when you're talking about God, this is serious, this is the most wonderful and frightening reality that we could imagine, more wonderful and frightening than we can imagine."[16]

"Thy kingdom come"

The request for God's kingdom to come is commonly interpreted at the most literal level: as a reference to the belief, common at the time, that a Messiah figure would bring about a Kingdom of God. Traditionally the coming of God's Kingdom is seen as a divine gift to be prayed for, not a human achievement. This idea is frequently challenged by groups who believe that the Kingdom will come by the hands of those faithful who work for a better world. It is believed by these individuals that Jesus' commands to feed the hungry and clothe the needy are the Kingdom to which he was referring.[17]

Yet, scripture teaches that the "Kingdom of God is within you" (Luke 17:21), suggesting a psychological or spiritual condition of the individual. By such an interpretation, the petition in the Lord's Prayer asks for this inner kingdom—that is, attainment of personal salvation, moral and psychological. Further, in referring to this condition as "Thy Kingdom," an implicit contrast is suggested between this and conditions of soul dominated by selfish and egoistic desires.

Finally, the phrase "the Kingdom of God" is used more-or-less interchangeably in the New Testament with "the reign of God". This suggests the petition is asking for a state of soul in which God reigns—i.e., a state of piety and humility, where one is directed by God, and does not rely on ones own devices, schemes, and imaginings (Cf. Proverbs 3:5). Conversely, the statements could easily be eschatological in nature; the petitioner is asking for the swift arrival of The Day of the Lord, a collective state of being in which all of Creation is completely under the control of God.

"thy will be done"

“Many people think our job is to get my afterlife destination taken care of, then tread water till we all get ejected and God comes back and torches this place. But Jesus never told anybody — neither his disciples nor us — to pray, 'Get me out of here so I can go up there.' His prayer was, 'Make up there come down here.' Make things down here run the way they do up there.”[18] The request that “thy will be done” is God’s invitation to “join him in making things down here the way they are up there.”[18] In other words, to make a Heaven on Earth.

"Give us this day our daily bread"

The more personal requests break from the similarity to the Kaddish. The first concerns daily bread. The meaning of the word normally translated as daily, ἐπιούσιος epiousios, is obscure. The word is almost a hapax legomenon, occurring only in Luke and Matthew's versions of the Lord's Prayer. (It was once mistakenly thought to be found also in an Egyptian accounting book.).[19] Etymologically epiousios seems to be related to the Greek words epi, meaning on, over, at, against and ousia, meaning substance. It is translated as supersubstantialem in the Vulgate (Matthew 6:11) and accordingly as supersubstantial in the Douay-Rheims Bible (Matthew 6:11). Early writers connected this to Eucharistic transubstantiation. Some modern Protestant scholars tend to reject this connection on the presumption that Eucharistic practice and the doctrine of transubstantiation both developed later than this writing. Epiousios can also be understood as existence, i.e., bread that was fundamental to survival (as in the Syriac Peshitta, where the line is translated "give us the bread of which we have need today."). In the era, bread was the most important food for survival. However, scholars of linguistics consider this rendering unlikely since it would violate standard rules of word formation. Koine Greek had several far more common terms for the same idea. Some interpret epiousios as meaning for tomorrow, as in the wording used by the Gospel of the Nazoraeans for the prayer.[20] The common translation as "daily" is conveniently close in meaning to the other two possibilities as well. Those Christians who read the Lord's Prayer as eschatological view epiousios as referring to the second coming — reading for tomorrow (and bread) in a metaphorical sense. Most scholars disagree, particularly since Jesus is portrayed throughout Luke and Matthew as caring for everyday needs for his followers, particularly in the bread-related miracles that are recounted.[21][22]

"And forgive us our trespasses, as we forgive them that trespass against us"

After the request for bread, Matthew and Luke diverge slightly. Matthew continues with a request for debts to be forgiven in the same manner as people forgive those who have debts against them. Luke, on the other hand, makes a similar request about sins being forgiven in the manner of debts being forgiven between people. The word "debts" (ὀφειλήματα) does not necessarily mean financial obligations, as shown by the use of the verbal form of the same word (ὀφείλετε) in passages such as Romans 13:8. In Aramaic the word for debt is also used to mean sin. This difference between Luke's and Matthew's wording could be explained by the original form of the prayer having been in Aramaic. The generally accepted interpretation is thus that the request is for forgiveness of sin, not of supposed loans granted by God.[23] Asking for forgiveness from God was a staple of Jewish prayers.[citation needed] It was also considered proper for individuals to be forgiving of others, so the sentiment expressed in the prayer would have been a common one of the time.[citation needed]

Anthony C. Deane, Canon of Worcester Cathedral, suggested that the choice of the word "ὀφειλήματα" (debts), rather than "ἁμαρτίας" (sins), indicated a reference to failures to use opportunities of doing good. He linked this with the parable of the sheep and the goats (also in Matthew's Gospel), in which the grounds for condemnation are not wrong-doing in the ordinary sense but failure to do right, missing opportunities for showing love to others (Matthew 25:31-46).[24]

"As we forgive...". Divergence between Matthew's "debts" and Luke's "trespasses" is relatively trivial compared to the impact of the second half of this statement. The verses immediately following the Lord's Prayer, Matthew 6:14-15, show Jesus teaching that the forgiveness of our sin/debt (by God) is contingent on how we forgive others. Later, Matthew elaborates with Jesus' parable of the unforgiving servant (Matthew 18:23-35). In this parable, forgiveness from the king (God) is conditional on the servant's forgiveness of a small debt owed to him.

"And lead us not into temptation"

Interpretations of the penultimate petition of the prayer — not to be led by God into peirasmos — vary considerably. The range of meanings of the Greek word "πειρασμός" (peirasmos) is illustrated in The New Testament Greek Lexicon. In different contexts it can mean temptation, testing, trial, experiment. Traditionally it has been translated "temptation" and, in spite of the statement in James 1:12-15 that God tests/tempts nobody, some see the petition in the Lord's Prayer as implying that God leads people to sin[citation needed]. There are generally two arguments for interpreting the word as meaning here a "test of character". First, it may be an eschatological appeal against unfavourable Last Judgment, a theory supported by the use of the word "peirasmos" in this sense in Revelation 3:10. The other argument is that it acts as a plea against hard tests described elsewhere in scripture, such as those of Job.[25] It can also be read as: "LORD, do not let us be led (by ourselves, by others, by Satan) into temptations". Since it follows shortly after a plea for daily bread (i.e. material sustenance), it can be seen as referring to not being caught up in the material pleasures given. A similar phrase appears in Matthew 26:41 and Luke 22:40 in connection with the prayer of Jesus in Gethsemane.[26]

"But deliver us from evil"

Translations and scholars are divided over whether the evil mentioned in the final petition refers to evil in general or the devil in particular. The original Greek, as well as the Latin version, could be either of neuter (evil in general) or masculine (the evil one) gender. In earlier parts of the Sermon on the Mount, in which Matthew's version of the prayer appears, the term is used to refer to general evil. Later parts of Matthew refer to the devil when discussing similar issues. However, the devil is never referred to as the evil one in any Aramaic sources. While John Calvin accepted the vagueness of the term's meaning, he considered that there is little real difference between the two interpretations, and that therefore the question is of no real consequence. Similar phrases are found in John 17:15 and 2 Thessalonians 3:3[27]

"For thine is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory, for ever and ever. Amen"

The doxology of the prayer is not contained in Luke's version, nor is it present in the earliest manuscripts of Matthew, representative of the Alexandrian text, but is present in the manuscripts representative of the Byzantine text.[28] It is thus absent in the oldest and best manuscripts of Matthew,[29] and most scholars do not consider it part of the original text of Matthew.[30][31] Modern translations generally omit it.[32]

The first known use of the doxology, in a less lengthy form ("for yours is the power and the glory forever"),[33] as a conclusion for the Lord's Prayer (in a version slightly different from that of Matthew) is in the Didache, 8:2. It has similarities with 1 Chronicles 29:11 - "Yours, O LORD, is the greatness and the power and the glory and the victory and the majesty, for all that is in the heavens and in the earth is yours. Yours is the kingdom, O LORD, and you are exalted as head above all." In Orthodox Christianity and Byzantine Rite Eastern Catholic Churches, a similar doxology is sung within the context of the Divine Liturgy. Following the last line of the prayer, the priest sings "For thine is the kingdom and the power and the glory, of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit, now and ever and unto ages of ages". Latin Rite Roman Catholics, as well as some Lutherans,[34] do not use it when reciting the Lord's Prayer, but it has been included as an independent item, not as part of the Lord's Prayer, in the Roman Rite Mass. The Anglican Book of Common Prayer sometimes gives the Lord's Prayer with the doxology, sometimes without.[35] Most Protestants attach it to the Lord's Prayer.

Use as a language comparison tool

A map of European languages (1741) had the first verse of the Lord's Prayer put in every language.

Since the publication of the Mithridates books,[36] translations of the prayer have often been used for a quick comparison of languages, primarily because most earlier philologists were Christians, and very often priests. Due to missionary activity, one of the first texts to be translated between many languages has historically been the Bible, and so to early scholars the most readily available text in any particular language would most likely be a partial or total translation of the Bible. For example, the only extant text in Gothic, a language crucial to our understanding of the development of the Indo-European languages, is Codex Argenteus, the incomplete Bible translated by Wulfila.

This tradition has been opposed recently from both the angle of religious neutrality and of practicality: the forms used in the Lord's Prayer (many commands) are not very representative of common discourse. Philologists and language enthusiasts have proposed other texts such as the Babel text (also part of the Bible) or the story of the North Wind and the Sun. In Soviet language sciences the complete works of Lenin were often used for comparison, as they were translated to most languages in the 20th century.

Latin version

The Latin version of this prayer has had cultural and historical importance for most regions where English is spoken. The text used in the liturgy (Mass, Liturgy of the Hours, etc.) differs slightly from that found in the Vulgate and probably pre-dates it.

The doxology associated with the Lord's Prayer is found in four Vetus Latina manuscripts, only two of which give it in its entirety. The other surviving manuscripts of the Vetus Latina Gospels do not have the doxology. The Vulgate translation also does not include it, thus agreeing with critical editions of the Greek text.

In the Latin Rite liturgies, this doxology is never attached to the Lord's Prayer. Its only use in the Roman Rite liturgy is in the Mass as revised after the Second Vatican Council. It is there placed not immediately after the Lord's Prayer, but instead after the priest's prayer, Libera nos, quaesumus..., elaborating on the final petition, Libera nos a malo (Deliver us from evil).

Aramaic version

The Lord's Prayer survives in the Aramaic language in the form given to it in the Syriac Peshitta version of the New Testament. The dialect of Syriac in which it is written is not the dialect that would have been spoken by Jesus of Nazareth or his followers.[37] Therefore, claims that the Peshitta Lord's Prayer is "the original" are false: it too is translated from the Greek text of Matthew 6:9-13. A slightly different and older Aramaic version of the Lord's Prayer also exists.[38]

Relation to Jewish prayer

There are similarities between the Lord's Prayer and both Biblical and post-Biblical material in Jewish prayer especially Kiddushin 81a (Babylonian).[39] "Hallowed be thy name" is reflected in the Kaddish. "Lead us not into sin" is echoed in the "morning blessings" of Jewish prayer. A blessing said by some Jewish communities after the evening Shema includes a phrase quite similar to the opening of the Lord's Prayer: "Our God in heaven, hallow thy name, and establish thy kingdom forever, and rule over us for ever and ever. Amen." There are parallels also in 1 Chronicles 29:10-18.[40]

Rabbi Aron Mendes Chumaceiro has said[41] that nearly all the elements of the prayer have counterparts in the Jewish Bible and Deuterocanonical books: the first part in Isaiah 63:15-16 ("Look down from heaven and see, from your holy and beautiful habitation ... For you are our Father ...") and Ezekiel 36:23 ("I will vindicate the holiness of my great name ...") and 38:23 ("I will show my greatness and my holiness and make myself known in the eyes of many nations ..."), the second part in Obadiah 1:21 ("Saviours shall go up to Mount Zion to rule Mount Esau, and the kingdom shall be the LORD's") and 1 Samuel 3:18 ("... It is the LORD. Let him do what seems good to him"), the third part in Proverbs 30:8 ("... feed me with my apportioned bread"), the fourth part in Sirach 28:2 ("Forgive your neighbour the wrong he has done, and then your sins will be pardoned when you pray"). "Deliver us from evil" can be compared with Psalm 119:133 ("... let no iniquity get dominion over me."). Chumaceiro says that, because the idea of God leading a human into temptation contradicts the righteousness and love of God, "Lead us not into temptation" has no counterpart in the Old Testament.

The word "πειρασμός", which is translated as "temptation", could also be translated as "test" or "trial", making evident the attitude of someone's heart. Well-known examples in the Old Testament are God's test of Abraham (Genesis 22:1), his "moving" (the Hebrew word means basically "to prick, as by weeds, thorns") David to do (numbering Israel) what David later acknowledged as sin (2 Samuel 24:1-10; see also 1 Chronicles 21:1-7), and the Book of Job.

Latter-day Saint view

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints does not use the Lord's Prayer in worship. It is believed that Jesus gave it as an inspired example for correct prayer and not as a set text to be repeated like a "vain repetition".[42]

The Book of Mormon[43] includes a version of the Lord's Prayer in an account of Jesus' sermon to a people in the Western Hemisphere shortly after his Resurrection. The English phraseology strongly resembles the text of Matthew in the King James Version of the New Testament.[44] It includes the doxological ending, generally considered by Biblical scholars to be a later interpolation to Matthew from The Didache of the Twelve Apostles.[45] The Book of Mormon account records that Jesus taught the entire Sermon on the Mount, with several slight differences to the version contained in Matthew.

See also


  1. ^ Pope Benedict XVI, Compendium Catechism of the Catholic Church, United States Conference of Catholic Bishops (2005), p. 169, ISBN 978-1-57455-725-1
  2. ^ The Our Father
  3. ^ Matthew 6:9–13
  4. ^ Luke 11:1-4
  5. ^ J.I. Packer, "Praying The Lord's Prayer", Crossway Books 2007, pp.15-16
  6. ^ Farmer, William R., The Gospel of Jesus: The Pastoral Relevance of the Synoptic Problem, Westminster John Knox Press (1994), p. 49, ISBN 978-0-664-25514-5
  7. ^ a b Kang, K. Connie. "Across the globe, Christians are united by Lord's Prayer." Los Angeles Times, in Houston Chronicle, p. A13, April 8, 2007
  8. ^ This Latin text differs from that in the Vulgate in that it has "cotidianum" instead of "supersubstantialem" as a translation of "ἐπιούσιον".
  9. ^ Office of Vespers for the Preservation of Creation
  10. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2759
  11. ^ The Byzantine doxology is never joined immediately to the Lord's Prayer in the Latin liturgy or the Latin Bible. In the Roman Missal this doxology appears (separated from the Lord's Prayer by the embolism) in the form "quia tuum est regnum, et potestas, et gloria, in saecula"; others have translated it into Latin as "quia tuum est regnum; et potentia et gloria; per omnia saecula or in saecula saeculorum."
  12. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church
  13. ^ The Book of Common Prayer (1928)
  14. ^ The Communion
  15. ^ Praying Together
  16. ^ Roman Williams, The Lord's Prayer
  17. ^ "Just as God's name is holy in itself and yet we pray that it may be holy among us, so also his kingdom comes of itself without our prayer, and yet we pray that it may come to us, that is, that it may prevail among us and with us, so that we may be a part of those among whom his name is hallowed and his kingdom flourishes" (Martin Luther, Large Catechism, Book of Concord, p.446, Kolb/Wengert).
  18. ^ a b Ortberg, John Ortberg. “God is Closer Than You Think”. Zondervan,2005, p.176.
  19. ^ Nijman, M.,Worp, K.A. ΕΠΙΟΥΣΙΟΣ in a Documentary Papyrus?, Novum Testamentum, Volume 41, Number 3 / July, 1999, pp. 231-234.
  20. ^ In his Commentary on Matthew (on Matthew 6:11), Jerome wrote, "In Evangelio quod appellatur secundum Hebraeos, pro supersubstantiali pane, reperi MAHAR (מחר), quod dicitur crastinum; ut sit sensus: Panem nostrum crastinum, id est, futurum da nobis hodie." (Jerome, Commentary on Matthew, Book I) An English translation: "In the Gospel which is called 'according to the Hebrews', for "supersubstantial bread," I find MAHAR (מחר), which is to say, "of tomorrow." So, the sense is, "Our bread of tomorrow," i.e., of the future, "give to us today."
  21. ^ In A Rabbinic Commentary on the New Testament (1987), pp.119-121, ISBN 978-0-881250-89-3, Samuel Tobias Lachs points out that bread "sufficient for our tomorrow" (de maherenu) in Hebrew letters differs by only one letter from bread "sufficient for our needs" (de mahserenu) and is probably a transcription error caused by the loss of the single letter (sameq).
  22. ^ Historian Livio Catullo Stecchini speculated that epiousios can be understood as a metrological term meaning a "full measure" of grain, but his pseudoscientific explanation remains controversial. A History of Measures
  23. ^ See: Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, edited by Kittel and Friedrich, Abridged in One Volumne by Goeoffrey W. Bromiley; William B. Eeerdmans Publishing Company, Grand Rapids, Mich; 1985; Pages 746-750: Gives use of ὸφείλω opheilo (to owe, be under obligation), ὸφειλή opheile (debt, obligation) and two (2) other word forms as used in the New Testament and outside the New Testament, including use in Judaism
  24. ^ A Study of the Lord's Prayer, Chapter VI
  25. ^ Psalm 26:2 and 139:23 are respectful challenges for a test to prove the writer's innocence and integrity.
  26. ^ Clontz, T.E. and J., "The Comprehensive New Testament", Cornerstone Publications (2008), pp. 451-452, ISBN 978-0-977873-71-5
  27. ^ Clontz, p. 452
  28. ^ Clontz, p. 8
  29. ^ Nicholas Ayo, The Lord's Prayer: A Survey Theological and Literary, University of Notre Dame Press (1993), p. 7, ISBN 978-0-268-01292-2
  30. ^ David E. Aune, The Blackwell Companion to the New Testament (Blackwell 2010 ISBN 978-1-4051-0825-6), p. 299
  31. ^ Kurt Aland and Barbara Aland, The Text of the New Testament (Eerdmans 1998 ISBN 0-8028-4098-1), p. 306
  32. ^ The doxology is not included in the following modern translations: American Standard Version Contemporary English Version English Standard Version GOD'S WORD Translation Good News Translation New International Reader's Version New International Version New Living Translation Today's New International Version. It is enclosed in square brackets in Holman Christian Standard Bible New American Standard Bible New Century Version. Two publications that are updates of the Authorized King James Version rather than new translations keep it: 21st Century King James Version and New King James Version; but the second of these adds a note: " "NU-Text omits For Yours through Amen."
  33. ^ The Teaching of the Twelve Apostles, commonly called the Didache, in Christian Classics Ethereal Library
  34. ^ Lutheran Service Book, Divine Service III
  35. ^ For instance in Morning Prayer the doxology is attached to the Lord's Prayer in the Introduction, but not in the Prayers after the Apostles' Creed.
  36. ^ Two examples are Mithridates de differentis linguis, Conrad Gessner, 1555; and Mithridates oder allgemeine Sprachenkunde mit dem Vater Unser als Sprachprobe in bey nahe fünf hundert Sprachen und Mundarten, Johann Christoph Adelung & Johann Severin Vater, 1806-1817, Berlín, Vossische Buchlandlung, 4 volumes. Facsimile edition, Hildesheim-Nueva York, Georg Olms Verlag, 1970.
  37. ^ Casey, Maurice. (1998). The Aramaic Sources of Mark's Gospel. Cambridge University Press. p. 4.
  38. ^ O Father-Mother Birther of the Cosmos? - An investigation of so called "translations" of the Lord's Prayer in Aramaic.
  39. ^ Clontz, p. 451
  40. ^ Clontz, pp. 8, 451
  41. ^ "Verdediging is geen aanval" pp. 121-122
  42. ^ Russell M. Nelson, "Lessons from the Lord's Prayers", Ensign, May 2009, 46–49
  43. ^ 3 Nephi 13:9-13 in The Book of Mormon: Another Testament of Jesus Christ, 1989
  44. ^ Matthew 6:9-13 The Holy Bible, 1611
  45. ^ The New Testament: A Historical Introduction to the Early Christian Writings, chapter 27, by Bart D. Ehrman, Oxford University Press, 2000


  • Albright, W.F. and C.S. Mann. "Matthew." The Anchor Bible Series. New York: Doubleday & Company, 1971.
  • Augsburger, Myron. Matthew. Waco, Texas: Word Books, 1982.
  • Barclay, William. The Gospel of Matthew: Volume 1 Chapters 1–10. Edinburgh: Saint Andrew Press, 1975.
  • Beare, Francis Wright. The Gospel According to Matthew. Oxford: B. Blackwell, 1981.
  • Clontz, T.E. and J., "The Comprehensive New Testament with complete textual variant mapping and references for the Dead Sea Scrolls, Philo, Josephus, Nag Hammadi Library, Pseudepigrapha, Apocrypha, Plato, Egyptian Book of the Dead, Talmud, Old Testament, Patristic Writings, Dhammapada, Tacitus, Epic of Gilgamesh", Cornerstone Publications, 2008, ISBN 978-0-977873-71-5
  • Filson, Floyd V. A Commentary on the Gospel According to St. Matthew. London: A. & C. Black, 1960.
  • Fowler, Harold. The Gospel of Matthew: Volume One. Joplin: College Press, 1968
  • France, R.T. The Gospel According to Matthew: an Introduction and Commentary. Leicester: Inter-Varsity, 1985.
  • Hendriksen, William. The Gospel of Matthew. Edinburgh: Banner of Truth Trust, 1976
  • Hill, David. The Gospel of Matthew. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1981
  • "Lilies in the Field." A Dictionary of Biblical Tradition in English Literature. David Lyle Jeffrey, general editor. Grand Rapids: W.B. Eerdmans, 1992.
  • Lewis, Jack P. The Gospel According to Matthew. Austin, Texas: R.B. Sweet, 1976..
  • Luz, Ulrich. Matthew 1–7: A Commentary. trans. Wilhlem C. Linss. Minneapolis: Augsburg Fortress, 1989.
  • Morris, Leon. The Gospel According to Matthew. Grand Rapids: W.B. Eerdmans, 1992.
  • Schweizer, Eduard. The Good News According to Matthew. Atlanta: John Knox Press, 1975
  • Underhill, Evelyn, Abba. A meditation on the Lord's Prayer (1940); reprint 2003.

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