- Caddoan languages
Infobox Language family
Great Plains, North America
The Caddoan languages are a family of
Native American languages. They are spoken across the Great Plainsof the central United States, from North Dakotato Oklahoma.
Five languages belong to the Caddoan language family:
I. Northern Caddoan: A. Pawnee-Kitsai:: a. Kitsai::: 1. Kitsai (also known as Kichai) "(†)":: b. Pawnee::: 2.
Arikara(also known as Ree)::: 3. Pawnee (dialects: South Bend, Skiri "(also known as Skidi or Wolf)): B. Wichita::: 4. Wichita (dialects: Wichita proper, Waco, Towakoni)
II. Southern Caddoan::: 5. Caddo (dialects: Kadohadacho, Hasinai, Natchitoches, Yatasi)
The Kitsai language is now extinct, its members having been absorbed into the
Witchitatribe in the 19th century. Caddo, Wichita, and Pawnee are presently spoken in Oklahoma by small handfuls of elders. Arikarais spoken on the Fort Berthold Reservationin North Dakota. Some of the languages were formerly more widespread; the Caddo, for example, used to live in northeastern Texas, southwestern Arkansas, and northwestern Louisianaas well as southeastern Oklahoma. The Pawneeformerly lived along the Platte Riverin what is now Nebraska.
Adai, a language isolateknown only from a 275-word list, may be a Caddoan language, but the documentation is too scanty to determine with certainty. Wallace Chafe finds the relationship unlikely.
Numerous attempts to link the Caddoan and
Iroquoian languagesin a Macro-Siouan language family are suggestive but remain hypothetical. Similar attempts to find a connection with the Algonkian languageshas been partially useful, but not enough evidence for linguists to propose a hypothetical Macro-Algonkian/Iroquoian language family. Fact|date=September 2008
Indiana University-Bloomington American Indian Studies Research Institute's Northern Caddoan Linguistic Text Corpora site: [http://zia.aisri.indiana.edu/~corpora/] and Dictionary Database Search (includes Arikara, Skiri Pawnee, South Band Pawnee,
Assiniboine[Nakoda] , and YanktonaiSioux [Dakota] ): [http://zia.aisri.indiana.edu/~dictsearch/]
* Campbell, Lyle. (1997). "American Indian languages: The historical linguistics of Native America". New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509427-1.
* Chafe, Wallace L. (1973). Siouan, Iroquoian, and Caddoan. In
T. Sebeok(Ed.), "Current trends in linguistics" (Vol. 10, pp. 1164-1209). The Hague: Mouton. (Reprinted as Chafe 1976).
* Chafe, Wallace L. (1976). Siouan, Iroquoian, and Caddoan. In T. Sebeok (Ed.), "Native languages in the Americas" (pp. 527-572). New York: Plenum. (Originally published as Chafe 1973).
* Chafe, Wallace L. (1976). "The Caddoan, Iroquioan, and Siouan languages". Trends in linguistics; State-of-the-art report (No. 3). The Hague: Mouton. ISBN 90-279-3443-6.
* Chafe, Wallace L. (1979). "Caddoan". In L. Campbell & M. Mithun (Eds.), "The languages of Native America: Historical and comparative assessment" (pp. 213-235). Austin: University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-74624-5.
* Chafe, Wallace L. (1993). Indian languages: Siouan-Caddoan. "Encyclopedia of the North American colonies" (Vol. 3). New York: C. Scribner's Sons ISBN 0-684-19611-5.
* Lesser, Alexander; & Weltfish, Gene. (1932). Composition of the Caddoan linguistic stock. "Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections", "87" (6), 1-15.
* Mithun, Marianne. (1999). "The languages of Native North America". Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-23228-7 (hbk); ISBN 0-521-29875-X.
* Taylor, Allan. (1963). Comparative Caddoan. "International Journal of American Linguistics", "29", 113-131.
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Caddoan — [kad′ōən] n. [coined (1891) by J. W. Powell < CADDO + AN] a family of North American Indian languages, including Caddo, Pawnee, and Arikara … English World dictionary
Caddoan — [ kadəʊən] noun 1》 a member of a group of American Indian peoples formerly inhabiting the Midwest. 2》 the family of languages spoken by the Caddoans, which includes Pawnee, now all virtually extinct. adjective relating to the Caddoans or their… … English new terms dictionary
Caddoan — noun a family of North American Indian languages spoken widely in the Midwest by the Caddo • Syn: ↑Caddo, ↑Caddoan language • Hypernyms: ↑Amerind, ↑Amerindian language, ↑American Indian language, ↑American Indian, ↑India … Useful english dictionary
Caddoan language — noun a family of North American Indian languages spoken widely in the Midwest by the Caddo • Syn: ↑Caddo, ↑Caddoan • Hypernyms: ↑Amerind, ↑Amerindian language, ↑American Indian language, ↑American Indian, ↑Indian … Useful english dictionary
Caddoan — /kad oh euhn/, n. a family of North American Indian languages spoken in the upper Missouri valley in North Dakota, in the Platte valley in Nebraska, in southwestern Arkansas, and in neighboring parts of Oklahoma, Texas, and Louisiana. [CADDO +… … Universalium
Caddoan — n. Caddo, member of the Caddo group of Indian tribes adj. of or pertaining to the Caddo (group of Indian tribes) n. family of North American Indian languages spoken by the Caddo people … English contemporary dictionary
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