Ibiza


Ibiza

Infobox Islands
name = Ibiza
_ca. "Eivissa"



image caption = Flag of Ibiza and Formentera
image size = 200px
locator


native name =
native name link = Spain
nickname =
location = Mediterranean Sea
coordinates = coord|38.98|N|1.43|E|
archipelago = Balearic Islands, Pine Islands
total islands =
major islands =
area = 220.47 sq mi (571.04 km²)
highest mount = Atalaya
elevation = 476 m
country = Spain
country admin divisions title = Autonomous Community
country admin divisions = Balearic Islands
country admin divisions title 1 = Province
country admin divisions 1 = Balearic Islands
country admin divisions title 2 =
country admin divisions 2 =
country capital = Ibiza
country largest city = Ibiza
country largest city population = 37,408
country leader title =
country leader name =
population = 113,908
population as of = 2006
density = 199.5/km²
ethnic groups =
additional info = Official languages:
Spanish, Catalan
Infobox World Heritage Site
WHS = Ibiza, Biodiversity and Culture
Image
State Party = ESP
Type = Mixed
Criteria = ii, iii, iv, ix, x
ID = 417
Region = Southern Europe
Year = 1999
Session = 23rd
Link = http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/417

Ibiza ( _ca. Eivissa) is an island located in the Mediterranean Sea about 80 km off the coast of Spain. It is the third largest of the Balearic Islands autonomous community (Spain). With Formentera, it is one of the two Pine Islands. Its largest cities are Ibiza Town (Catalan:"Vila d'Eivissa" or simply "Vila"), Santa Eulària des Riu and Sant Antoni de Portmany.

"Eivissa" is the official Catalan name (pronounced locally IPA| [əiˈvisə] and IPA| [əiˈβisə] in Standard Catalan), but the name in Spanish is "Ibiza", usually pronounced using the standard Spanish variation IPA| [iˈβ̞iθa] . In British English, the name is usually pronounced the Spanish way (IPAEng|ɪˈbiːθə, iː-; aɪ-, -sə, -tsə), while in American English the pronunciation is more varied (IPAEng|ɪˈbiːzə, -sə; -ˈviːθə, -θɑː; aɪ-, -tsə) [cite book | last=Jones | first=Daniel | authorlink= Daniel Jones (phonetician) | coauthors= Peter Roach et al. | title= English Pronouncing Dictionary| edition=16th | year=2003 |publisher=Cambridge University Press |location=Cambridge] [cite book |last=Wells |first=John C. | authorlink= John C. Wells | title=Longman Pronunuciation Dictionary | edition=2nd | year=2000 | publisher=Pearson Education Limited |location=Harlow] .

The island of Ibiza is well-known for its summer club parties which attract large numbers of tourists, but the island and the Spanish Tourist Office have been working to shed the prevailing "sex-and-alcohol" image in order to promote more family-oriented tourism. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/entertainment/3583280.stm BBC NEWS | Entertainment | Ibiza: Still having it large? ] ] Noted clubs include Space, Pacha, Privilege (ex Ku), Amnesia, DC10, Eden and Es Paradis.cite web|url=http://www.guardian.co.uk/travel/2006/jul/01/balearicislands.filminspiredtravel.spain|title=Ibiza unplugged|publisher=The Guardian|date=2006-07-01] It is also home to the 'West End' party district of Sant Antoni, a popular stop for many tourists.

History

In 654 BC Phoenician settlers founded a port in the Balearic Islands, as "Ibossim" (from the Phoenician "iboshim" dedicated to the goddess of the music and dance Bes) [ [http://www.liveibiza.com/ibiza_literature/god_bes_ibiza.htm Ibiza Literature,Literature in Ibiza ] ] . It was later known to Romans as "Ebusus". The Greeks, who came to Ibiza during the time of the Phoenicians, were the first to call the two islands of Ibiza and Formentera the "Pityûssai" ("Unicode|Πιτυοῦσσαι", "pine-covered islands"; a translation of the Phoenician name). [ [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2383365 Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, "A Greek-English Lexicon"] ] With the decline of Phoenicia after the Assyrian invasions, Ibiza came under the control of Carthage, also a former Phoenician colony. The island produced dye, salt, fish sauce (garum), and wool.

A shrine with offerings to the goddess Tanit was established in the cave at Es Culleram, and the rest of the Balearic Islands entered Eivissa's commercial orbit after 400 BC. Ibiza was a major trading post along the Mediterranean routes. Ibiza began establishing its own trading stations along the nearby Balearic island of Majorca such as "Na Guardis", from which large quantities of renowned Balearic slingers were hired as mercenaries who fought for Carthage.

During the Second Punic War, the island was assaulted by the two Scipio brothers 209 BC but remained loyal to Carthage. With Carthaginian military luck running out on the Iberian mainland, Ibiza was last used by the fleeing Carthaginian General Mago to gather supplies and men before sailing to Minorca and then to Liguria. Ibiza negotiated a favorable treaty with the Romans, which spared Ibiza from further destruction and allowed it to continue its Carthaginian-Punic institutions well into the Empire days, when it became an official Roman municipality. For this reason, Ibiza today offers excellent examples of late Carthaginian-Punic civilization. During the Roman Empire, the island became a quiet imperial outpost, removed from the important trading routes of the time.

After the fall of the Roman empire and a brief period of first Vandal and then Byzantine rule, the island was conquered by the Moors, as well as much of the Iberian peninsula. Under Islamic rule, Ibiza came in close contact with the city of Dénia (the closest port in the nearby Iberian peninsula, located in the Land of Valencia) as the two areas were administered jointly by the same taifa. Moreover, the tribes who lived in Ibiza and Denia during the period 1060–1085 were Moorish tribes named Bno-Alaglab & Bano-Mujahed.

The island was reclaimed for Christendom by Aragonese King James I of Aragon in 1235. Since then, the island has had its own self-government in several forms but in 1715 King Philip V of Spain abolished the local government's autonomy. The arrival of democracy in the late 1970s led to the Statute of Autonomy of the Balearic Islands. Today the island is part of the Balearic Autonomous Community, along with Majorca, Minorca and Formentera.

Geography

Ibiza is a part of a group of the western Balearic archipelago called the "Pitiusas" or "Pine Islands" composed of itself and Formentera. The Balearic island chain includes over fifty islands, many of them uninhabited.

Climate

The climate of Ibiza is Mediterranean and has milder winters but slightly cooler summers than Majorca. The winters are generally mild with temperatures around convert|15|C|F|sigfig=2|lk=on during the day and convert|8|C|F at night. The hottest time of the year is July and August with temperatures reaching convert|30|C|F|sigfig=2 most afternoons. The lowest recorded temperature in Ibiza is convert|-5|C|F|sigfig=2, the highest is convert|37|C|F|sigfig=2. [cite web|url=http://www.weather.com/outlook/travel/vacationplanner/vacationclimatology/monthly/SPXX0044|title=Monthly Weather Averages and Records for Ibiza, Spain|publisher=weather.com|accessdate=2008-04-09]

People

Language

While Catalan and Spanish are the official languages of Ibiza, a "dialectal variation [of Catalan] ...called "Eivissenc" or "Ibicenco" is more readily spoken by both the residents and those of Formentera." [cite web |url=http://travel.nytimes.com/frommers/travel/guides/europe/spain/balearic-islands/ibiza/frm_ibiza_0159010001.html |title=Introduction to Ibiza |accessdate= |accessmonthday= |accessdaymonth= |accessyear= |author= |last= |first= |authorlink= |coauthors= |date= |year= |month= |format= |work= |publisher=Frommer's |pages= |language= |doi= |archiveurl= |archivedate= |quote= ] Additionally, because of the influence of tourism (see below) and expatriates living in or maintaining residences on the island other, atypical languages, such as English, German and Russian are also spoken. Polylinguality is the norm, not the exception.

Administration and law

Tourism

Nightlife

Ibiza is considered a popular tourist destination, especially due to its legendary and at times riotous nightlife centered around two areas: Ibiza Town, the island's capital on the southern shore and Sant Antoni to the West. Well-known nightclubs are Privilege (the largest club in the world), Eden (the busiest nightclub in Sant Antoni), Es Paradís (noted for its water parties), Amnesia (known for foam parties), Space (an afterparty club), Pacha, and DC10. During the summer, well-known DJs perform at the various clubs on weekly schedules, in between touring to other international destinations. Many of these DJs use Ibiza as an outlet for presenting new songs within the house, trance and techno genres of electronic dance music. The season traditionally begins at the start of June with Space and DC10's opening parties and finishes on the first weekend of October with the Closing Parties. A typical schedule for clubbers going to Ibiza includes waking at noon, early evening naps, late night clubbing, and "disco sunrises". Due to Ibiza's notable tolerance toward misbehavior from young adult tourists, it has acquired the sobriquet "Gomorrah of the Med". Also well-known is Café del Mar, a long-standing bar where many tourists traditionally view the sunset made famous by José Padilla and Bruno from ibiza. That and other bars close by have become an increasingly popular venue for club pre-parties after sunset, hosting such DJ performers as Roger Sanchez, David Morales, Frankie Knuckles, Judge Jules, Pete Tong, Paul Oakenfold, Paul van Dyk, Sasha, John Digweed, Armin van Buuren, Erick Morillo, Graham Sahara, Tiesto,and David Guetta.

The island's government is trying to encourage a more cultured and quieter tourism scene, passing rules including the closing of all nightclubs by 6am at the latest, and requiring all new hotels to be 5-star. [cite web|url=http://www.guardian.co.uk/travel/2007/nov/18/escape.balearicislands|title=Is the party over in Ibiza?|publisher=The Guardian|date=2007-11-18]

World Heritage Site

Though primarily known for its party scene, large portions of the island are registered as U.N. World Heritage Sites, and thus protected from the development and commercialization of the main cities. A notable example includes "God's Finger" in the Benirràs Bay as well as some of the more traditional Ibicenco cultural sites. Because of its rustic beauty, companies and artists alike frequently use the island for photographic and film shoots. A monument ("The Egg") erected in honour of Christopher Columbus can be found in Sant Antoni: Ibiza is one of several places purporting to be his birthplace.

However, any time other than summer, the whole island is empty of tourists and most clubs are not open (only Pacha is open all year round). Tourists who plan to travel to the island prior to June or after September should expect a quieter time with more unsettled weather.

Notable tourist destinations


Eivissa,_Cala_de_sa_Galera,_with_the_Puig_Nunó_in_the_backgroundImage:mark_042.jpg|The_beach_at_Es_CanarImage:San_Antonio.jpg|Sant_Antoni_de_Portmany_from_afar

Administration

Ibiza is administratively part of the autonomous community of the Balearic Islands, whose capital is Palma, on the island of Majorca. Ibiza comprises five of the community's 67 municipalities. Clockwise from the south coast, these are:
*Sant Josep de sa Talaia
*Sant Antoni de Portmany
*Sant Joan de Labritja
*Santa Eulària des Riu
*Ibiza Town (Eivissa/Vila)

These municipalities had a total population of 88,076 inhabitants (as of the 2001 census) and have a land area of 572.56 km² (221.07 sq mi).

In popular culture

A number of novels have been written using Ibiza as the setting, including "Soma Blues" by Robert Sheckley [cite book |title= Soma Blues|last= Sheckley|first= Robert|authorlink=Robert_Sheckley |coauthors= |year= 1997|publisher= Forge/Tom Doherty Associates|location= New York|isbn= 0-312-86273-3|pages= 222] , "Vacation in Ibiza" by Lawrence Schimel. [cite book| title= Vacation in Ibiza|last=Schimel|first = Lawrence|authorlink=Lawrence_Schimel|year=2003|publisher=Eurotica|isbn=1561633771] , "A Short Life on a Sunny Isle: An Alphonse Dantan Mystery" by Hannah Blank [cite book |title= A Short Life on a Sunny Isle: An Alphonse Dantan Mystery|last= Blank|first= Hannah|authorlink= |coauthors= |year= 2002|publisher= Hightrees/Prism Corporation|location= New York|isbn= 0-9652778-4-4|pages= 221] and "They Are Ruining Ibiza" by A.C. Greene [cite book |title= They Are Ruining Ibiza|last= Greene|first= A.C.|authorlink= |coauthors= |year= 1998|publisher= University of North Texas Press|location= Denton, TX|isbn= 1-57441-0423|pages= 123] .

"More", a 1969 Barbet Schroeder film featuring a soundtrack by Pink Floyd takes place on the island of Ibiza. Pink Floyd recorded a song titled "Ibiza Bar" for the film's soundtrack, "Soundtrack from the Film More".

There also exists a genre of dance music named after Ibiza dubbed Balearic Beat, similarly to the way Goa trance is named after Goa, India. [Gilbert, Jeremy; Pearson, Ewan. "Discographies: Dance Music, Culture, and the Politics of Sound". Routledge. 1999. ISBN 041517032X. "The musics which fed into acid house and the developing culture were various too; the heterogeneous sounds of the 'Balearic beat' which helped define it did not constitute a discrete musical genre, but an unholy mix of, among other things, hip hop, house, Mediterranean pop and indie rock. DJs' playlists temporarily situated highly disparate musics beside one another. Musical miscegenation reunited several of the dance forms that had emerged after disco, mixing American and European dance musics. Though house music was the dominant mode, the rapid proliferation of styles and sub-genres which followed in its wake, for a short time at least, kept dancefloors moving to a range of grooves."] The style tries to reflect the atmosphere of Ibiza. [Evans, Helen. [http://hehe.org.free.fr/hehe/texte/rave/ Out of Sight, Out of Mind: An Analysis of Rave culture] . Wimbledon School of Art, London. 1992. "It was in the upmarket clubs of Ibiza: Pacha, Amnesia, Glory's and Manhattans, that Balearic beat was created. DJ's would mix together musical forms as diverse as 'Public Enemy' and 'The Woodentops', to create that eclectic, highly danceable, don't care holiday feel."] The atmosphere is brought on with the use of synthesized string instruments, the sound of waves, mandolins and guitars, and wispy vocals. [cite web|url=http://www.ibiza.uk.com/amnesia.htm|title=Ibiza Travel Guide - Amnesia|publisher=ibiza.uk.com|accessdate=2008-04-09] A prominent resident of Ibiza is Jens Gad, former co-producer and guitarist featured on several albums of the mulit-platinum act Enigma. Gad's home on the island features a state-of-the art recording studio where has recorded his recent solo albums and two albums of his new musical project Achillea, in 2005 and 2007. [ [http://www.sequoiarecords.com/jens_bio.php Jens Gad bio] ]

References

External links

*
* [http://www.conselldeivissa.es "Consell Insular d'Eivissa" (local government)]
* [http://www.ibiza.travel/en/ "Official tourism portal of Ibiza - Consell Insular d'Eivissa"]
* [http://www.eivissa.org/chkLanguage.php?chk_lang=3 Official City Council Site]
*es icon [http://www.diariodeibiza.es/ "Diario de Ibiza"] (local newspaper)


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