Colias

Clouded yellows
Colias libanotica heldreichi
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Lepidoptera
Family: Pieridae
Tribe: Coliadini
Genus: Colias
Fabricius, 1807
Type species
Papilio hyale
Linnaeus, 1758 [1]
Synonyms
  • Eurymus Horsfield, [1829]
  • Ganura Zetterstedt, [1839]
  • Scalidoneura Butler, 1871
  • Eriocolias Watson, 1895
  • Coliastes Hemming, 1931
  • Protocolias Petersen, 1963
  • Mesocolias Petersen, 1963
  • Neocolias Berger, 1986
  • Palaeocolias Berger, 1986
  • Eucolias Berger, 1986
  • Similicolias Berger, 1986
  • Paracolias Berger, 1986

Colias is a genus of butterflies in the family Pieridae. They are usually called clouded yellows; the North American name "sulphurs" is elsewhere used for Coliadinae in general. The closest living relative is the genus Zerene,[2] which is sometimes included in Colias.

Wing venation

This genus occurs throughout the Holarctic, including the arctic regions. They are also found in Africa, China and India. Their caterpillars feed on certain Fabaceae, for example vetches (Vicia). While most are thus beneficial by keeping weeds at bay, some occasionally become nuisance pests on crops like alfalfa. In some species, the wings of males have brilliant ultraviolet reflection, while those of females do not.[3][4]

Most if not all species of this genus, as usual for Coliadinae, do not sequester toxins or other noxious compounds from their food plants. They are therefore a well-loved prey item of insectivores as compared to Pieris of the related Pierinae. They make up this disadvantage by being more nimble and better able to evade attacks by would-be predators.[5]

Notable lepidopterologists who did many studies on this genus included J. Malcolm Fawcett, George B. Johnson and Henry Rowland-Brown.

Contents

Systematics

Hybridization runs rampant in these butterflies, confounding molecular phylogenetics studies. In general, cladistic analyses of only one type of data (particularly mtDNA sequences) cannot be considered reliable. Regardless, the evolutionary distance within some "species" is so large that cryptic speciation rather than (or in addition to) interbreeding seems to be the cause. For example, the Beringian populations traditionally assigned to the Northern Clouded Yellow (C. hecla) could warrant recognition as a species; hybridization between North American and Asian populations seems to have played a role in their evolution, but as a whole they appear to be a rather old and distinct lineage.[6]

Mountain Clouded Yellow (C. phicomone)

Species

Listed alphabetically.[7]

  • Colias adelaidae Verhulst, 1991
  • Colias aegidii Verhulst, 1990
  • Colias aias Fruhstorfer, 1903
  • Colias alexandra W. H. Edwards, 1863 – Queen Alexandra's Sulphur, Alexandra Sulfur, or Ultraviolet Sulfur
  • Colias alfacariensis Ribbe, 1905
  • Colias alpherakii Staudinger, 1882
  • Colias alta Staudinger, 1886
  • Colias aquilonaris Grum-Grshimailo, 1899
  • Colias arida Alphéraky, 1889
  • Colias audre (Hemming, 1933)
  • Colias aurorina Herrich-Schäffer, 1850 – Dawn Clouded Yellow
  • Colias baeckeri Kotzsch, 1930
  • Colias balcanica Rebel, 1901
  • Colias behrii W. H. Edwards, 1866 – Behr's Sulphur or Sierra Green Sulfur
  • Colias berylla Fawcett, 1904 – Everest Clouded Yellow
  • Colias boothi Curtis, 1835 – Arctic Green Sulfur
  • Colias canadensis Ferris, 1982 – Canada Sulphur
  • Colias caucasica Staudinger, 1871 - Balkan Clouded Yellow
  • Colias chippewa W. H. Edwards, 1872 – Heath Sulphur
  • Colias chlorocoma Christoph, 1888
  • Colias christina W. H. Edwards, 1863 – Christina Sulphur
  • Colias christophi Grum-Grshimailo, 1885
  • Colias chrysotheme (Esper, 1781) – Lesser Clouded Yellow
  • Colias cocandica Erschoff, 1874
  • Colias croceus (Geoffroy, 1785) – Dark Clouded Yellow or Common Clouded Yellow
  • Colias dimera Doubleday, 1847
  • Colias diva Grum-Grshimailo, 1891
  • Colias dubia Fawcett, 1906 – Dwarf Clouded Yellow
  • Colias electo (Linnaeus, 1763) – African Clouded Yellow
  • Colias elis Strecker, 1885 (often included in C. meadii; paraphyletic?)
  • Colias eogene C. & R. Felder, 1865 – Fiery Clouded Yellow
  • Colias erate (Esper, 1805) – Eastern Pale Clouded Yellow
  • Colias erschoffi Alphéraky, 1881
  • Colias eurytheme Boisduval, 1852 – Orange Sulphur, Alfalfa Butterfly
  • Colias euxanthe C. & R. Felder, 1865
  • Colias felderi Grum-Grshimailo, 1891
  • Colias fieldii Ménétriés, 1855 (sometimes included in C. electo)
Danube Clouded Yellow (C. myrmidone).
Left = upperside pattern
Right = underside pattern.
  • Colias flaveola Blanchard, 1852
  • Colias gigantea Strecker, 1900 – Great (Northern) Sulphur
  • Colias grumi Alpheraky
  • Colias harfordii W. H. Edwards, 1877
  • Colias hecla Lefèbvre, 1836 – Northern Clouded Yellow, Greenland Sulphur, or Hecla Sulphur (paraphyletic?)
  • Colias heos (Herbst, 1792)
  • Colias hofmannorum Eckweiler, 2000
  • Colias hyale (Linnaeus, 1758) – Pale Clouded Yellow
  • Colias hyperborea Grum-Grshimailo, 1899
  • Colias interior Scudder, 1862 – Pink-edged Sulphur
  • Colias johanseni Troubridge & Philip, 1990 – Johansen's Sulphur
  • Colias krauthii Klots, 1935
  • Colias lada Grum-Grshimailo, 1891
  • Colias ladakensis Felder & Felder, 1865 – Ladakh Clouded Yellow
  • Colias leechi Grum-Grshimailio, 1893
  • Colias lesbia (Fabricius, 1775)
  • Colias libanotica Lederer, 1858 (sometimes included in C. aurorina)
  • Colias marcopolo Grum-Grshimailo, 1888
  • Colias marnoana Rogenhofer, 1884
  • Colias meadii W. H. Edwards, 1871 – Mead's Sulphur
  • Colias minisni Bean, 1895
  • Colias montium Oberthür, 1886
  • Colias mukana Berger, 1981
  • Colias myrmidone (Esper, 1781) – Danube Clouded Yellow
  • Colias nastes Boisduval, 1834 – Labrador Sulphur
  • Colias nebulosa Oberthür, 1894
  • Colias nilagiriensis Felder, C & R Felder, 1859
  • Colias nina Fawcett, 1904 – Fawcett's Clouded Yellow
  • Colias occidentalis Scudder, 1862 – Western Sulphur or Golden Sulfur
  • Colias palaeno (Linnaeus, 1761) – Moorland Clouded Yellow, Arctic Sulphur, or Palaeno Sulphur
  • Colias pelidne Boisduval & Le Conte, 1829 – Blueberry Sulphur or Pelidne Sulphur
  • Colias phicomone (Esper, 1780) – Mountain Clouded Yellow
  • Colias philodice Godart, 1819 – Common Sulphur, Clouded Sulphur
  • Colias poliographus Motschulsky, 1861
  • Colias ponteni Wallengren, 1860
  • Colias pseudochristina Ferris, 1989
  • Colias regia Grum-Grshimailo, 1887
  • Colias romanovi Grum-Grshimailo, 1885
  • Colias sagartia Lederer, 1869
  • Colias sareptensis Staudinger, 1871 – Berger's Clouded Yellow
  • Colias scudderii Reakirt, 1865 – Willow Sulphur
  • Colias shahfuladi Clench & Shoumatoff, 1956
  • Colias sieversi Grum-Grshimailo, 1887
  • Colias sifanica Grum-Grshimailo, 1891
  • Colias staudingeri Alphéraky, 1881
  • Colias stoliczkana Moore, 1882 – Orange Clouded Yellow
  • Colias tamerlana Staudinger, 1897
  • Colias thisoa Ménétriés, 1832
  • Colias thrasibulus Fruhstorfer, 1908 – Lemon Clouded Yellow
  • Colias thula Hovanitz, 1955 – Thula Sulphur
  • Colias tibetana Riley, 1922
  • Colias tyche (Böber, 1812) – Pale Arctic Clouded Yellow or Booth's Sulphur
  • Colias viluiensis (Ménétriés, 1859)
  • Colias wanda Grum-Grshimaïlo, 1907
  • Colias wiskotti Staudinger, 1882

Gallery

References

  1. ^ Josef Grieshuber & Gerardo Lamas (2007). "A synonymic list of the genus Colias Fabricius, 1807 (Lepidoptera: Pieridae)" (PDF). Mitteilungen der Münchner Entomologischen Gesellschaft 97: 131–171. http://museohn.unmsm.edu.pe/divisiones/zoologia/entomologia/grieshuber_2007-Colias.pdf. 
  2. ^ Andrew V. Z. Brower (November 16, 2006). "Coliadinae". Tree of Life Web Project. http://tolweb.org/Coliadinae/12217/2006.11.16. Retrieved August 7, 2008. 
  3. ^ M. L. Lim & D. Li (2005). "Extreme ultraviolet sexual dimorphism in jumping spiders (Araneae: Salticidae)". Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 89 (3): 397–406. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8312.2006.00704.x. 
  4. ^ Andrew V. Z. Brower (November 16, 2006). "Colias". Tree of Life Web Project. http://tolweb.org/Colias/76407/2006.11.16. Retrieved August 7, 2008. 
  5. ^ Robert B. Srygley & Joel G. Kingsolver (1998). "Red-wing blackbird reproductive behaviour and the palatability, flight performance, and morphology of temperate pierid butterflies (Colias, Pieris, and Pontia)". Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 64 (1): 41–55. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8312.1998.tb01532.x. 
  6. ^ Christopher W. Wheat & Ward B. Watt (2008). "A mitochondrial-DNA-based phylogeny for some evolutionary-genetic model species of Colias butterflies (Lepidoptera, Pieridae)". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 47 (3): 893–902. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2008.03.013. PMID 18442929. 
  7. ^ "Colias". funet.fi. http://www.funet.fi/pub/sci/bio/life/insecta/lepidoptera/ditrysia/papilionoidea/pieridae/coliadinae/colias/index.html. 

External links

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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Colias — Goldene Acht (Colias hyale) Systematik Klasse: Insekten (Insecta) Ordnung …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Colias — Colias …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Colĭas — Colĭas, so v. w. Gelbling, Gattung der Tagschmetterlinge, mit den Arten: C. Palaeno, C. Hyale (gelbe Achte), C. Edusa etc …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Colias — COLIAS, ădis, Gr. Κωλιὰς, άδος, ein Beynamen der Venus, welche auf dem Vorgebirge Kolia in Attica ihren Tempel hatte. Pausan. Att. c. 1. p. 2. Schol. Aristoph. ad lysistrat. 2. Es erbauete ihr denselben ein junger Athenienser, welcher von den… …   Gründliches mythologisches Lexikon

  • Colias —   [griechisch], die Schmetterlingsgattung Gelblinge …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Colias — Colias …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Colias —   Colias …   Wikipedia Español

  • COLIAS — I. COLIAS apud Silvastrum Girald. in Speculo Ecclesiae l. 4. c. 18. Parasitus fuit, gulositate pariter et dicacitate famosissumus literatus tamen affatim, sed nec bene morigeratus, nec disciplims informatus, qui in papam et Curiam Romanam carmina …   Hofmann J. Lexicon universale

  • Colias — …   Википедия

  • colias — co·li·as …   English syllables


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