- Hispania Baetica
Hispania Baetica was one of three Imperial
Roman provincesin Hispania, (modern Iberia). Hispania Baetica was bordered to the west by Lusitania(modern Portugal), and to the northeast by Hispania Tarraconensis. Baetica was part of Al-Andalusunder the Moorsin the 8th century and approximately corresponds to modern Andalucia.
Before Romanization, the mountainous area that was to become Baetica was occupied by several settled Iberian tribal groups.
Celtic influence was not as strong as it was in the Celtiberian north. According to the geographer Claudius Ptolemy, the indigenes were the powerful Turdetani, in the valley of the Guadalquivirin the west, bordering on Lusitania, and the partly Hellenized Turduliwith their city Baelon, in the hinterland behind the coastal Phoenician trading colonies, whose Punicinhabitants Ptolemy termed the " Bastuli." Phoenician Gadira( Cadiz) was on an island against the coast of Hispania Baetica. Other important Iberians were the Bastetani, who occupied the Almería and mountainous Granadaregions. Towards the southeast, Punic influence spread from the Carthaginian cities on the coast: New Carthage (Roman "Cartago Nova," modern Cartagena), Abdera and Malaca ( Málaga).
Some of the Iberian cities retained their
pre-Indo-Europeannames in Baetica throughout the Roman era. Granadawas called "Eliberri," "Illiberis" and "Illiber" by the Romans; in Basque, "iri-berri" or "ili-berri", still signifies "new town".
The south of the Iberian peninsula was agriculturally rich, providing for export
wine, olive oiland the fermented fish sauce called " garum" that were staples of the Mediterranean diet, and its products formed part of the western Mediterranean trade economy even before it submitted to Rome in 206 BCE. After the defeat of Carthagein the Second Punic War, which found its " casus belli" on the coast of Baetica at Saguntum, Hispania was significantly Romanized in the course of the 2nd century BCE, following the uprising initiated by the Turdetaniin 197. The central and north-eastern Celtiberianssoon followed suit. It took Cato the Elder, who became consul in 195 BCE and was given the command of the whole peninsula to put down the rebellion in the northeast and the lower Ebrovalley. He then marched southwards and put down a revolt by the Turdetani. Cato returned to Rome in 194, leaving two praetors in charge of the two Iberian provinces. In the late Roman Republic, Hispania remained divided like Gaulinto a "Nearer" and a "Farther" province, as experienced marching overland from Gaul: "Hispania Citerior" (the Ebro region), and "Ulterior" (the Guadalquivir region). The battles in Hispania during the 1st century BCE were largely confined to the north.
In the reorganization of the Empire in 14 BCE, when Hispania was remade into the three
Imperial provinces, Baeticawas governed by a proconsulwho had formerly been a praetor. Fortune smiled on rich Baetica, which was "Baetica Felix," and a dynamic, upwardly-mobile social and economic middling stratum developed there, which absorbed freed slaves and far outnumbered the rich elite. The Senatorial province of Baetica became so secure that no Roman legionwas required to be permanently stationed there. "Legio VII Gemina" was permanently stationed to the north, in Hispania Tarraconensis.
Hispania Baetica was divided into four "conventūs", which were territorial divisions like judicial circuits, where the chief men met together at major centers, at fixed times of year, under the eye of the proconsul, to oversee the administration of justice: the "conventus Gaditanus" (of Gades, or
Cádiz), "Cordubensis" (of Cordoba), "Astigitanus" (of Astigi, or Écija), and "Hispalensis" (of Hispalis, or Seville). As the towns became the permanent seats of standing courts during the later Empire, the "conventūs" were superseded ( Justinian's Code, i.40.6) and the term "conventus" is lastly applied to certain bodies of Roman citizens living in a province, forming a sort of enfranchised corporation, and representing the Roman people in their district as a kind of gentry; and it was from among these that proconsuls generally took their assistants. So in spite of some social upsets, as when Septimus Severusput to death a number of leading Baetians— including "women"— the elite in Baetica remained a stable class for centuries. Columella, who wrote a twelve volume treatise on all aspects of Roman farming and knew viticulture, came from Baetica. The vast oliveplantations of Baetica shipped olive oil from the coastal ports by sea to supply Roman legions in Germania. Amphoras from Baetica have been found everywhere in the Western Roman empire. It was to keep Roman legions supplied by sea routes that the Empire needed to control the distant coasts of Lusitania and the northern Atlantic coast of Hispania.
Baetica was rich and utterly Romanized, facts that the emperor
Vespasianwas rewarding when he granted the "Ius latii" that extended the rights pertaining to Roman citizenship ("latinitas") to the inhabitants of Hispania, an honor that secured the loyalty of the Baetian elite and its middle class. The Roman emperor Trajan, the first emperor of provincial origin, came from Baetica, and his kinsman and successor Hadriancame from a Baetican family, though Hadrian himself was born at Rome (which however some say he made up [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hadrian#cite_note-5] ). Baetia was Roman until the brief invasion of the Vandals and Alanspassed through in the 5th century, followed by the more permanent kingdom of the Visigoths. The province formed part of the Exarchate of Africaand was joined to Mauretania Tingitanaafter Belisarius' reconquest of Africa. The Catholic bishops of Baetica, solidly backed by their local population, were able to convert the Arian Visigoth king Reccaredand his nobles. In the 8th century the Islamic Berbers ("Moors") of North Africaestablished the Caliphate of Cordobaconquering Baetica. The region was known to them as "al-Andalus," under which name its later history is continued.
The early 20th century composer
Manuel de Fallawrote a " Fantasia Baetica" for piano, using Andalusian melodies.
Pre-Roman peoples of the Iberian Peninsula
Claudius Ptolemy's "Geography," book II.3
* [http://ceipac.gh.ub.es/MOSTRA/u_p09.htm "Baetica, the great olive oil producer"]
* [http://www.arqueotavira.com/Mapas/Iberia/Populi.htm Detailed map of the Pre-Roman Peoples of Iberia (around 200 BC)]
* [http://www.amazon.co.uk/dp/019815027X/wwwlink-software-21 A.T. Fear, "Rome and Baetica: Urbanization in Southern Spain, C.50 BC-AD 150" in the series "Oxford Classical Monographs"] .
* [http://www.utexas.edu/utpress/excerpts/exhalbae.html Evan Haley, " Baetica Felix: People and Prosperity in Southern Spain from Caesar to Septimius Severus,"] (excerpt from the Introduction).
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