All Saints


All Saints

:"For the British girl group, see All Saints (band)."

Infobox Holiday
holiday_name = All Saints
type = Christian



caption = Painting by Fra Angelico
official_name = Feast of All Saints
nickname = All Hallows Day
observedby = Eastern Christians
Roman Catholics
Lutherans
Anglicans
Certain other Protestants
date = "West:" 1 November
"East:" Sunday after Pentecost
celebrations =
observances = Church services
relatedto = All Souls' Day

All Saints' Day (also called All Hallows or Hallowmas ["Hallows" meaning "saints," and "mas" meaning "Mass"; the preceding evening Halloween is "The Eve of All Hallows".] ), often shortened to All Saints, is a feast celebrated on November 1 in Western Christianity, and on the first Sunday after Pentecost in Eastern Christianity in honour of all the saints, known and unknown. In terms of Roman Catholic theology, the feast commemorates all those who have attained the beatific vision in heaven, while the next day, All Souls' Day, commemorates the departed faithful who have not yet been purified and reached heaven.

History

In the early Church, Christians would celebrate the anniversary of a martyr's death for Christ (known as the saint's "birth day") by serving an All-Night Vigil, and then celebrating the Eucharist over their tomb or the shrine at their place of martyrdom. In the fourth century, neighbouring dioceses began to transfer relics, and to celebrate the feast days of specific martyrs in common. Frequently, a number of Christians would suffer martyrdom on the same day, which naturally led to a joint commemoration. In the persecution of Diocletian the number of martyrs became so great that a separate day could not be assigned to each. But the Church, feeling that every martyr should be venerated, appointed a common day for all.

A commemoration of "All Martyrs" began to be celebrated as early as the year 270, although no specific month or date is mentioned in existing records. [All Saints Parish, [http://allsaintsbrookline.org/celtic/samhain.html Celebration of All Celtic Saints] ] The first trace of a general celebration on a specific day is attested in Antioch on the Sunday after Pentecost."The Catholic Encyclopedia" (New York, Robert Appleton Company, 1907), s.v. "All Saints' Day" (see External links, below).] There is mention of a common day in a sermon of St. Ephrem the Syrian (373), and the custom is also referred to in the 74th Homily of St. John Chrysostom (†407), who speaks of a "feast of martyrs of the whole world." [St. John Chysostom, sermon: "Laudatio Sanctorum Omnium" (J. P. Migne, "Patrologia Graecae", I. 705-712).] As early as 411, there is found among the Chaldean Christians a general commemoration of all Confessors ("Commemoratio Confessorum"), celebrated on the Friday after Easter.

In the East

Among Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholics, All Saints Sunday (Greek: Αγίων Πάντων, "Agiōn Pantōn"), follows the ancient tradition of commemorating all saints collectively on the first Sunday after Pentecost.

The feast of All Saints achieved great prominence in the ninth century, in the reign of the Byzantine Emperor, Leo VI "the Wise" (886-911). His wife, Empress Theophano (commemorated on December 16) lived a devout life. After her death, her husband built a church, intending to dedicate it to her. When he was forbidden to do so, he decided to dedicate it to "All Saints," so that if his wife were in fact one of the righteous, she would also be honored whenever the feast was celebrated. According to tradition, it was Leo who expanded the feast from a commemoration of All Martyrs to a general commemoration of All Saints, whether martyrs or not.

This Sunday marks the close of the Paschal season. To the normal Sunday services are added special scriptural readings and hymns to all the saints (known and unknown) from the Pentecostarion.

The Sunday following All Saints Sunday (i.e., the second Sunday after Pentecost) is set aside as a commemoration of all locally venerated saints, such as " [http://ocafs.oca.org/FeastSaintsLife.asp?FSID=49 All Saints of America] ", "All Saints of Mount Athos", etc. The third Sunday after Pentecost may be observed for even more localized saints, such as "All Saints of St. Petersburg", or for saints of a particular type, such as "New Martyrs of the Turkish Yoke."

In addition to the Sundays mentioned above, Saturdays throughout the year are days for general commemoration of all saints, and special hymns to all saints are chanted from the Octoechos.

In the West

The Western Christian holiday of All Saints Day falls on 1 November, followed by All Souls' Day on 2 November, and is a Holy Day of Obligation in the Latin Rite Roman Catholic Church.

The origin of the festival of All Saints as celebrated in the West dates to 13 May 609 or 610, when Pope Boniface IV consecrated the Pantheon at Rome to the Blessed Virgin and all the martyrs; the feast of the "dedicatio Sanctae Mariae ad Martyres" has been celebrated at Rome ever since. The chosen day, 13 May, was a pagan observation of great antiquity, the culmination of three days of the Feast of the Lemures, in which the malevolent and restless spirits of the dead were propitiated. Medieval liturgiologists based the idea that this "Lemuria" festival was the origin of that of All Saints on their identical dates and on the similar theme of "all the dead."fact|date=February 2008

The feast of All Saints, on its current date, is traced to the foundation by Pope Gregory III (731-741) of an oratory in St Peter's for the relics "of the holy apostles and of all saints, martyrs and confessors, of all the just made perfect who are at rest throughout the world", with the day moved to 1 November. ["All Saints Day," The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, 3rd edition, ed. E. A. Livingstone (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997), 41-42.]

This usually fell within a few weeks of the Celtic holiday of Samhain, which had a theme similar to that of Lemuria, but which was also a harvest festival. The Irish, whose holiday Samhain had been, did not celebrate All Hallows Day on this 1 November date, as extant historical documents attest that the celebration in Ireland took place in the spring: "...the "Felire" of Oengus and the "Martyrology of Tallaght" prove that the early medieval churches [in Ireland] celebrated the feast of All Saints on 20 April."cite book | last = Hutton | first = Ronald | authorlink = Ronald Hutton | title = Stations of the Sun: A History of the Ritual Year in Britain | year = 1996 | publisher = Oxford Paperbacks | location = New York | id = ISBN 0-19-285448-8]

A November festival of all the saints was already widely celebrated on 1 November in the days of Charlemagne. It was made a day of obligation throughout the Frankish empire in 835, by a decree of Louis the Pious, issued "at the instance of Pope Gregory IV and with the assent of all the bishops," which confirmed its celebration on 1 November. The octave was added by Pope Sixtus IV (1471-1484).

The festival was retained after the Reformation in the calendar of the Church of England and in many Lutheran churches. In the Lutheran churches, such as the Church of Sweden, it assumes a role of general commemoration of the dead. In the Swedish calendar, the observance takes place on the Saturday between October 31 and November 6. In many Lutheran Churches, it is moved to the first Sunday of November. It is also celebrated by other Protestants of the English tradition, such as the United Church of Canada and the Wesleyan Church. [http://www.forces.gc.ca/hr/religions/engraph/religions_toc_e.asp]

In the United Methodist Church, All Saint's Day is on the first Sunday in November. It is held to remember all those that have passed away from the local church congregation. A candle is lit by the Acolyte as each person's name is called out. Then, a liturgical prayer is offered for each soul in Heaven

Customs

In Portugal, Spain and Mexico, "ofrendas" (offerings) are made on this day. In Spain, the play "Don Juan Tenorio" is traditionally performed. In Belgium, France, Hungary, Italy, Malta, Portugal and Spain people bring flowers to the graves of dead relatives.

In Poland, the Czech Republic, Sweden, Finland, Slovenia, Slovakia, Lithuania, Croatia, Austria, Romania, Hungary and Germany, the tradition is to light candles and visit the graves of deceased relatives.

In the Philippines, this day, called "Undas", "Todos los Santos" (lit., "All Saints"), and sometimes "Araw ng mga Namayapa" (approx.- "Day of the deceased") is observed as All Souls' Day. This day and the one before and one after it is spent visiting the graves of deceased relatives, where prayers and flowers are offered, candles are lit and the graves themselves are cleaned, repaired and repainted.

In English-speaking countries, the festival is traditionally celebrated with the hymn "For All the Saints" by William Walsham How. The most familiar tune for this hymn is " [http://www.cyberhymnal.org/htm/f/a/fallthes.htm Sine Nomine] " by Ralph Vaughan Williams.

Notes


=See also=
*Veneration of the dead
*Halloween
*Dziady
*Day of the Dead
*Irish calendar
*All Saints Chapel of Ease (Anglican)

External links

* [http://www.allsaintskingslynn.org.uk All Saints Church, King's Lynn, Norfolk, UK - Ancient Medieval Church]
* [http://www.americancatholic.org/Features/Saints/faqs.asp All Saints and All Souls Day] American Catholic
* [http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/01315a.htm All Saints' Day] article in the Catholic Encyclopedia
* [http://orthodoxengland.org.uk/sermalls.htm All Saints Sunday] Orthodox England
* [http://www.liturgy.co.nz/churchyear/allsaintsvigil.html A Vigil service for All Saints] All Hallows' E'en - "Halloween"
* [http://allsaintschurch.bravehost.com/ All Saints Church, Barbados]
* [http://www.transfigcathedral.org/faith/Bulgakov/0621.pdf First Sunday after Pentecost, or All Saints Sunday] by Sergei Bulgakov, "Handbook for Church Servers"
* [http://ocafs.oca.org/FeastSaintsViewer.asp?SID=4&ID=1&FSID=48 Synaxis of All Saints] Icon and Synaxarion of the feast


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