# Ludwig Prandtl

Infobox_Scientist

name = Ludwig Prandtl

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caption = Ludwig Prandtl

birth_date = birth date|1875|2|4|df=y

birth_place =Freising ,Germany

death_date = death date and age|1953|8|15|1875|2|4|df=y

death_place =Göttingen ,Germany

residence =Germany

nationality = German

field =Aerodynamics

work_institution =University of Göttingen

Technical School in Hannover

alma_mater =Technical University of Munich

doctoral_advisor =August Föppl

doctoral_students = Ackeret, Heinrich Blasius, Busemann, Nikuradse, Pohlhausen, Schlichting, Tietjens, Tollmien,Theodore von Kármán , and many others (85 in total).

known_for =Boundary layer

Prandtl number

prizes =

religion =

footnotes =**Ludwig Prandtl**(4 February 1875 –15 August 1953 ) was a Germanphysicist . He was a pioneer ofaerodynamics , and developed the mathematical basis for the fundamental principles ofsubsonic aerodynamics in the 1920s. His studies identified theboundary layer , thin-airfoils, and lifting-line theories. ThePrandtl number was named after him.**Early years**Prandtl was born in

Freising , nearMunich , in 1875. His mother suffered from a lengthy illness and, as a result, Ludwig spent more time with his father, a professor of engineering. His father also encouraged him to observe nature and think about his observations.He entered the Technische Hochschule Munich in 1894 and graduated with a Ph.D. in six years. His work at Munich had been in solid mechanics, and his first job was as an engineer designing factory equipment. There, he entered the field of

fluid mechanics where he had to design a suction device. After carrying out some experiments, he came up with a new device that worked well and used less power than the device he replaced.**Later years**In 1901 Prandtl became a professor of mechanics at the technical school in Hannover, now the Technical University Hannover. It was here that he developed many of his most important theories. In 1904 he delivered a groundbreaking paper, "Fluid Flow in Very Little Friction", in which he described the

boundary layer and its importance for drag andstreamlining . The paper also describedflow separation as a result of the boundary layer, clearly explaining the concept of stall for the first time. Several of his students made attempts at closed-form solutions, but failed, and in the end the approximation contained in his original paper remains in widespread use.The effect of the paper was so great that Prandtl became director of the

Institute for Technical Physics at theUniversity of Göttingen later in the year. Over the next decades he developed it into a powerhouse of aerodynamics, leading the world until the end ofWorld War II . In 1925 the university spun off his research arm to create theKaiser Wilhelm Institute for Flow Research (now theMax Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization ).Following earlier leads by

Frederick Lanchester from 1902–1907, Prandtl worked withAlbert Betz and Max Munk on the problem of a useful mathematical tool for examining lift from "real world" wings. The results were published in 1918–1919, known as theLanchester-Prandtl wing theory . He also made specific additions to study camberedairfoil s, like those onWorld War I aircraft, and published a simplifiedthin-airfoil theory for these designs. This work led to the realization that on any wing of finite length, wing-tip effects became very important to the overall performance and characterization of the wing. Considerable work was included on the nature ofinduced drag and wingtip vortices, which had previously been ignored. With these tools, early aircraft designers were first able to make real theoretical studies of their aircraft even before they were built.Prandtl and his student

Theodor Meyer developed the first theories ofsupersonic shock wave s and flow in 1908. ThePrandtl-Meyer expansion fan s allowed for the construction of supersonicwind tunnel s. He had little time to work on the problem further until the 1920s, when he worked withAdolf Busemann and created a method for designing a supersonic nozzle in 1929. Today, all supersonic wind tunnels and rocket nozzles are designed using the same method. A full development of supersonics would have to wait forTheodore von Kármán 's work, a student of Prandtl at Göttingen.In 1922 Prandtl together with

Richard von Mises , founded the GAMM (the International Association of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics). [*cite web|url=http://www.gamm-ev.de/gamm.htm|title=GAMM Website|accessdate=2007-02-11*] and was its chairman from 1922 until 1933. After Hitler came to power in 1933 Prandtl acquiesced in the dismissal of his Jewish colleagues and went on to engage in numerous propaganda exercises aimed at maintaining Germany's standing in the international scientific community. He also worked closely withHermann Göring 's Reich's Air Ministry, prior to and all through World War II. [*Eckert, Michael. "The Dawn of Fluid Dynamics: a discipline between science and technology". Wiley-VCH Verlag (2006) ISBN 3527405135*]Other work examined the problem of

compressibility at high subsonic speeds, known as the Prandtl-Glauert correction. This became very useful during World War II as aircraft began approaching supersonic speeds for the first time. He also worked onmeteorology , plasticity andstructural mechanics .Prandtl's life was marked by overtones of naïveté. At the age of thirty-four, he decided it was time to marry, so he went to his old professor,

August Föppl , to ask his daughter's hand in marriage. But Prandtl didn't say which daughter. The professor and his wife had a hurried discussion and wisely decided it should be the older one. That was fine. The marriage was a long and happy one. [*cite web|url=http://www.uh.edu/engines/epi1539.htm|title=University of Houston website|accessdate=2007-02-11*]**Books***Paul Peter Ewald, Theodor Pöschl, Ludwig Prandtl; authorized translation by J. Dougall and W.M. Deans "The Physics of Solids and Fluids: With Recent Developments" (Blackie and Son, 1930)

**Death and afterwards**Prandtl worked at

Göttingen until he died onAugust 15 ,1953 . His work in fluid dynamics is still used today in many areas of aerodynamics. He is often referred to as the father of modern aerodynamics.The Prandtl crater on the far side of the

Moon has been named in his honor.**ee also***

Tesla turbine

*Prandtl-Glauert singularity

*Prandtl-Glauert method

*Prandtl-Meyer function **References****External links*** [

*http://webdoc.sub.gwdg.de/ebook/univerlag/2006/prandtl_book.pdf Ludwig Prandtl's Biography in German, ISBN 3-938616-34-2, 256 pages*]

* [*http://www.math.lsa.umich.edu/~krasny/math654_prandtl.pdf Ludwig Prandtl's Boundary Layer*]Persondata

NAME= Prandtl, Ludwig

ALTERNATIVE NAMES=

SHORT DESCRIPTION=Germany physicist

DATE OF BIRTH=4 February ,1875

PLACE OF BIRTH=Freising ,Germany

DATE OF DEATH=15 August ,1953

PLACE OF DEATH=Göttingen ,Germany

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### Look at other dictionaries:

**Ludwig Prandtl**— Portrait photographique de Ludwig Prandtl (1937). Naissance 4 février 1875 Freising ( … Wikipédia en Français**Ludwig Prandtl**— Ludwig Prandtl. Ludwig Prandtl (Freising, 4 de febrero de 1875 – †Gotinga, 15 de agosto de 1953) fue un físico alemán. Realizó importantes trabajos pioneros en el campo de la aerodinámica, y durante la década de 1920 desarrolló la base… … Wikipedia Español**Ludwig Prandtl**— Portraitaufnahme von Ludwig Prandtl 1937 Ludwig Prandtl 1904 mit einem … Deutsch Wikipedia**Ludwig-Prandtl-Ring**— Deutsche Gesellschaft für Luft und Raumfahrt Lilienthal Oberth e.V. (DGLR) Zweck: Fortschritt auf den Gebieten der Luft und Raumfahrt Vorsitz: Prof. Dr. Ing. Joachim Szodruch Gründungsdatum: 3. April 1912 Mitgliederzahl … Deutsch Wikipedia**Prandtl**— ist der Name mehrerer Personen: Alexander Prandtl (1840–1896), Agrarwissenschaftler (Milchwirtschaft) Ludwig Prandtl (1875–1953), Maschinenbau Ingenieur und Physiker (Strömungsmechanik) siehe auch: Prandtl Glauert Transformation Prandtl Zahl… … Deutsch Wikipedia**Ludwig**— Ludwig, Emil Ludwig, Karl Friedrich Ludwig, Otto * * * (as used in expressions) Beck, Ludwig Beethoven, Ludwig van Boltzmann, Ludwig (Eduard) Erhard, Ludwig Feuerbach, Ludwig (Andreas) Fraenkel Conrat, Heinz L(udwig) Frege, (Friedrich Ludwig)… … Enciclopedia Universal**Ludwig Bölkow**— Ludwig Bölkow, Portrait von Günter Rittner 1978 Ludwig Bölkow (* 30. Juni 1912 in Schwerin; † 25. Juli 2003 in Grünwald bei München) war ein deutscher Ingenieur und Unternehmer. Sein Vater Ludwig (1886–1952) war W … Deutsch Wikipedia**Prandtl–Glauert transformation**— The Prandtl–Glauert transformation or Prandtl–Glauert rule (also Prandtl–Glauert–Ackeret rule) is an approximation function which allows to compare aerodynamical processes occurring at different Mach numbers. Mathematical expression Even in… … Wikipedia**Prandtl-Glauert-Transformation**— Die Prandtl Glauert Transformation oder Prandtl Glauert Regel (auch Prandtl Glauert Ackeret sche Regel) beschreibt eine Näherungsfunktion, mit der aerodynamische Vorgänge miteinander verglichen werden können, die bei unterschiedlicher Mach Zahl… … Deutsch Wikipedia**Prandtl-Zahl**— Die Prandtl Zahl (Pr) ist eine nach Ludwig Prandtl benannte dimensionslose Kennzahl von Fluiden, das heißt von Gasen oder Flüssigkeiten. Sie ist definiert als Verhältnis zwischen kinematischer Viskosität und Temperaturleitfähigkeit: η –… … Deutsch Wikipedia