name = Ludwig Prandtl
caption = Ludwig Prandtl
birth_date = birth date|1875|2|4|df=y
death_date = death date and age|1953|8|15|1875|2|4|df=y
nationality = German
University of GöttingenTechnical School in Hannover
Technical University of Munich
doctoral_students = Ackeret, Heinrich Blasius, Busemann, Nikuradse, Pohlhausen, Schlichting, Tietjens, Tollmien,
Theodore von Kármán, and many others (85 in total).
Boundary layer Prandtl number
Ludwig Prandtl (
4 February 1875– 15 August 1953) was a German physicist. He was a pioneer of aerodynamics, and developed the mathematical basis for the fundamental principles of subsonicaerodynamics in the 1920s. His studies identified the boundary layer, thin-airfoils, and lifting-line theories. The Prandtl numberwas named after him.
Prandtl was born in
Freising, near Munich, in 1875. His mother suffered from a lengthy illness and, as a result, Ludwig spent more time with his father, a professor of engineering. His father also encouraged him to observe nature and think about his observations.
He entered the Technische Hochschule Munich in 1894 and graduated with a Ph.D. in six years. His work at Munich had been in solid mechanics, and his first job was as an engineer designing factory equipment. There, he entered the field of
fluid mechanicswhere he had to design a suction device. After carrying out some experiments, he came up with a new device that worked well and used less power than the device he replaced.
In 1901 Prandtl became a professor of mechanics at the technical school in Hannover, now the Technical University Hannover. It was here that he developed many of his most important theories. In 1904 he delivered a groundbreaking paper, "Fluid Flow in Very Little Friction", in which he described the
boundary layerand its importance for drag and streamlining. The paper also described flow separationas a result of the boundary layer, clearly explaining the concept of stall for the first time. Several of his students made attempts at closed-form solutions, but failed, and in the end the approximation contained in his original paper remains in widespread use.
The effect of the paper was so great that Prandtl became director of the
Institute for Technical Physicsat the University of Göttingenlater in the year. Over the next decades he developed it into a powerhouse of aerodynamics, leading the world until the end of World War II. In 1925 the university spun off his research arm to create the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Flow Research(now the Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization).
Following earlier leads by
Frederick Lanchesterfrom 1902–1907, Prandtl worked with Albert Betzand Max Munk on the problem of a useful mathematical tool for examining lift from "real world" wings. The results were published in 1918–1919, known as the Lanchester-Prandtl wing theory. He also made specific additions to study cambered airfoils, like those on World War Iaircraft, and published a simplified thin-airfoil theoryfor these designs. This work led to the realization that on any wing of finite length, wing-tip effects became very important to the overall performance and characterization of the wing. Considerable work was included on the nature of induced dragand wingtip vortices, which had previously been ignored. With these tools, early aircraft designers were first able to make real theoretical studies of their aircraft even before they were built.
Prandtl and his student
Theodor Meyerdeveloped the first theories of supersonic shock waves and flow in 1908. The Prandtl-Meyer expansion fans allowed for the construction of supersonic wind tunnels. He had little time to work on the problem further until the 1920s, when he worked with Adolf Busemannand created a method for designing a supersonic nozzle in 1929. Today, all supersonic wind tunnels and rocket nozzles are designed using the same method. A full development of supersonics would have to wait for Theodore von Kármán's work, a student of Prandtl at Göttingen.
In 1922 Prandtl together with
Richard von Mises, founded the GAMM (the International Association of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics). [cite web|url=http://www.gamm-ev.de/gamm.htm|title=GAMM Website|accessdate=2007-02-11] and was its chairman from 1922 until 1933. After Hitler came to power in 1933 Prandtl acquiesced in the dismissal of his Jewish colleagues and went on to engage in numerous propaganda exercises aimed at maintaining Germany's standing in the international scientific community. He also worked closely with Hermann Göring's Reich's Air Ministry, prior to and all through World War II. [Eckert, Michael. "The Dawn of Fluid Dynamics: a discipline between science and technology". Wiley-VCH Verlag (2006) ISBN 3527405135]
Other work examined the problem of
compressibilityat high subsonic speeds, known as the Prandtl-Glauert correction. This became very useful during World War II as aircraft began approaching supersonic speeds for the first time. He also worked on meteorology, plasticity and structural mechanics.
Prandtl's life was marked by overtones of naïveté. At the age of thirty-four, he decided it was time to marry, so he went to his old professor,
August Föppl, to ask his daughter's hand in marriage. But Prandtl didn't say which daughter. The professor and his wife had a hurried discussion and wisely decided it should be the older one. That was fine. The marriage was a long and happy one. [cite web|url=http://www.uh.edu/engines/epi1539.htm|title=University of Houston website|accessdate=2007-02-11]
*Paul Peter Ewald, Theodor Pöschl, Ludwig Prandtl; authorized translation by J. Dougall and W.M. Deans "The Physics of Solids and Fluids: With Recent Developments" (Blackie and Son, 1930)
Death and afterwards
Prandtl worked at
Göttingenuntil he died on August 15, 1953. His work in fluid dynamics is still used today in many areas of aerodynamics. He is often referred to as the father of modern aerodynamics.
The Prandtl crater on the far side of the
Moonhas been named in his honor.
* [http://webdoc.sub.gwdg.de/ebook/univerlag/2006/prandtl_book.pdf Ludwig Prandtl's Biography in German, ISBN 3-938616-34-2, 256 pages]
* [http://www.math.lsa.umich.edu/~krasny/math654_prandtl.pdf Ludwig Prandtl's Boundary Layer]
NAME= Prandtl, Ludwig
DATE OF BIRTH=
4 February, 1875
PLACE OF BIRTH=
DATE OF DEATH=
15 August, 1953
PLACE OF DEATH=
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Ludwig Prandtl — Portrait photographique de Ludwig Prandtl (1937). Naissance 4 février 1875 Freising ( … Wikipédia en Français
Ludwig Prandtl — Ludwig Prandtl. Ludwig Prandtl (Freising, 4 de febrero de 1875 – †Gotinga, 15 de agosto de 1953) fue un físico alemán. Realizó importantes trabajos pioneros en el campo de la aerodinámica, y durante la década de 1920 desarrolló la base… … Wikipedia Español
Ludwig Prandtl — Portraitaufnahme von Ludwig Prandtl 1937 Ludwig Prandtl 1904 mit einem … Deutsch Wikipedia
Ludwig-Prandtl-Ring — Deutsche Gesellschaft für Luft und Raumfahrt Lilienthal Oberth e.V. (DGLR) Zweck: Fortschritt auf den Gebieten der Luft und Raumfahrt Vorsitz: Prof. Dr. Ing. Joachim Szodruch Gründungsdatum: 3. April 1912 Mitgliederzahl … Deutsch Wikipedia
Prandtl — ist der Name mehrerer Personen: Alexander Prandtl (1840–1896), Agrarwissenschaftler (Milchwirtschaft) Ludwig Prandtl (1875–1953), Maschinenbau Ingenieur und Physiker (Strömungsmechanik) siehe auch: Prandtl Glauert Transformation Prandtl Zahl… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Ludwig — Ludwig, Emil Ludwig, Karl Friedrich Ludwig, Otto * * * (as used in expressions) Beck, Ludwig Beethoven, Ludwig van Boltzmann, Ludwig (Eduard) Erhard, Ludwig Feuerbach, Ludwig (Andreas) Fraenkel Conrat, Heinz L(udwig) Frege, (Friedrich Ludwig)… … Enciclopedia Universal
Ludwig Bölkow — Ludwig Bölkow, Portrait von Günter Rittner 1978 Ludwig Bölkow (* 30. Juni 1912 in Schwerin; † 25. Juli 2003 in Grünwald bei München) war ein deutscher Ingenieur und Unternehmer. Sein Vater Ludwig (1886–1952) war W … Deutsch Wikipedia
Prandtl–Glauert transformation — The Prandtl–Glauert transformation or Prandtl–Glauert rule (also Prandtl–Glauert–Ackeret rule) is an approximation function which allows to compare aerodynamical processes occurring at different Mach numbers. Mathematical expression Even in… … Wikipedia
Prandtl-Glauert-Transformation — Die Prandtl Glauert Transformation oder Prandtl Glauert Regel (auch Prandtl Glauert Ackeret sche Regel) beschreibt eine Näherungsfunktion, mit der aerodynamische Vorgänge miteinander verglichen werden können, die bei unterschiedlicher Mach Zahl… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Prandtl-Zahl — Die Prandtl Zahl (Pr) ist eine nach Ludwig Prandtl benannte dimensionslose Kennzahl von Fluiden, das heißt von Gasen oder Flüssigkeiten. Sie ist definiert als Verhältnis zwischen kinematischer Viskosität und Temperaturleitfähigkeit: η –… … Deutsch Wikipedia