GSI3D

GSI3D (Geological Surveying and Investigation in 3 dimensions) is a methodolgy and associated software tool for 3D geologic modelling developed by Hans-Georg Sobisch over the last 16 years initially in collaboration with the Geological Survey of Lower Saxony (Germany). The software is written in Java and data is stored in extensible mark-up language XML. For the past 6 years the British Geological Survey has been acting as a test bed for the accelerated development of the system. Since its roll-out throughout the Survey GSI3D has started to revolutionise the working practices, data standards and products of a geological survey as a whole. The BGS is currently undertaking a 3 year research and development project to further extend the GSI3D methodology to deal with faulted bedrock terrain.

A brief outline of the methodology

GSI3D utilizes a digital elevation model, surface geological linework and downhole borehole data to enable the geologist to construct cross sections by correlating boreholes and the outcrops to produce a geological fence diagram. Mathematical interpolation between the nodes along the drawn sections and the limits of the units produces a solid model comprising a stack of triangulated objects each corresponding to one of the geological units present. Scientsts draw their sections based on facts such as borehole logs correlated by intuition - the shape 'looks right' to a geologist. This 'looks right' element pulls on the geologists' wealth of understanding of earth processes, examination of exposures and theoretical knowledge gathered over a career in geology. GSI3D enables the efficient capture of tacit and implicit knowledge which was until now trapped in geologist's heads.

Application of Models

The biggest single user of geological models at present is the Environment Agency of England and Wales. The models are used in groundwater resource management and aquifer vulnerability assessments. The BGS is responding to the increasing need of reliable groundwater models by creating direct links between GSI3D and the groundwater modelling software ZOOMQ3D.

References

* Ford, J., Burke, H., Royse, K. & S.J. Mathers. 2008. The 3D geology of London and the Thames Gateway : a modern approach to geological surveying and its relevance in the urban environment. In: Cities and their underground environment : 2nd European conference of International Association of engineering geology: Euroengeo 2008, Madrid, Spain, 15-20 Sept 2008. http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/3717/1/FORT3D.pdf

* Kessler, H., Turner, A.K., Culshaw, M. & K. Royse. 2008. Unlocking the potential of digital 3D geological subsurface models for geotechnical engineers. In: Cities and their underground environment : 2nd European conference of International Association of engineering geology: Euroengeo 2008, Madrid, Spain, 15-20 Sept 2008. http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/3817/1/EUROENGEO_2008_Kessler_et_al.pdf

* Smith, B. et al. 2008. 3D Modelling of geology and soils - A case study from the UK. In: A.E. Hartemink et al. (eds.), Digital Soil Mapping with Limited Data, Springer. 436pp. http://www.globalsoilmap.net/Riobook.html

* Mathers, S.J., Kessler, H. & H.-G. Sobisch. 2008. The geological maps of the future: 3D modelling at BGS using the GSI3D software and methodology. Presentation at the International Geological Congress, Oslo, 6th-14th August 2008. http://www.cprm.gov.br/33IGC/1257345.html

* Mathers, S.J. (editor). 2008. Extended Abstracts of the 2nd International GSI3D Conference, 2-3 September 2008.British Geological Survey Open File Report (OR/08/054), 30pp. http://www.bgs.ac.uk/downloads/browse.cfm?sec=1&cat=79

* Kessler, H., Mathers, S.J. & H.-G. Sobisch. 2008. The capture and dissemination of integrated 3D geospatial knowledge at the British Geological Survey using GSI3D software and methodology. In Press. Computers & Geosciences. Available on-line: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cageo.2008.04.005

* Kessler, H., Mathers, S.J. & H.-G. Sobisch. 2008. GSI3D : The software and methodology to build systematic near-surface 3-D geological models - Version 2. British Geological Survey Open File Report (OR/08/001), 144pp. http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/3737/

* Royse, K. 2008. Unlocking the potential of 3D Geology. In: GeoConnexionUK Magazine, July 2008. http://www.geoconnexion.com/uploads/unlocking-pot_olymv1.pdf

* Campbell, D., Monaghan, A., Entwisle, D., Merritt, J. & M. Browne. 2008. Geoscience for decision making. In: GeoConnexionUK Magazine, February/March 2008. http://www.geoconnexion.com/uploads/geoscience_ukv6i1.pdf

* AG Hydro- und Umweltgeologie, Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg. 2007. Raummodelle als Grundlage gekoppelter Modellierung. On-line publication. http://www2.uzu.uni-halle.de/3D_Geology/Raummodelle/Text.pdf

* Wycisk, P., Hubert, T., Gossel, W., and C. Neumann. 2007. in press. High-resolution 3D spatial modeling of complex geological structures for an environmental risk assessment of abundant mining and industrial mega sites. In Press. Computers & Geosciences. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cageo.2007.09.001

* Kessler, H., Mathers, S., Napier, B., Terrington, R. & Sobisch, H.-G. 2007. The present and future construction and delivery of 3D geological models at the British Geological Survey. GSA Denver Annual Meeting. [Poster] . http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/3756/1/Present_future_3Dmodels_(3).pdf

* Wollmann, A. (2007). lithosphere-east -- applied 3D geological surveying. http://lithosphere-east.com/andreas_wollmann/home/lithosphere_eng.pdf

* Cooper, A., Ford, J., Price, S., Hall, M., Burke, H., & Kessler, H. 2007. The digital approach to understanding the Quaternary evolution of the Vale of York, UK. [Poster] Nottingham, UK, British Geological Survey. http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/4077/1/Vale_of_York_(5).pdf

* Wycisk, P., Gossel, W., Schlesier, D. & Neumann, C. 2007. Integrated 3D modelling of subsurface geology and hydrogeology for urban groundwater management. International Symposium on New Directions in Urban Water Management. http://www.kwra.or.kr/pds/download.php3?file_name=Wycisk%20et%20al..pdf

* Scheib A. J., Ambrose K., Boon D. P., Kessler H., Kuras O., Lelliott M., Nice S. E., Palmer R. C., Raines M. G., Smith B. 2007. 3D Digital Soil-Geology Models of the Near Surface Environment; Abstract for Pedometrics Biannual Conference of Commission 1.5 Pedometrics, International Union of Soil Sciences, Germany. p85. https://archive.ugent.be/retrieve/4564/Book+of+Abstracts.pdf

* Kessler, H., Mathers, S., Lelliott, M., Hughes, A. & MacDonald, D. 2007. Rigorous 3D geological models as the basis for groundwater modelling. In: Three-dimensional geologic mapping for groundwater applications, Workshop extended abstracts, Denver, Colorado. http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/4129/1/kessler.pdf http://www.isgs.uiuc.edu/research/3DWorkshop/2007/powerp/kessler.ppt

* Smith, B., Campbell, S., Fordyce, F., Kessler, H., Price, S., Entwisle, D. & K. Royse. 2007. Understanding heterogeneity and structure in urban environments: a tool for the assessment of risk and interpretation of geochemical data. British Geological Survey [Poster] http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/849/1/heterogeneity.pdf

* Merritt, J.E., Monaghan, A., Entwisle, D., Hughes, A., Campbell, D. & Browne, M. 2007. 3D attributed models for addressing environmental and engineering geoscience problems in areas of urban regeneration – a case study in Glasgow, UK. In: First Break, Special Topic Environmental and Engineering Geoscience, Volume 25, August 2007. pp 79-84. http://www.firstbreak.org/files/special_3d_aug2007.pdf?HPSESSID=110b2385a454ad1ee6dbdf13a2c6ed5b на русском языке: http://www.firstbreak.nl/files/special_3D_rusaug2007.pdf?HPSESSID=f17310cfceb26d294ecc2392bda7123c

* Merritt, J.E. & Whitbread, K. 2007. Combining ARC GIS maps and attributed 3D geological models to provide geoscience solutions in the urban environment: Examples from the City of Glasgow and North-east England. In: Coors, V, Rumor, M, Fendle, E.M, & Zlatanova S (eds). 2007. Urban and Regional Data Management. UDMS Annual (Taylor & Francis Group, London). pp 185-192

* Giles, J. 2006. Geological Map Database – A Practitioner’s Guide to Delivering the Information. In: David R. Soller (ed.) Digital Mapping Techniques ‘06 - Workshop Proceedings. USGS Open-File Report 2007-1285. pp 77-84. http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1285/pdf/Giles.pdf

* Kessler H. 2006. Tools for building and delivering 3D models - Perspectives by the BGS. Presentation at the GGIPAC Workshop, Geoscience Australia, Canberra. http://www.geoscience.gov.au/pdf/G_Holger_Kessler.pdf

* Kessler H. & S.J. Mathers. 2006. The past, present and future of 3D Geology in BGS In: Open University Geological Society Journal Volume 27(2), Symposium Edition 2006.

* Merritt, J., Entwisle, D. & A. Monaghan. 2006. Integrated geoscience data, maps and 3D models for the City of Glasgow, UK. IAEG 2006 Conference Paper No. 394. http://www.iaeg.info/iaeg2006/PAPERS/IAEG_394.PDF

* Royse, K., Entwisle, D., Price, S., Terrington, R. & J. Venus. 2006. Gateway to Olympic success. Geoscientist, 16 (5). 4-10. http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/219/

* Bridge, D.M., Seymour, K., Kessler, H., Shepley, M., Price, S. J., Lelliott, M., Banks, V.J. & G. Wildman. 2006. 3-D geoscience models and their application to hydrogeological domains mapping. In: The pursuit of science : building on a foundation of discovery, Philadelphia, USA, 22-25 Oct 2006.

* Neber, A., Aubel, J., Classon, F., Hoefer, S., Kunz, A. & Sobisch H.-G. 2006. From the Devonian to the present: Landscape and technogenic relief evolution in an urban environment. IAEG 2006 Conference Paper No. 517. http://www.iaeg.info/iaeg2006/PAPERS/IAEG_517.PDF

* Perk, M. 2006. Feld-Kalibrierung geophysikalischer Daten auf kontaminierten Flächen mit Hilfe des GIS-gestützten Visualisierungswerkzeugs GSI3D. Dissertation -> http://kups.ub.uni-koeln.de/frontdoor.php?source_opus=2124

* Lelliott, M.R., Bridge D.McC, Kessler, H., Price S.J., Seymour, K.J. 2006. The application of 3D geological modelling to aquifer recharge assessments in an urban environment. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology, 39, 293–302. http://qjegh.lyellcollection.org/cgi/content/abstract/39/3/293

* Neber, A., Classon, F. & Howahr, M. 2006. Construction and usage of geological near-surface models with GSI3D - applied (hydro-)geological information for land sites and urban areas. Austrian Journal of Earth Sciences, 99, 62-69. http://www.univie.ac.at/ajes/download/volume_99/

* Neber, A. & Howahr, M. 2006. Construction and Usage of geological near-surface models with GSI3D - applied (hydro-)geological information for land sites and urban areas. COG 2006, Salzburg, Austria. http://www.geol-ges.at/cog-2006/kurzfassung-neber-howahr.pdf

* Classon, F., Brunotte, E., Sobisch, H.-G. & Neber, A. 2005. Zur dreidimensionalen Modellierung von anthropogenen Ablagerungen in urbanen Räumen am Beispiel des rechtsrheinischen Köln. Geotechnik 2005/2, 93-100.

* Culshaw, M.G. 2005. From concept towards reality: developing the attributed 3D geological model of the shallow subsurface. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology, 38, 231-284.

* Kessler, H. et al. 2005. 3D geoscience models and their delivery to customers. In: Three dimensional geologic mapping for groundwater applications, Workshop extended abstracts, Salt Lake City, Utah, 15 October 2005. Geological Survey of Canada, 2005. p. 39-42. http://crystal.isgs.uiuc.edu/research/3DWorkshop/2005/pdf-files/kessler2005.pdf, http://www.isgs.uiuc.edu/research/3DWorkshop/2005/pdf-files/kessler_15_10_2005-ppt.pdf

* Riddick, A., Laxton, J., Cave, M., Wood, B., Duffy, T., Bell, P., Evans, C.J., Howard, A., Armstrong, B., Kirby, G., Monaghan, A., Ritchie, C., Jones, D., Napier, B., Jones, N., Millward, D., Clarke, S., Leslie, G., Mathers, S., Royse, K., Kessler, H., Newell, A., Dumpleton, S., Loudon, V. & J. Aspden. 2005. Digital geoscience spatial model project final report. Keyworth, British Geological Survey, 56pp. (BGS Occasional Publication No. 9) http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/2366/1/DGSM_Final.pdf

* Kessler, H. & Mathers, S.J. 2004. Maps to Models. Geoscientist, 14/10, pp. 4-6. http://www.bgs.ac.uk/science/3Dmodelling/mapstomodels.html

* Kessler, H., Mathers, S.J & H.-G. Sobisch. 2004. GSI3D - The software and methodology to build near-surface 3-D geological models. British Geological Survey (IR/04/029), 96pp. http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/4019/1/IR04029.pdf

* Hough, E., Kessler, H., Lelliott, M., Price, S., Reeves, H. & D. Bridge. 2003. Look before you leap. In: Moore, H. M., Fox, H. R. & S. Elliott (editors). Land reclamation: Extending the boundaries. pp. 369-375.

* Bridge, D., Hough, E., Kessler, H., Price, S. & Reeves, H. 2003. Urban Geology: Integrating Surface and Sub-Surface Geoscientific Information for Development Needs. In: NATO Science Series IV: Earth and Environmental Sciences. Stanisław R. Ostaficzuk: The Current Role of Geological Mapping in Geosciences. Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Innovative Applications of GIS in Geological Cartography Kazimierz Dolny, Poland 24–26 November 2003. http://www.springerlink.com/content/l186w2713238206r, http://kgp.wnoz.us.edu.pl/ARW/ARW_Bridge.doc

* Ellison, R.A., McMillan, A.A., Lott, G.K., Kessler, H. & R.S. Lawley. 2002. Ground characterisation of the urban environment: a guide to best practice. Urban Geoscience and Geological Hazards Programme. Keyworth, British Geological Survey Research Report (RR/02/2005), 37pp. http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/2365/1/groundchar.pdf

* Sobisch, H.-G. 2000. Ein digitales raeumliches Modell des Quartaers der GK25 Blatt 3508 Nordhorn auf der Basis vernetzter Profilschnitte. Shaker Verlag, Aachen.

* Hinze, C., Sobisch, H.-G. & Voss, H-H. 1999. Spatial modelling in Geology and its practical Use. Mathematische Geologie, 4, pp. 51-60. http://www.cp-v.de/mg/mgvn4.htm

External links

* [http://www.bgs.ac.uk/science/3Dmodelling/gsi3d.html GSI3D in the British Geological Survey]
* [http://www.bgs.ac.uk/science/3Dmodelling/gsi3dMeeting2008.html 2nd International GSI3D conference]
* [http://www.3d-geology.de/3d-modell_halle A GSI3D model built of the City of Halle, Germany]
* http://www.lithosphere-east.de/andreas_wollmann/home/lithosphere_eng.pdf
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/scotland/7598695.stm 3D geological model featured on the BBC]


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