Sitar in jazz

Sitar in jazz

The history of the sitar in jazz, that is the fusion of the sounds of Indian Classical music with Western jazz, dates back from the late-1950s or early-1960s when musicians trained in Indian Classical music such as Ravi Shankar started collaborating with jazz musicians such as Tony Scott and Bud Shank. Later jazz recordings containing sitar music include albums by Miles Davis, John Coltrane, Yusef Lateef, Joe Harriott (in collaboration with composer John Mayer), and Ornette Coleman.

Early uses of the Sitar in Jazz

Although music based around the sitar would later spread from jazz to more popular music via The Beatles, the sitar became more widely known in the western world mainly through the work of Indian musicians such as Pandit Ravi Shankar, beginning in the late 1950s. From there it was taken up by jazz musicians and would later became a youth phenomenon in the mid-1960s after Beatle George Harrison took lessons from Shankar and played sitar on several songs.

The first recorded collaboration between Indian and Jazz musicians occurred in 1961 with Ravi Shankar and a group led by the West Coast American saxophonist/flautist Bud Shank. Their album entitled "Improvisitions" only features one track, "Improvisations on the theme music from "Pather Panchali"," in which Ravi Shankar and the Western musicians play together. The track is remarkable for little else; it is simply Western film music with the sitar playing the melody. However, it is interesting to note that this session, and that of film composer Shankar Jaikishan (1968), were connected the film industry, for Indian film music surely contributes the most considerable corpus of music that combines Indian and Western musics.

However, Ravi Shankar is an important figure with regards to Jazz because it was primarily through his music that John Coltrane and others became aware of Indian music. Tony Scott recorded a track entitled "Portrait of Ravi" on his "Dedications" album, as early as 1957.

Coltrane met Shankar in 1965 after a long period of mutual admiration and letter writing (Thomas 1975:199). Coltrane's name is inextricably linked to the emergence of modal Jazz in 1958 on Miles Davis' album "Milestones" and it is believed that modal Jazz was inspired by Indian music. Indian influence is an important issue in the later music of Coltrane such as the album "Kulu Se Mama" (1965) and also of musicians such as Yusef Lateef and Ornette Coleman.

John Mayer - "Indo-Jazz Fusions"

The first attempts to integrate Jazz and Indian genres occurred in the early sixties by the Calcutta born composer and violinist John Mayer (composer).

In Calcutta, he had a dual musical education, learning Indian music from Sanathan Mukherjee and Western music from Melhi Mehta. He moved to London in 1952 and studied Western Classical violin at the Royal Academy of Music and Western composition from Matyas Seibar. There was quite a lot of interest in his early compositions, which bridged Indian and Western Classical musics. However, about 1959-60, general interest in Mayer's music waned and he experienced great difficulty in obtaining work.

In 1961, he was approached by Dennis Preston of EMI to form and write for a Jazz group comprising Indian and Western musicians. Preston believed that the Jazz world was more receptive to innovation than the Classical, which had rejected his music. Mayer had had no previous experience of Jazz but agreed since he had no other work. It was the social climate, rather than a musical inspiration, which was his primary motive. He was introduced to the Jamaican-born alto saxophonist Joe Harriott, probably the most gifted Jazz player in England of the time and was highly acclaimed for his `free' playing.

The band operated as a 'double quintet', using Harriott's regular working Quintet (Harriott, Shake Keane, Pat Smythe, Phil Seamen and Coleridge Goode), and an Indian Quintet (Mayer, Diwan Motihar, Keshav Sathi, Chandrahas Paigankar, Chris Taylor). The sitar player Diwan Motihar was a pupil of Ustad Vilayat Khan.

All the compositions for the band were written by Mayer in "dual notation"; staff notation for the Jazz musicians and Sargam notation for the Indians. Mayer says that the music is strictly based on North Indian rags, which he felt were more accessible to Western audiences than the South Indian counterparts. Mayer explained to me that he had 'discovered' that certain rags bore a close resemblance to jazz harmonies. Since Mayer was not a Jazz musician, it is unsurprising that "in terms of the musical materials used Jazz forms are surrogate to Indian (Farrell 1988:200)". He assigned particular scales derived from rags for the jazz musicians to improvise upon and also taught them the pakar or the 'catch' of rag. For example, on the track "Mishra Blues", "Mayer constructs a scale which includes all the intervals of the three basic blues chords (Farrell 1988:201):" "The jazz musicians play their solos on their blues structure and the Indians play theirs on the composite raga (Carr 1968 cited in Farrell 1988:201)."

Mayer based the rhythm of the music on South Indian tals, which he felt were more complex and exciting than the North Indian. Mayer experimented extensively with tal structures within the four LP's produced, with virtually every composition using a different tal. Ian Carr discusses an example:

"Purvi Variations" is a very good example of rhythmic fusion and of how John Mayer simplifies the rhythms for the convenience of the Jazz soloists- the piece starts with twelve beats divided 3,2,3,4, a division not natural to Europeans, but when the Jazz solos begin J. Dougan plays a strong 3/4 and the tabla weaves his complex patterns around that basic beat (Carr 1968 cited in Farrell 1988:201).

This brings to light the dismissive attitude of David Reck who complained of the "pseudo-raga improvisations which usually quickly metamorphosed into the more familiar jazz licks (Reck 1985:95 cited in Farrell 1988:193).

It is understandable that Reck is scathing of Jazz musicians who are unable to sustain a rag based improvisation but it should also be noted that Indian musicians have considerable difficulty with aspects of Western music such as harmony, and more explicitly, modulation. Since Indian music is based on a never changing tonic drone, Indian musicians are virtually unable to `hear' the new tonic which arises out of modulation, particularly if the modulation is distant. These are exactly the kinds of musical incompatibilities that plague intercultural music.

Whilst Mayer, who is truly musically bi-lingual, has created suitable structures for a successful fusion between Indian music and Jazz, the problem which pervades throughout this music is the lack of unity caused by insufficient co-understanding and communication between the musicians of 'each quintet'. For example, the bass resonances of the tabla are consistently obscured by the acoustic bass.

Collin Walcott

In America, the profile of the sitar in Jazz was maintained by Collin Walcott (b. New York 1945; d. Madgeburg, Germany 1984). After graduating from Indiana University in 1967, where his major study was percussion, he travelled to Los Angeles to study sitar with Ravi Shankar and tabla with Alla Rakha, then the most famous tabla player in the West (Kernfield 1988:588).

The most significant corpus of his output was with the groups Oregon, Codona and his own quartet, despite a prolific career as a sideman for players such as Miles Davis and Egberto Gismonti. Walcott was heavily influenced by John Coltrane's Quartet (Cook & Morton 1992)

Walcott, like Mayer, is musically bi-lingual which helps to explain why the Indian and Western aspects of his musics it together far more comfortably than previous experiments. Whilst Mayer acted as a bridge between musicians of two cultures, Walcott, like Coltrane, absorbed the Indian music and assimilated it within his own music. His quartet consisted of other American musicians so that the feeling of empathy between the musicians, which is a pre-requisite of good group improvisation, is maintained.

Walcott created a sitar technique which is not found in Indian music. This involves stopping more than one string to create harmonies, usually thirds. However, the effect of this technique is so limited, that it cannot really considered as anything more substantial than a curiosity.

Nishat Khan

The more recent excursion of the sitar into Jazz is that of the sitar player Nishat Khan who is highly regarded as an Indian Classical player. His first experience of playing with a jazz musician was a trio with the guitarist John McLaughlin who has been collaborating with Indian musicians since the mid-seventies with groups such as Shakti.

In the Nineties, Nishat Khan was working on his own Jazz project. He rehearsed with American alto saxophonist Steve Coleman and recorded with a band which consisted of Django Bates (keyboards), Mark Mondesir (electric bass), Martin France (drums), and two drummers from Africa. The group did not perform in public, and the recording was not released.

Andrew Cheshire

In 2006, Andrew Cheshire released "Silent Trees Falling", an album composed solely of electric sitar in a mostly trio setting. Widely regarded as an unheralded master of jazzguitar, Cheshire combined raw jazz improvisation with an eastern flavored vocabulary resultingin a record that captures the spontaneity of jazz coupled with the sonority of the far east.

Comparative View of Jazz and Indian Classical Music

Indian music is the greatest tradition of improvisation in the East. Therefore it is unsurprising that Jazz musicians, which have become the greatest exponents of improvisation in the West, have developed a certain fascination for Indian musicians and vice versa. Coltrane was fascinated by Indian music. Keith Jarrett returned to improvised music, after a phase of playing entirely Western Classical music, on hearing a concert of Indian Classical music which he claims was "a reminder that what I was doing was not music" (in Carr 1991:157). This statement reveals that to Jarrett, who is primarily a Jazz musician, Indian music contains something intrinsic to his conception of music that does not exist in Western Classical music.

Both Jazz and Indian music are commonly described as improvised music but in fact, composition is integral to both arts. Compositions are used mainly as a springboard for improvisation and would probably account for about a tenth of a performance in both traditions. One of the functions of the composition is to define the structure upon which the improvisation is based. The gat is always played at the beginning of the final portion of an exposition of a rag by the soloist and from this, the tabla player is expected to join in. It is not uncommon for the tabla to have not been told what the tal or what tempo is to be used and would be expected to derive this information from the gat which he may not have heard before. If the soloist wishes to change to a new tal or tempo (other than by acceleration) it is signalled by playing a different gat.

The presentation of the two main instruments in jugalbandi (duet) has become common both in India and outside. What happens in Jugalbandi is not unlike the organisation of collective improvisation in jazz, in the sense that the musicians come together in the precomposed song or whatever the basis of the piece, and otherwise take it in turns to improvise in a spirit both of cooperation and friendly cooperation (Sorrell 1989:2).

In Jazz, the structure of the improvisation is most usually defined by the 'head' which normally comprises a melody and a harmonic structure, but could contain more or less structural information such as changes of feel e.g. from swing to salsa, or changes of tempo or meter. The standard form of a jazz performance would start with the `head' which might be 32 bars long. Then, the musicians would take it in turn to improvise over this cyclic structure. The performance ends with a recapitulation of the 'head'.

Improvisations in both musics take place within cyclic frameworks, with the notable exception of free jazz which consciously eschews predetermined structures. The ability to learn to use these frameworks to assist and inspire improvisation is really the essence of both art forms. Being able to maintain one's place is the tal is precisely analogous to 'keeping the form' in Jazz playing. In fact, there are distinct similarities between the Sam (first beat) of the tal and 'top of the form', the first beat of repeating structure, in Jazz. The special feature of the Sam is that phrases either start or end on it, reinforcing the notion that the tal is a 'circular' structure. Whilst there is no such formalisation in Jazz of the `top of the form', there is no doubt that musicians often use the `top of the form' as the point of maximum release of tension.


This is a chronological catalogue of recordings which have featured the sitar within a jazz (or indo-jazz) context.

*Ravi Shankar- "Improvisations"

Ravi Shankar (sitar), Kanai Dutta (tabla, pakhavaj), Modu Mullick (tanpura), Harihar Rao (dholak, tanpura), Bud Shank (flute), Dennis Budimur (guitar), Gary Peacock (bass), Louis Hayes (drums)

"Improvisation on the Theme Music from Pather Pancali""Fire Night""Karnataki""Raga Rageshri" Hollywood, California, 1961 Liberty Records Ltd, London [LBL 830 76 E]

*Ravi Shankar (with Paul Horn)- "Portrait of a Genius"

Ravi Shankar (sitar), Paul Horn (flute, alto sax) 1965 World Pacific, [WPS 1432]

*Joe Harriott and John Mayer Double Quintet- "Indo-Jazz Suite"

Joe Harriott (alto sax), Eddie Blair (trumpet and flugelhorn), Pat Smythe (piano), Rick Laird (bass), Allan Ganley (drums), John Mayer (violin and harpsichord), Diwan Motihar (sitar), Chris Taylor (flute), Keshav Sathe (tabla), Chandrhas Paigankar (tanpura)

"Overture""Contrasts""Raga Megha""Raga Gaud-Saranga" London, 1966 EMI Records 1966 [SX 6025]

* "Jazz Meets India"

Irene Shweitzer (piano), (bass), (drums), Diwan Motihar (sitar), (tabla), (tanpura) 1967

* Joe Harriott and John Mayer Double Quintet- "Indo-Jazz Fusions"Double record set

Joe Harriott (alto sax), Shake Keane (trumpet and flugelhorn), Coleridge Goode (bass), Allan Ganley (drums), John Mayer (violin, harpsichord), Diwan Motihar (sitar), Chandrahas Paigankar (tanpura), Keshav Sathi (tabla), Chris Taylor (flute)

"Multani" (Mayer)"Gana" (Mayer)"Acka Raga" (Mayer)"Subject" (Mayer/Harriott) London, 1967 Double-Up Duos 1968 [123-1]

Joe Harriott (alto sax), Kenny Wheeler (trumpet, flugelhorn), Pat Smythe (Piano), Coleridge Goode (bass), Jackie Dougan (bass), John Mayer (violin [and harpsichord] ), Diwan Motihar (sitar), Chandrahas Paigankar (tanpura), Keshav Sathi (tabla), Chris Taylor (drums)

"Raga Piloo" (Mayer)"Song Before Sunrise" (Mayer)"Purvi Variations" (Mayer)"Mishra Blues" (Mayer/Smythe) London, 1968 Double-Up Duos 1968 [123-2]
* Shankar Jaikishan- "Raga Jazz Style"

Ustad Rais Khan (sitar), Manohari Singh (sax), John Pereira (trumpet), Lucilla (piano), Leslie Godinho (drums), Eddie Travers (bass), Dilip Naik (electric guitar), Anibal Castro (electric guitar), Suman (flute), Ramakant (tabla), Dattaram (assistant), Sebastian D'Souza (arrangement). Music by Shankar Jaikishan.

"Raga Todi""Raga Bhairav""Raga Malkauns""Raga Kalavanti""Raga Tilak Kamod""Raga Miyan Malhav""Raga Bairagi""Raga Jaijaivanti""Raga Mishra Pilu""Raga Shiranjani""Raga Bhairvi" 1968 Gramophone Company of India Ltd [ECS 2377]

* John Mayer- Indo-Jazz Fusions "Etudes"

John Mayer (composer and director of all tracks, violin and harpsichord), Chris Taylor (flute), Ian Hamer (trumpet and flugelhorn), Tony Coe (tenor sax and clarinet), Pat Smythe (piano), Coleridge Goode (bass), John Marshall (drums), Diwan Motihar (sitar), Viram Jasani (sitar, tabla, tanpura), KevanSathe (table [sic!] )

"Intro and Rondo""Cappricio""Serenade""Toccata""Sarabande" London, 1969 Sonnet Records [SNTF63] all titles published by Lupur Music Ltd

* "Tony Scott- "Homage to Lord Krishna"

Tony Scott (Clarinet), Collin Walcott (sitar) 1969 Verve Records 1969 [68788]

* Oregon- "Our First Record"

McCandless (oboe, English horn, bass clarinet, wooden flute), Glen Moore (bass, flute, violin, piano), Ralph Towner (12-string and classical guitars), Collin Walcott (sitar, tabla, clarinet, percussion, congas) 1970 Vanguard Records 1970 [79432]

*Miles Davis- "On the Corner"

Miles Davis (trumpet), Collin Walcott (sitar) 1972 Columbia Records 1972 [KC 31906]

*Paul Winter- "Icarus"

Paul Winter, Collin Walcott (sitar) 1972Epic [31643]

* Oregon- "Music of Another Present Era"

McCandless (oboe, English horn, bass clarinet, wooden flute), Glen Moore (bass, flute, violin, piano), Ralph Towner (12-string and classical guitars), Collin Walcott (sitar, tabla, clarinet, percussion, congas)

1973 Vanguard Records [VSD 79326]

* Oregon- "Distant Hills"

McCandless (oboe, English horn, bass clarinet, wooden flute), Glen Moore (bass, flute, violin, piano), Ralph Towner (12-string and classical guitars), Collin Walcott (sitar, tabla, clarinet, percussion, congas)

AuroraDark Spirit (Towner)Canyon SongSong for a FriendConfession (free improvisation) 1973 Vanguard Records 1974 [VSD 79341]

* Collin Walcott- "Cloud Dance"

Collin Walcott (sitar, tabla), John Abercrombie (guitar), Dave Holland (bass), Jack DeJohnette (drums)

Marguerite (Collin Walcott, BMI)Prancing (Collin Walcott, BMI)Night Glider (Collin Walcott, BMI)Scimitar (Collin Walcott/John Abercrombie, BMI)Vadana (Dave Holland, BMI)Eastern Song (Collin Walcott, BMI)Padma (Collin Walcott/ John Abercrombie, BMI)Cloud Dance (Collin Walcott, BMI) Ludwigsburg, W. Germany, March 1975 ECM Records 1976 [ECM 1062]

*Oregon- "In Concert"

McCandless (oboe, English horn, bass clarinet, wooden flute), Glen Moore (bass, flute, violin, piano), Ralph Towner (12-string and classical guitars), Collin Walcott (sitar, tabla, clarinet, percussion, congas)

Introduction (George Schutz)Become, Seem, Appear (Oregon)Summer Solstice (Towner)UnderTow (McCandless)The Silence of a Candle (Towner)Tryton's Horn (Oregon)Yet to be (Towner) New York, April 8 & 9, 1975 Vanguard Records 1976 [VSD 79358]

*Oregon- "Together"

McCandless (oboe, English horn, bass clarinet, wooden flute), Glen Moore (bass, flute, violin, piano), Ralph Towner (12-string and classical guitars), Collin Walcott (sitar, tabla, clarinet, percussion, congas) 1976 Vanguard Records 1976 [79397]

*Oregon- "Friends"

McCandless (oboe, English horn, bass clarinet, wooden flute), Glen Moore (bass, flute, violin, piano), Ralph Towner (12-string and classical guitars), Collin Walcott (sitar, tabla, clarinet, percussion, congas) 1977 Vanguard Records 1977 [79370]

*Miles Davis- "Get Up With It"

Miles Davis (trumpet), Sonny Fortune (Alto sax, flute), Carlos Garnett, John Stubblefield (alto sax), Steve Grossman (soprano sax), David Liebman (flute), Wally Chambers (harmonica), Cedric Lawson (piano, organ), Herbie Hancock, Keith Jarrett (keyboards), Pete Cosey, Cornell Dupree, Dominique Gaumont, Reggie Lucas, John McLaughlin (guitar), Khalil Balakrishna (sitar), Michael Henderson (bass), Billy Cobham, Al Foster, Bernard Purdie (drums), Airto Moreira, Mtume, Badal Roy (percussion), Additional brass and rhythm arrangements by Wade Jarcus and Billy Jackson. New York, 1970-74 Core/Line [CLCD 9.009827/8]

*Collin Walcott- "Grazing Dreams"

Collin Walcott (sitar, tabla), John Abercrombie (electric and acoustic guitars, electric mandolin), Don Cherry (Trumpet, wood flute, doussn'gouni), Palle Danielson (bass), Dom Um Romao (berimbau, chica [sic! cuica] , tambourine, percussion)

Song of the Morrow (Collin Walcott, Grazing Dreams Music)Gold Sun (Collin Walcott/Don Cherry, Grazing Dreams Music)The Swarm (Collin Walcott, Grazing Dreams Music)Mountain Morning (Group improvisation, Grazing Dreams Music)Jewel Ornament (Don Cherry/John Abercrombie/Collin Walcott,Grazing Dreams Music)Grazing Dreams (Collin Walcott, Grazing Dreams Music)Samba Tala (Don Um Romao/Collin Walcott, Berimbau Music Prod.) Moon Lake (Group Improvisation, Grazing Dreams Music) Oslo, February 1977 ECM Records 1977 [ECM 1096]

*Egberto Gismonti- "Sol Do Meio Dia"

Egberto Gismonti (guitar), Collin Walcott (sitar) 1977 ECM Records 1977 [ECM 1116]

*Oregon- "Out of the Woods"

McCandless (oboe, English horn, bass clarinet, wooden flute), Glen Moore (bass, flute, violin, piano), Ralph Towner (12-string and classical guitars), Collin Walcott (sitar, tabla, clarinet, percussion, congas) 1978 Elektra 1978 [154]

*Oregon- "Violin"

McCandless (oboe, English horn, bass clarinet, wooden flute), Glen Moore (bass, flute, violin, piano), Ralph Towner (12-string and classical guitars), Collin Walcott (sitar, tabla, clarinet, percussion, congas) 1978 Vanguard Records 1978 [79397]

*Collin Walcott/ Don Cherry/ Nana Vasconcelos- "Codona"

Collin Walcott (sitar, tabla, hammered dulcimer, Sanza, voice), Don Cherry (trumpet, flutes, doussn'gouni, voice), Nana Vasconcelos (Berimbau, Cuica, Percussion, voice)

Like That of Sky (Walcott)Codona (Cherry/Walcott/Vasconcelos)Colemanwondera) Race Face (Ornette Coleman)b) Sortie (Ornette Coleman)c) Sir Duke (Stevie Wonder)Mumakata (Walcott)New Light (Walcott) Ludwigsburg, W. Germany, September 1978 ECM Records 1979 [ECM 1132]

Oregon- `Oregon in Performance'

McCandless (oboe, English horn, bass clarinet, wooden flute), Glen Moore (bass, flute, violin, piano), Ralph Towner (12-string and classical guitars), Collin Walcott (sitar, tabla, clarinet, percussion, congas) 1979 Elektra 1979 [304]

Collin Walcott/ Steve Eliovson- `Dawn Dance'

Collin Walcott (sitar), Steve Eliovson (guitar) January 1981 ECM Records 1981 [ECM 1198]

Collin Walcott/ Don Cherry/ Nana Vasconcelos- `Codona 2'

Collin Walcott (sitar, tabla, sanza, tipmani, voice), Don Cherry (trumpet, organ, doussn'gouni, voice), Nana Vasconcelos (berimbau, mluvici bubinek (?), voice)

Que Faser (Nana Vasconcelos)Godumaduma (Traditional African)Malinye (Don Cherry)Drip-Dry (Ornette Coleman)Walking on Eggs (Collin Walcott)Again and Again, Again (Collin Walcott) Ludwigsburg, W. Germany, 1980 ECM Records 1983 [ECM 1177]

Collin Walcott/ Don Cherry/ Nana Vasconcelos- `Codona 3'

Collin Walcott (sitar, hammered dulcimer, sanza, tabla, voice), Don Cherry (trumpet, organ, doussn'gouni, voice), Nana Vasconcelos (berimbau, percussion, voice)

Goshabuchi (Japanese Traditional, Codona Music- ASCAP)Hey Da Ba Doom (Collin Walcott, Grazing Dreams Music- ASCAP)Lullaby (Collin Walcott, Grazing Dreams Music- ASCAP)Trayra Boia (Nana Vasconcelos/ Denise Milan, Nana's Music- BMI)Clicky Clacky (Don Cherry, Eternal River Music- BMI)Inner Organs (Don Cherry, Eternal River Music- BMI) Ludwigsburg, W. Germany, September 1982 ECM Records 1983 [ECM 1243]

Oregon- `Oregon'

McCandless (oboe, English horn, bass clarinet, tin flute, soprano sax), Glen Moore (bass, violin, piano), Ralph Towner (Prophet-5, piano, classical guitar), Collin Walcott (sitar, percussion, tongue drum, bass drum, voice)

The Rapids (Towner)Beacon (Oregon)Taos (Oregon)Beside a Brook (McCandless)Ariana (Moore)There Was No Moon That Night (Oregon)Skyline (Oregon)Impending Bloom (Moore) Ludwigsburg, W. Germany, February 1983 ECM Records 1983, [ECM 1258]

Oregon- `Crossing'

McCandless (oboe, English horn, bass clarinet, tin flute, soprano sax), Glen Moore (bass, violin, piano), Ralph Towner (Prophet-5, piano, classical guitar), Collin Walcott (sitar, percussion, tongue drum, bass drum, voice)

Ludwigsburg, W. Germany, October 19

Andrew Cheshire- `Silent Trees Falling'

Cheshire (electric sitar), Joe Michaels (bass), Jared Lippi (Drums), Bhooshit Dikshitar (tanpura)

Legend of Osiris (Cheshire, Ellsworth Music -BMI)Beamot (Cheshire, Ellsworth Music -BMI)Parallel Universe (Cheshire, Ellsworth Music -BMI)Chitraratha (Cheshire, Ellsworth Music -BMI)Photosynthesis (Cheshire, Ellsworth Music -BMI)Dervish Dance (Cheshire, Ellsworth Music -BMI)Remember the Malamo (Cheshire, Ellsworth Music -BMI)How to Stuff a Wild Bhairavi (Cheshire, Ellsworth Music -BMI)Silent trees Falling (Cheshire, Ellsworth Music -BMI) Joule Records 2006, [Joule 11]


Farrell, G. (1988), "Reflecting Surfaces: The Use of Elements from Indian Music in Popular Music and Jazz." Popular Music 7, pages 189-205.

Manuel, P. (1988), "Popular music in India: 1901-1986." Popular music in India, volume 7, pages 157-176.

Pinckney, Jr W.R. (1990), "Jazz in India: Perspectives on Historical Development and Musical Acculturation", Asian Music volume XXI, number 1, pages 35-77.
* Ian Carr (1991) Keith Jarrett: The Man and His Music (Grafton Books) ISBN 0-246-13434-8

* Neil Sorrell (1989) The North Indian Classical Sarangi: Its Technique and Role.

ee also

*indo jazz

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