Qiqihar


Qiqihar
Qiqihar
齐齐哈尔
—  Prefecture-level city  —
齐齐哈尔市
Nickname(s): The Crane City 鹤城
Qiqihar City (red) in Heilongjiang province (orange) and China
Qiqihar is located in Heilongjiang
Qiqihar
Location of the city centre in Heilongjiang
Coordinates: 47°21′N 123°55′E / 47.35°N 123.917°E / 47.35; 123.917Coordinates: 47°21′N 123°55′E / 47.35°N 123.917°E / 47.35; 123.917
Country People's Republic of China
Province Heilongjiang
Area
 – Prefecture-level city 42,469 km2 (16,397.4 sq mi)
Elevation 147 m (482 ft)
Population
 – Prefecture-level city 5,611,000
 – Density 132.1/km2 (342.2/sq mi)
 – Metro 1,438,550
Time zone China Standard (UTC+8)
Area code(s) 0452
License Plate 黑B
Website http://www.qqhr.gov.cn/

Qiqihar (simplified Chinese: 齐齐哈尔; traditional Chinese: 齊齊哈爾; pinyin: Qíqíhāěr; Manchu: Cicigar ᠴᡳᠴᡳᡤᠠᡵ; formerly Tsitsihar) is a major city in the Heilongjiang province, People's Republic of China. The municipal area has 1,514,188 inhabitants, while the total population of the prefecture-level city is 5367003 at the 2010 census.[1] These are mainly Han Chinese, though the city is also home to thirty-four minorities including Manchu, Daur, and Mongolians.[2] Close to Qiqihar are numerous wetlands and the Zhalong Nature Reserve, famous in China for being home to numerous red-crowned cranes.

Contents

History

Qiqihar is one of the oldest cities in the northeast of China and was founded in 1691. The city's original name was Bukui (卜奎), the Chinese transcription of a Daur word meaning "auspicious".[3] The city's oldest mosque, the Bukui Mosque, actually predates the foundation of the city itself by seven years.[4]

From 1931 until 1945, Qiqihar was an important military base for the Japanese control of northeastern China, going by the name Tsitsihar. During the occupation, the Imperial Japanese Army established Unit 516 in Qiqihar for research into chemical warfare.

A major mustard gas tank left over from the Second Sino-Japanese War buried underground was accidentally damaged in August 2003, causing 43 injuries and one death.[5][6]

Geography & Climate

Geography & Topography

Qiqihar is located in the middle and lower reaches of Nenjiang River and the hinterland of Songnen Plain, which is adjacent to the Greater Khingan Range and Hulunbuir Prairie with the total land area of 42,289 square kilometers, and its height above sea level is normally between 200 m and 500 m. Surrounded by Greater Khinggan Mountain and Lesser Khingan Range in three directions respectively of west, north and northeast, the topography of Qiqihar is in a horse hoof shape, which is high on both sides while low in the middles and the altitude gradually decreases from north to south. Plain, including valley plain, estuary plain, lake and swamp plain, alluvial plain covered by sand hills, is the main topography, and the percentage of plain is 83.7%; the percentage of high plain, including denudation high plain and alluvial high plain, is 7.6%; the mountainous region, including low hills, hills, volcanoes and basalt mountain, has a percentage of 4.2%.[7]

Climate

Qiqihar has a cold, monsoon-influenced, humid continental climate (Koppen Dwa), with four distinct seasons. It has long, bitterly cold, but dry winters, with a daily average in January of −18.6 °C (−1.5 °F). Spring and fall are mild, but short and quick transitions. Summers are very warm and humid, with a daily average in July of 23.2 °C (74 °F). The average annual precipitation is 415 millimetres (16.3 in), with over 2/3 of it falling from June to August.

Subdivisions

Qiqihar is divided into 16 divisions: 7 districts (区 ), 8 counties (县 xiàn) and 1 county-level city (县级市 xiànjí shì).

Qiqihar mcp.png
# Name Hanzi Hanyu Pinyin Population (2010 est.) Area (km²) Density (/km²)
1 Longsha District 龙沙区 Lóngshā Qū 354,987 283 1,060
2 Jianhua District 建华区 Jiànhuá Qū 292,579 81 2,716
3 Tiefeng District 铁峰区 Tiěfēng Qū 331,951 695 432
4 Ang'angxi District 昂昂溪区 Áng'ángxī Qū 80,109 623 144
5 Fularji District 富拉尔基区 Fùlā'ěrjī Qū 256,159 375 720
6 Nianzishan District 碾子山区 Niǎnzishān Qū 72,151 290 276
7 Meilisi Daur District 梅里斯达斡尔族区 Méilǐsī Dáwò'ěrzú Qū 165,852 1,948 87
8 Nehe City 讷河市 Nēhé Shì 625,892 6,664 96
9 Longjiang County 龙江县 Lóngjiāng Xiàn 572,764 6,197 97
10 Yi'an County 依安县 Yī'ān Xiàn 480,035 3,780 130
11 Tailai County 泰来县 Tàilái Xiàn 302,027 4,061 79
12 Gannan County 甘南县 Gānnán Xiàn 368,734 4,384 87
13 Fuyu County 富裕县 Fùyù Xiàn 276,537 4,335 65
14 Keshan County 克山县 Kèshān Xiàn 403,175 3,632 127
15 Kedong County 克东县 Kèdōng Xiàn 264,285 2,083 134
16 Baiquan County 拜泉县 Bàiquán Xiàn 519,766 3,569 154

Tourism

  • Zhalong Nature Reserve
  • Longsha Park
  • Zen Monastery
  • Labor Lake
  • New cultural sites at Ang'angxi
  • Wan Shin Buddhist Temple
  • St. Michael's Cathedral
  • Mingyue Island

Sports

Qiqihar has an indoor speed skating arena, Indoor icerink, one of 4 in China.

Qiqihar was previously home to an Asia League Ice Hockey team which used the snow leopard as a mascot. The team later became Changchun Fuao, relocating to Changchun, Jilin Province. Qiqihar played host to the 2007 IIHF World Championships Division I, Group A.

Education

  • Qiqihar Medical University
  • Qiqihar University

Transport

Qiqihar has a domestic airport (Qiqihar Airport), a railway station, a bus network, and taxis. Qiqihar is a railway transportation hub in western Heilongjiang Province and northeastern Inner Mongolia. Trains from Qiqihar Railway Station connect the city with Harbin, Beijing, Dalian, Hangzhou, Xi'an and several other major cities in China. Qiqihar Airport, 13 km from Qiqihar's downtown area, operates daily flights to Beijing, Guangzhou, Shanghai and other major cities in China. In the district of Ang'angxi, the Harbin-Manzhouli Railway intersects with the Qiqihar-Bei'an Railway.

Gallery

Notes

External links


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  • Qiqihar — Original name in latin Qiqihar Name in other language Cchi cchi cha er, Ch i ch i ha erh, Ch i ch i ha erh shih, Ch’i ch’i ha erh, Ch’i ch’i ha erh shih, Ciciharas, Ciciharo, Cicikar, Cicikhar, Lung chiang, Lung chiang hsien, Lungkiang, NDG,… …   Cities with a population over 1000 database

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