- Francesco Saverio Nitti
Infobox Prime Minister
name = Francesco Saverio Nitti
order = 36th
President of the Council of Ministers of Italy
monarch = Victor Emmanuel III
June 23, 1919
June 15, 1920
Vittorio Emanuele Orlando
birth_date = birth date|1868|7|19|mf=y
death_date = death date and age|1953|2|20|1868|7|19|mf=y
Francesco Saverio Vincenzo de Paola Nitti (
Melfi, July 19, 1868- Rome, February 20, 1953) was an Italian economist and political figure. A Radical, he served as the prime minister of Italybetween 1919 and 1920.
According to the
Catholic Encyclopedia("Theories of Overpopulation"), Nitti ("Population and the Social System", 1894) was a staunch critic of English economist Thomas Robert Malthusand his Principle of Population.
Melfi, Basilicata, Francesco Nitti studied lawin Naplesand was subsequently active as journalist. He was correspondent for the "Gazzetta piemontese" (" Piedmontese Gazzette") and was one of the editors of the "Corriere di Napoli" ("Courier of Napels"). In 1891 he wrote the work "Il socialismo cattolico" ("The Catholic- socialism"). In 1898 he was appointed professor of financeat the University of Naples.
Nitti was chosen in 1904 for the Radical Party to serve in the Italian parliament. From 1911 to 1914 he was minister of agriculture, industry and trade under prime minister
Giovanni Giolitti. In 1917 he became minister of Finance under Orlando (until 1919).
23 june 1919Nitti became prime minister and foreign minister. On 20 march 1920he was also made minister of the colonies (until 21 may 1920). His cabinet had to deal with great social unrest and dissatisfaction over the results of the Treaty of Versailles. Nitti was barely able to keep the government functioning due to the enmity between the extremely divergent political factions; the communists, anarchists and fascists. He decided to offer his resignation and was succeeded by Giovanni Giolittion 16 june 1920.
After his resignation Nitti used his position as parliamentarian to offer resistance to the nascent power of
fascism. In 1924 he decided to emigrate, but after the Second World Warhe returned to Italy in 1945. He was elected to the Senate, first for the National-Democrats, and later for the Socialist Party of Italy (PSI). He was staunchly opposed to Italy's NATOmembership.
Francesco Nitti died in Rome on
20 February 1953. He was, during his entire lifetime an opposer of any kind of dictatorship, whether it was communist, conservative, or fascistic.
*"Il socialismo cattolico" (1891)
*"L'Italia all' alba del secolo XX" (1901)
*"Principi di scienza delle finanzie" (1903)
*"L'Europa senza pace" (1921)
*"La tragedia dell' Europa" (1923)
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