nd man to the right of Pres. Carter") presides over the signing of the 1977
Panama Canal Treaty.] Alejandro Orfila (born March 9, 1925in Mendoza, Argentina) was an Argentine career diplomat.
Born to Catalan immigrants who had become moderately successful
Mendoza Provincevintners, Alejandro Orfila received a Law Degree at the University of Buenos Airesin 1945. The following year, following political science studies at Stanford University, he was assigned to the Argentine Embassy in Moscow; in 1948, however, he was expelled from the Soviet Unionon the grounds of espionage. Transferred to the United States, he was appointed Argentine Consul Generalto San Franciscoand later New York, where he remained until his father's death in 1952 compelled him to return to the family business in Mendoza.
Offered the prestigious post of Director of Information at the recently established
Organization of American States(OAS), Orfila left for Washington, D.C.in 1953. There, he forged close contacts in the U.S. capital and, after becoming Argentine Ambassador to the U.S. in 1958 and to Japanin 1960, he formed an influential K street lobbyingfirm in 1962, specializing in the interests of U.S. firms investing in or trading with Latin America. Close to President Juan Perónsince his days in the Soviet Union, Orfila was appointed Ambassador to the United States by the populist Argentine leader, back in power in 1973 after an 18-year-long exile.
Tenure at the OAS
Upon the retirement of Ecuatorian statesman
Galo Plazafrom the post of Secretary General of the OAS on May 17, 1975, Orfila was elected to replace him. In this capacity, he moved quickly to repair the OAS's ralationship with its most important member, the United States. Inheriting an OAS closely identified with the Non-Aligned Movement, he dismissed a number of Plaza's appointees looked upon unfavorably by U.S. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger. Preferring his own brand of "gala diplomacy" to confrontation, Orfila was fond of enlisting his sumptous beltway home for diplomatic dinners in the interest of assuaging differences.
Orfila's influence in U.S. foreign policy circles, however, remained marginal until the advent of the Administration of U.S. President
Jimmy Carterin early 1977. Orfila rallied support in the OAS for Carter's campaign pledge to renegotiate U.S. presence in the Panama Canal Zone, a contentious issue across Latin America. The Panama Canal Treatywas signed at OAS headquarters in September of that year. Taking the OAS into a more active role in Latin America's economic development than had been the case before, Orfila facilitated the Inter-American Development Bankas a means to provide these governments an alternative to the high-interset credit markets in the world's financial capitals, a policy that backfired somewhat after many of these nations entered a debt repayments crisis in 1981.
Supported in many circles for his long-standing anti-communist policies, Orfila nevertheless actively opposed the tide of
human rights abusesmuch of Latin America suffered in that era. Working with President Carter and the U.S. Undersecretary of State for Human Rights, Patricia Derian, he marshalled the then-dormant Inter-American Commission on Human Rightsinto investigations inside repressive regimes like his own country's, the Argentine military junta; after looking into allegations of widespread political murders and kidnappings in September 1979, the commission's 1980 report removed any doubts as to the state of freedoms in Argentina at the time and helped lead to an improvement in the climate of civil liberties.
These moves, however, undermined Orfila's standing in Washington after
Ronald Reaganbecame U.S. President in early 1981, particularly among President Reagan's foreign policy advisers like Jeanne Kirkpatrick, who, as Republican Party campaign adviser in 1980, chided the OAS investigations into atrocities by admonishing them to be more more supportive of "moderately repressive regimes." The region's problems of violence more concentrated in Central Americaafter 1980, Orfila lost a valuable ally in his efforts to mediate the area's civil wars when Panamanian strongman Omar Torrijos' plane exploded in August 1981.
Following a difficult year in 1982, when a resolution he supported asserting Argentina's claims on the
Falkland Islandsresulted in a policy embarrassment for the OAS after Argentina's invasion ended in disaster and with practically the entire western hemisphere in a severe economic downturn, Orfila lent the OAS' support to the establishment of the Contadora Groupin hopes of alleviating the worsening wars in Nicaragua, Guatemalaand El Salvador. This support, as well as that of the United Nationsand a number of other international bodies, failed to compensate for President Reagan's opposition to the initiative, however. Focusing OAS policy on efforts to renegotiate Latin American debt repayments, he met with opposition in the Reagan Administration on this, too, and on October 26, 1983, the OAS voted to condemn the U.S. invasion of Grenada, making Orfila's policy rift with Reagan final.
Towards the end of the year, accusations of influence peddling arose against Orfila. Increasingly unable to exert credibility despite the lack of evidence for the allegations, on June 21, 1984, Secretary General Orfila resigned his post, expressing frustration over the OAS' inability to influence U.S. Latin American policy during the 1980s. He was succeeded by
Brazilian Vice-Minister of Foreign Affairs João Clemente Baena Soares.
In 1985, Orfila was sued by a former subordinate, Carr Donald, over allegedly having been dismissed without cause. The lawsuit failed, however and in 1986, an appellate court upheld the ruling against Mr. Donald.
Since 1994, he has owned Orfila Vineyards and Winery, an award-winning vintner in the San Pasqual Valley in Escondido, Calif. The winery claims more than 1,100 awards for its wines. According to Orfila Vineyards literature, he lives in exclusive Rancho Santa Fe, California, with his wife, Helga.
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