Redwood National and State Parks
Infobox_protected_area | name = "Redwood National and State Parks"
iucn_category = II
locator_x = 04
locator_y = 60
location = Humboldt County & Del Norte County,
nearest_city = Crescent City
lat_degrees = 41
lat_minutes = 10
lat_seconds = 0
lat_direction = N
long_degrees = 123
long_minutes = 59
long_seconds = 0
long_direction = W
area = convert|131983|acre|km2
established = January 1, 1968
visitation_num = 391,282
visitation_year = 2004
governing_body = Co-managed by US
National Park Serviceand California Department of Parks and Recreation
world_heritage_site = 1980The "Redwood National and State Parks" (RNSP) are located in the United States, along the coast of northern
California. The parks consist of a combined area of convert|131983|acre|km2 located entirely within Del Norte and Humboldt Counties and they protect 45% of all remaining Coastal Redwood ("Sequoia sempervirens") old-growth forests, totaling at least convert|38982|acre|km2. These trees are the tallest and one of the most massive tree species on Earth. In addition to the redwood forests, the parks preserve other indigenous flora, fauna, grassland prairie, cultural resources, portions of rivers and other streams, and 37 miles (60 km) of pristine coastline.
In 1850, old growth redwood forest covered more than convert|2000000|acre|km2 of the California coast. The northern portion of that area, originally inhabited by Native Americans, attracted many lumbermen and others turned gold miners when a minor
gold rushbrought them to the region. Failing in efforts to strike it rich in gold, these men turned toward harvesting the giant trees [Coy, Owen, "The Humboldt Bay Region 1850-1875", Humboldt County Historical Society, Eureka, California, (1982), p. 51] for booming development in San Francisco and other places on the West Coast. After many decades of unobstructed clear-cut logging, serious efforts toward conservation began. By the 1920s work of the Save-the-Redwoods League, founded in 1918 to preserve remaining old growth redwoods, eventually resulted in the establishment of Prairie Creek, Del Norte Coast, and Jedediah Smith Redwoods State Parks among others. Redwood National Parkwas created in 1968, by which time nearly 90% of the original redwood trees had been logged. The National Park Service(NPS) and the California Department of Parks and Recreation(CDPR) administratively combined Redwood National Park with the three abutting Redwood State Parks in 1994 for the purpose of cooperative forest management and stabilization of forests and watersheds as a single unit. This degree of collaboration between the National Park Service and a state park system is unique in the nation.
The ecosystem of the RNSP preserves a number of threatened animal species such as the
Brown Pelican, Tidewater Goby, Bald Eagle, Chinook Salmon, Northern Spotted Owl, and Steller's Sea Lion. [Redwood National and State Parks, [http://www.nps.gov/redw/home.html Threatened/Endangered Species] , URL retrieved May 24, 2006] In recognition of the rare ecosystem and cultural history found in the parks, the United Nationsdesignated them a World Heritage Siteon September 5, 1980, [National Park Service, [http://www.cr.nps.gov/worldheritage/redw.htm Redwood National Park, California] , "U.S. World Heritage Sites", URL retrieved June 5, 2006] and an International Biosphere Reserveon June 30, 1983.
As early as 3,000 years ago, Native Americans lived in the park area. Such groups as the Yurok,
Tolowa, Karok, Chilula, and Wiyotall have historical ties to the region. An 1852 census determined that the Yurok were the most numerous, with 55 villages and an estimated population of 2,500. [National Park Service, [http://www.cr.nps.gov/history/online_books/redw/history1a.htm The Indians of the Redwoods, The Yurok] , Redwood History basic data, URL retrieved June 8, 2006] They used the abundant redwood, which with its linear grain was easily split into planks, as a building material for boats, houses, and small villages. [Castillo, Edward D., [http://ceres.ca.gov/nahc/califindian.html Short Overview of California Indian History] , "California Native American Heritage Commission", (1998), URL retrieved May 20, 2006.] For buildings, the planks would be erected side by side in a narrow trench, with the upper portions bound with leatherstrapping and held by notches cut into the supporting roof beams. Redwood boards were used to form a shallow sloping roof. [Nabokov, Peter and Robert Easton. "Native American Architecture", Oxford University Press, NY, (1989) ISBN 0-19-503781-2]
Spanish, British, Russian, and American explorers visited the coast near the present park as early as the mid 16th century, to trade with local people for seal pelts. Until the arrival of
Jedediah Smith, in 1828, no white explorer is known to have thoroughly investigated the inland region. The discovery of gold along Trinity Creek in 1850 brought thousands of miners into the area, which led to conflicts; the native peoples were forcibly removed and in some cases massacred. [Margolin, Malcolm, "Living in a Well-ordered World: Indian People of Northwestern California", "Redwood National Park", (1994)] [National Park Service, [http://www.nps.gov/redw/area_amerind.htm American Indians] , URL retrieved May 20, 2006] By 1895, only one third of the Yurok in one group of villages remained; and, by 1919, virtually all members of the Chilula tribe had either died or been assimilated into other tribes. [National Park Service, [http://www.cr.nps.gov/history/online_books/redw/history1c.htm The Indians of the Redwoods, The Chilula] , Redwood History basic data, URL retrieved June 8, 2006] The miners logged redwoods for building; and, when this minor gold rushended, some of them became loggers, cutting down as many trees as they could sell. In 1850, convert|2000000|acre|km2 of the northwest California coast was old-growth redwood forest; but, by 1910, so many redwoods had been cut down that conservationists and concerned citizens began seeking ways to preserve the remaining trees. [National Park Service, [http://www.nps.gov/redw/area_log.htm Logging] , URL retrieved May 21, 2006] In 1911, U.S. Representative John E. Raker, of California, became the first politician to introduce legislation for the creation of a national park. However, no further action was taken by Congress at this time. Frederick Russell Burnhamwas living on his convert|5000|acre|km2|sing=on La Cuesta cattle ranch near the entrance to Sequoia Parkwhen the completion of U.S. Route 101brought fellow conservationists John C. Merriam, Madison Grant, and Henry Fairfield Osbornto the region. Disappointed to find that there were no public lands set aside to preserve the redwoods, these four early conservationists founded the Save-the-Redwoods Leaguein 1918.cite book |last=Coates |first=Peter A. |authorlink= |coauthors= |title=American Perceptions of Immigrant and Invasive Species: Strangers on the Land |year=2007 |publisher=University of California Press |location=Berkeley |isbn=0520249305 ] Using matching funds provided by the state of California, the Save-the-Redwoods League managed to save areas of concentrated or multiple redwood groves or entire forests by the early 1920s. When California created a state park system, in 1927, Burnham joined as a founding member of the commission and three of the redwood areas became the Prairie Creek Redwoods, Del Norte Coast Redwoods, and Jedediah Smith Redwoods State Parkscite journal |last=Colby |first=William E. |authorlink=William Edward Colby |coauthors= Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr|year=1933 |month=April |title=Borrego Desert Park |journal=Sierra Club Bulletin |volume=XVIII |issue= |pages=144 |id=url=http://www.sandiegohistory.org/journal/73fall/anza.htm |accessdate= 2007-07-29 |quote= ] . A fourth became Humboldt Redwoods State Park, by far the largest of the individual Redwood State Parks, but not in the Redwood National and State Park system. Because of the high demand for lumber during World War IIand the construction boom of the 1950s, the creation of a national park was delayed. Efforts by the Save-the-Redwoods League, the Sierra Club, and the National Geographic Societyto create a national park began in the early 1960s. [Schrepfer, Susan R. "The Fight to Save the Redwoods: A History of Environmental Reform, 1917-1978". Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press, 1983, pp. 130-185.] After intense lobbying of Congress, the bill creating Redwood National Park was signed by President Lyndon Johnsonon October 2, 1968. The Save-the-Redwoods League and other entities purchased over convert|100000|acre|km2, which were added to existing state parks. In 1978, convert|48000|acre|km2 were added to Redwood National Park in a major expansion. [Schrepfer, "The Fight to Save the Redwoods", pp. 204-228.] However, only a fifth of that land was old-growth forest, the rest having been logged. This expansion protected the watershed along Redwood Creek from being adversely affected by logging operations outside the park. The federal and state parks were administratively combined in 1994. [Save the Redwoods League, [http://www.savetheredwoods.org/league/timeline.shtml League Timeline] , URL retrieved May 21, 2006]
United Nationsdesignated Redwood National and State Parks a World Heritage Siteon September 5, 1980. The evaluation committee noted 50 prehistoric archaeological sites, spanning 4,500 years. It also cited ongoing research in the park by Humboldt State Universityresearchers, among others. [UNESCO's World Heritage, [http://whc.unesco.org/archive/advisory_body_evaluation/134.pdf Advisory Body Evaluation] , "World Heritage Committee", URL retrieved June 5, 2006 ( International Biosphere Reserveon June 30, 1983. [UNESCO [http://www2.unesco.org/mab/br/brdir/directory/biores.asp?code=USA+36&mode=all MAB Biosphere Reserves Directory] URL retrieved June 5, 2006] The California Coast Ranges biosphere is overseen by the University of California Natural Reserve System.
The RNSP are cooperatively managed by the
National Park Service, a federal agency within the U.S. Department of the Interior, and the California Department of Parks and Recreation. The National Park annual budget of $7,380,000 in 2004 was decreased to $7,251,000 in 2005 (a reduction of nearly 2%). This amount supports all operations, including 102 permanent and 70 temporary staff. The combined budget for the three State Parks of $1,096,248 covered 17 permanent and 30 temporary staff in 2003. [National Park Service, [http://www.nps.gov/redw/planyourvisit/upload/Fact%20Sheet.pdf Fact Sheet] , Redwood National and State Parks, URL retrieved September 22, 2007] The two agencies work cooperatively to protect the redwoods, the pristine Pacific Ocean coastline, the cultural resources, and the unique natural habitat. The land that was added to the parks in 1978 had previously been logged, and efforts to restore these areas have been ongoing for decades, with old logging roads being removed and the land allowed to return to its original state. Lack of funding has precluded major improvements, however, and timber companies have replanted much of the logged area with non-native tree species. Coastline areas, including dunes and coastal prairie, have been invaded by exotic species, partly due to the suppression of forest fires until the 1980s. A fire management plan now allows controlled burning as one method to return the parkland to its original state. Since the redwoods were logged on the basis of accessibility, with inaccessible areas being cut last, large old growth forest sections were isolated from one another, sometimes by many miles. In these cases it will be decades more before mature forest can return, regardless of the amount of money used to rehabilitate the ecosystem. [Redwood National and State Parks, [http://www.nps.gov/redw/strategic_plan.html Strategic Plan 2001–2005] , URL retrieved May 22, 2006]
The park has transformed a few logging roads into scenic public drives. These do not meet current safety standards, but funding to improve them is not available at present. Park structures such as visitor centers and employee housing also need updating to meet increasing demands. The park employees perform air and water quality surveys, monitor endangered and
threatened species, and work closely with the California Coastal National Monument, which is managed by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management. [Redwood National and State Parks, [http://www.nps.gov/redw/ann_per_plan_04.htm Fiscal Year 2004 Annual Performance Plan] , URL retrieved May 22, 2006] The park headquarters is in Crescent City, California.
It is estimated that old growth redwood forest once covered convert|2000000|acre|km2 of coastal northern California. Today, only 4%, or convert|85000|acre|km2, remain, with 45% of that total being managed by the park. [Redwood National and State Parks, [http://www.nps.gov/redw/home.html About the Trees] , URL retrieved May 22, 2006] The native range of
coast redwoodis from the northern California coast north to the southern Oregon Coast. The tree is closely related to the Giant Sequoiaof central California, and more distantly to the Dawn Redwood which is indigenous to the Sichuan- Hubeiregion of China. Coast redwoods are the tallest trees on Earth; as of September, 2006, the tallest tree in the park was Hyperion at convert|379.1|ft|m|abbr=on, followed by two more named Helios and Icarus which are convert|376.3|ft|m|abbr=on and convert|371.2|ft|m|abbr=on respectively. [San Francisco Chronicle, [http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/c/a/2006/09/07/MNGQRL0TDV1.DTL Hyperion in Redwood National Park] , "Eureka! New tallest living thing discovered", URL retrieved November 14, 2006] Before September 2006, the tallest living specimen known was the Stratosphere Giant, outside the park in Humboldt Redwoods State Park, which was 370 feet (113 m) in 2004. For many years, one specimen simply named "Tall Tree" in Prairie Creek Redwoods State Park and within the RNSP was measured at 367.8 feet (112.11 m), but the top 10 feet (3 m) of the tree was reported to have died in the 1990s. [Carle, Janet, [http://www.cspra.com/wave04/tree.html Tracking the Tallest Tree] , "California State Park Rangers Association", URL retrieved May 22, 2006] One tree that fell in 1991 was reported to be 372.04 feet (113.4 m). Only the Giant Sequoia has more mass. The largest redwood by volume is the 42,500 cubic foot (1,205 m³) " Lost Monarch", located in Jedediah Smith Redwoods State Park. Mature Coast redwoods live an average of 800-1500 years and a few are documented to be 2,000 years old, [National Park Service [http://www.nps.gov/history/history/online_books/shirley/sec12.htm Redwoods of the Coast and Sierra] , "Comparison of Coast Redwood and Sierra Redwood", URL retrieved September 26, 2007] making them some of the longest-living organisms on earth. They are highly resistant to disease, due to a thick protective bark and high tannincontent. Redwoods prefer sheltered slopes, slightly inland and near water sources such as rivers and streams, and are very fast-growing. [U.S. Geological Survey, [http://biology.usgs.gov/s+t/SNT/noframe/ca162.htm California: Ecological Provinces] , "Status and Trends of the Nation's Biological Resources", URL retrieved June 20, 2006]
Redwood trees develop enormous limbs that accumulate deep organic soils and can support tree-sized trunks growing on them. This typically occurs above convert|150|ft|m. Scientists have recently discovered that plants that normally grow on the forest floor also grow in these soils, well above ground. The soil mats provide homes to
invertebrates, mollusks, earthworms, and salamanders. During droughtseasons, some treetops die back, but the trees do not die outright. Instead, redwoods have developed mechanisms to regrow new trunks from other limbs. These secondary trunks, called "reiterations", also develop root systems in the accumulated soils at their bases. This helps transport water to the highest reaches of the trees. Coastal fog also provides up to one-third of their annual water needs. [Redwood National and State Parks, [http://www.nps.gov/applications/parks/redw/ppdocuments/Visitor%20Guide_05.pdf Visitors Guide] , .pdf, URL retrieved May 27, 2006]
Another large tree commonly found in the forest is the
Douglas-fir, which has been measured at heights of over 300 feet (90 m). Sitka Spruceare plentiful along the coast and are better adapted to salty air than other species. The evergreenhardwood tanoakproduces a nut similar to the acorns produced by the related genus Quercus ( oak). Both tanoaks and oaks are members of the beech family. Trees such as the madrone, big-leaf maple, California laurel, and red alder are also widespread throughout the parks. Huckleberry, blackberry, and salmonberryare part of the forest understoryand provide food for many animal species. The California rhododendron and azaleaare flowering shrubs common in the park, especially in old growth forest. [Redwood National and State Parks, [http://www.nps.gov/redw/home.html Vegetation] , URL retrieved May 22, 2006] Plants such as the sword fern are prolific, especially near ample water sources. In Prairie Creek Redwoods State Park, Fern Canyonis a well-known ravine 30 to 50 feet (10–15 m) deep, with walls completely covered in ferns.
The ecosystems of RNSP preserve a number of rare animal species. Numerous ecosystems exist, with seacoast, river, prairie, and densely forested zones all within the park. The
brown pelicanand tidewater gobyare federally listed endangered speciesthat live near the Pacific coastline. The bald eagle, which usually nests near a water source, is listed as a threatened species, a designation which includes vulnerable, endangered, and critically endangeredspecies, by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; the state of California lists it as endangered. The chinook salmon, northern-spotted owl, and the Steller's sea lionare a few of the other animal species that are threatened. [Redwood National and State Parks, [http://www.nps.gov/redw/home.html Threatened/Endangered Species] , URL retrieved May 24, 2006]
Over 40 species of mammals have been documented, including the black bear,
mountain lion, bobcat, beaver, river otter, black-tailed deer, elk, and coyote. Along the coastline, California sea lions, Steller Sea Lions and harbor seals live near the shore and on seastacks, rocky outcroppings forming small islands just off the coast. Dolphins and Pacific gray whales are occasionally seen offshore. Roosevelt elkare the most readily observed of the large mammals in the park. Successful herds, brought back from the verge of extinction in the region, are now a common site in park areas south of the Klamath River. Many smaller mammals live in the high forest canopy. Different species of bats, such as the big brown batand other smaller mammals including the red squirrel and northern flying squirrel, spend most of their lives well above the forest floor. [Redwood National and State Parks, [http://www.nps.gov/applications/parks/redw/ppdocuments/Visitor%20Guide_05.pdf Discovering the unseen world] , .pdf, pg. 5, "Visitors Guide", URL retrieved June 5, 2006]
Brown pelicans and
double-crested cormorants are mainly found on cliffs along the coast and on seastacks, while sandpipers and gulls inhabit the seacoast and inland areas. Inland, freshwater dependent birds such as the common merganser, osprey, red-shouldered hawk, great blue heron, and Stellar's jay are a few of the species that have been documented. Reptiles and amphibians can also be found in the parks, with the northwestern ringneck snake, red-legged frog, pacific giant salamander, and the rough-skinned newt most commonly seen. [Redwood National and State Parks, [http://www.nps.gov/redw/home.html River and stream wildlife] , URL retrieved May 26, 2006]
The northern coastal region of California, which includes RNSP and the adjacent offshore area, is the most
seismically active in the U.S. [Redwood National and State Parks, [http://www.nps.gov/redw/geology.html Geologic Setting] , "Geology", URL retrieved June 9, 2006] Frequent minor earthquakes in the park and offshore under the Pacific Ocean have resulted in shifting river channels, landslides, and erosionof seaside cliffs. The North American, Pacific, and Gorda Plates are tectonic platesthat all meet at the Mendocino triple junction, only 100 miles (160 km) southwest of the parks. During the 1990s, more than nine magnitude 6.0 earthquakes occurred along this fault zone, and there is always potential for a major earthquake. [Oppenheimer, David, [http://woodshole.er.usgs.gov/operations/obs/rmobs_pub/html/mendocino.html Mendocino Triple Junction Offshore Northern California] , "A Policy for Rapid Mobilization of USGS OBS (RMOBS)", U.S. Geological Survey, Woods Hole Science Center, URL retrieved June 3, 2006] The park ensures that visitors are aware of the potential for a major earthquake through the use of pamphlets and information posted throughout the parks. The threat of a tsunamiis of particular concern, and visitors to the seacoast are told to seek higher ground immediately after any significant earthquake. [Redwood National and State Parks, [http://www.nps.gov/redw/geology.html Earthquake warnings] , "Geology", URL retrieved May 27, 2006] Both coastline and the Coast Rangescan be found within park boundaries. The majority of the rocks in the parks are part of the Franciscan Assemblage, uplifted from the ocean floor millions of years ago. These sedimentary rocks are primarily sandstones, siltstones, and shales, with lesser amounts of metamorphic rocks such as chertand greenstone. For the most part, these rocks are easily eroded, and can be viewed along the seacoast and where rivers and streams have cut small gorges. Formed during the Cretaceousage, they are highly deformed from uplift and folding processes. In some areas, river systems have created fluvialdeposits of sandstones, mudstones, and conglomerates, which are transported into the park from upstream. Redwood Creek follows the Grogan Fault; along the west bank of the creek, schistand other metamorphic rocks can be found, while sedimentary rocks of the Franciscan Assemblage are located on the east bank. [United Nations Environment Programme World Conservation Monitoring Centre, [http://www.unep-wcmc.org/index.html?http://sea.unep-wcmc.org/sites/wh/redwood.html~main World Heritage Sites] , "Redwood National Park", (December 13, 2005), URL retrieved May 27, 2006]
Weatherin RNSP is greatly influenced by the Pacific Ocean. Coastal temperatures generally range between 40 and 60 degrees Fahrenheit (4—15 °C) all year round, while further from the coast summers are hotter and drier, and winters are colder. Redwoods mostly grow a mile or two (1.5—3 km) from the coast, but never more than 50 miles (80 km) from it. In this temperate, but humid coastal zone the trees receive moisture from both potentially heavy winter rains and persistent fog, especially during the summer. But it seems the presence and consistency of the summer fog is actually more important to overall health of the trees than significant precipitation. This fact is born out in annual precipitation totals, which range between 25 and 122 inches (63 and 310 cm) annually, with healthy Redwood forests throughout the areas of less precipitation because excessive needs for water are mitigated by the ever present summer fog and the cooler temperatures it ensures. Snow is uncommon even on peaks above 1,500 feet (450 m), further exemplifying the mild, temperate nature of this northern latitude (which is actually further north than the latitude of New York City). [National Park Service: Nature and Science, [http://www2.nature.nps.gov/geology/parks/redw/ Geology Field Notes] , "Redwood National and State Parks", URL retrieved September 22, 2007]
Wildfires are a natural part of most terrestrial ecosystems. In many ways nature has adapted to fire, and the absence of fire can often be disadvantageous. [National Park Service, [http://www.nps.gov/fire/educational/edu_tea_firefacts16.html Fire Ecology] , "Fire and Aviation Management", URL retrieved June 3, 2006] Wildfire eliminates dead and decayed plant and tree matter, enriching the soil and ensuring that healthier trees have less competition for limited nutrients. Until the arrival of European settlers, wildfires periodically burned sections of the redwood forest. From 1850, however, fires were combatted by logging interests, who were concerned both with a loss of their commodity and with the threat to personal safety that fire presented. Miners and loggers who came to the region set out to ensure that all fires would be suppressed as quickly as possible, and the net result was a buildup of dead and decaying flora. During the 1970s, research indicated that there was an immediate need to allow natural fires to burn, so long as personal safety and structures were not compromised. Later, man-made fires were deliberately set to burn off plant matter and reduce the risk of a major firestorm. In the RNSP, a fire management plan monitors all fires, weather patterns and the fuel load (dead and decaying plant material). This fuel load is removed from areas near structures and where fire poses high risk to the public, and controlled burns are used elsewhere. [Redwood National and State Parks, [http://www.nps.gov/applications/parks/redw/ppdocuments/ACF1183.pdf Fire Management Plan Environmental Assessment, May 2005] , .pdf, URL retrieved June 3, 2006] The National Interagency Fire Centerprovides additional firefighters and equipment in the event of a large fire.
Fire is also used to protect prairie grasslands from invasion by
exotic speciesand to keep out forest encroachment, ensuring sufficient rangeland for elk and deer. The oak forest regions also benefit from controlled burns, as Douglas fir would otherwise eventually take over and decrease biodiversity. The use of fire in old growth redwood zones reduces dead and decaying material, and lessens the mortality of larger redwoods by eliminating competing vegetation. [Redwood National and State Parks, [http://www.nps.gov/redw/home.html Living with fire] , "Resource Management", URL retrieved June 2, 2006]
Other than the DeMartin Redwood Youth Hostel, a low-amenities shared lodging facility (near Klamath), there are no
hotels or motels within the parks boundaries. However, nearby towns provide small hotels and inns, with extensive lodging options available in the regional trading centers of Crescent City on the northern end of the park and Arcata and Eureka located to the south. The park is 340 miles (550 km) north of San Francisco, California, and 330 miles (530 km) south of Portland, Oregon, and U.S. Route 101passes through it from north to south. The Smith River National Recreation Area, part of the Six Rivers National Forest, is adjacent to the north end of RNSP.
While the state parks have front country campsites that can be driven to, the federal sections of the park do not, and hiking is the only way of reaching back country campsites. These are at Mill Creek campground in Del Norte Coast Redwoods State Park and Jedediah Smith campground in Jedediah Smith Redwoods State Park, which together have 251 campsites, the Elk Prairie campground in Prairie Creek Redwoods State Park which has 75, and the Gold Bluffs Beach campground which has 25 campsites. Other nearby state parks have additional front country camping. [National Park Service, [http://www.nps.gov/redw/pphtml/camping.html Camping] , "Redwood National and State Parks", URL retrieved May 27, 2006] Back country camping is by permit only and is only allowed in designated sites, except on gravel bars along Redwood Creek. The back country is highly regulated to prevent overuse and to permit as many groups as possible to explore the forest. Camping in the back country is therefore limited to five consecutive nights, and 15 nights in any one year. Proper food storage to minimize encounters with bears is strongly enforced, [Redwood National and State Parks, [http://www.nps.gov/redw/home.html Backcountry] , URL retrieved May 27, 2006] and hikers and backpackers are required to take out any trash they generate.
Almost 200 miles (320 km) of hiking trails exist in the parks, but during the rainy season some temporary footbridges are removed, as they would be destroyed by high streams. Throughout the year, trails are often wet and hikers need to be well prepared for rainy weather and consult information centers for updates on trail conditions.
Horsebackriding and mountain bikingare popular but are only allowed on certain trails. Kayaking is popular along the seacoast and in the various rivers and streams. Kayakers and canoeists frequently travel the Smith River, which is the longest un dammed river remaining in California. Fishingfor salmonand steelhead, a highly prized anadromousform of rainbow troutover convert|16|in|cm, is best in the Smith and Klamath rivers. A California sport fishing license is required to fish any of the rivers and streams. Hunting is not permitted anywhere in the parks, but is allowed in nearby National Forests.
The park has two visitor centers and three additional information points. At the visitor centers, guided nature walks and general information is available. Each campground offers campfire talks during the summer months as well as guided tours. The parks have many
picnicareas, which are all easily accessed by vehicle.
The park has served as location shots for numerous films. The Endor scenes for the
Star Warsfilm, " Return of the Jedi" (Episode VI) were filmed in the Tall Trees Redwood Grove in the northern part of Humboldt County. Scenes for "" as well as the movie "Outbreak", were filmed at the nearby Prairie Creek Redwoods State Parkand at Patrick's Point State Park. [Humboldt County Film Commission, [http://www.filmhumboldt.com/ Sensational Humboldt] , URL retrieved August 4, 2006] The films " The Big Trees" and " Valley of the Giants" were also filmed here, near Orick. The film "E.T.", was filmed in the Del Norte Coast Redwoods State Park.
The following three California State Parks are co-managed within the RNSP system:
Del Norte Coast Redwoods State Park
Jedediah Smith Redwoods State Park
Prairie Creek Redwoods State Park
author=National Park Service
title=Redwood National and State Parks
author=Redwood National and State Parks
accessdate=2006 (PDF file)
first=National Park Service
title=Redwood: A Guide to Redwood National and State Parks, California
publisher=Interior Dept., National Park Service, Division of Publications
* [http://www.mdvaden.com/album_Redwoods.shtml Photos and Video of Pacific Coastal Redwood Forest]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Redwood National and State Parks — Redwood Nationalpark Küstenmammutbäume im Redwood Nationalpark … Deutsch Wikipedia
Redwood National Park — Parc national de Redwood Parc national Redwood Redwood National Park Catégorie II de la CMAP (Parc national) Emplacement Californie (États Unis) Ville proche Crescent City … Wikipédia en Français
Redwood National Park — a national park in N California: redwood forest with some of the world s tallest trees. 172 sq. mi. (445 sq. km). * * * National park, northwestern corner of California, U.S. It was established in 1968, expanded in 1978, and designated a World… … Universalium
List of Minnesota state parks — … Wikipedia
Holiday Inn Express Redwood National Park — (Klamath,США) Категория отеля: 2 звездочный отель Адрес: 1 … Каталог отелей
Redwood-Nationalpark — Küstenmammutbäume im Redwood Nationalpark … Deutsch Wikipedia
National Park Service — Arrowhead Agency overview Formed August 25, 1916 Jurisdiction … Wikipedia
Redwood — may refer to:* Family Cupressaceae (conifers) ** Sequoia sempervirens Coast Redwood ** Sequoiadendron giganteum Giant Sequoia or Sierra Redwood ** Metasequoia glyptostroboides Dawn Redwood ** Cryptomeria japonica Sugi* Family Pinaceae (conifers)… … Wikipedia
Redwood Creek (Humboldt County) — Redwood Creek is a large stream in Humboldt County, California. The rivers headwaters are in the Coast Range at about 5,000 feet and it flows roughly northwest until it empties into the Pacific Ocean near the small town of Orick, the only urban… … Wikipedia
Redwood County, Minnesota — Location in the state of Minnesota … Wikipedia