Port Chicago disaster

Infobox Military Conflict
conflict= Port Chicago Disaster


caption= Damage at the Port Chicago Pier after the 17 July, 1944 explosion
date=July 17, 1944
place=Port Chicago Naval Magazine, Port Chicago, California
casus=
result=320 killed
400 injured

The Port Chicago disaster was a deadly explosion that took place on July 17 1944 at the Port Chicago Naval Magazine in Port Chicago, California, in the United States. Ammunition being loaded aboard cargo vessels bound for the war in the Pacific exploded, killing 320 sailors and civilians, and injuring more than 400 others. Most of the dead and injured were African American recruits, and the continuing unsafe conditions even after the disaster resulted in a number of servicemen refusing to work, known as the Port Chicago Mutiny, a month later.

Background

The town of Port Chicago, California, was located on Suisun Bay in the estuary of the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers, connected to the Pacific Ocean via San Francisco Bay. This was the site of a U. S. Navy munitions depot which was later renamed the Concord Naval Weapons Station.

Port Chicago Naval Magazine

The Port Chicago Naval Magazine was built in 1941 and 1942, shortly after the Pearl Harbor attack at the beginning of World War II. Located just outside Pittsburg, California, Port Chicago was an ammunition storage facility where ships were equipped. Bombs, shells, mines, and other explosive ordnance devices were transferred from railcars to ships, whence they would be moved to locations in the Pacific Theatre.

All the enlisted men acting as loaders at Port Chicago were African-Americans. [http://www.history.com/minisite.do?content_type=Minisite_Generic&content_type_id=582&display_order=8&mini_id=1071 History.com. Black History. "The Port Chicago Mutiny"] ] Their commanding officers were white.

The Port Chicago disaster

On July 17 1944, a merchant ship docked at Port Chicago, the SS "Quinault Victory", was being prepared to take on cargo. Another merchant ship, the SS "E.A. Bryan", was across the platform from it, in the process of being loaded with almost 5,000 tons of high explosives, bombs, depth charges, and ammunition. On the pier were sixteen rail cars with over 450 more tons of explosives.

At 10:18 p.m., an explosion occurred on the pier and a fire started. Six seconds later, a more powerful explosion took place as the entire contents of the SS "E.A. Bryan" simultaneously detonated, destroying the pier and much of the surrounding town and area with an explosive force felt as far as Las Vegas, Nevada, about 500 miles (800 km) away. Chunks of metal and wood were flung thousands of feet into the air, and windows in the surrounding towns were shattered, causing many additional injuries.320 of the sailors on duty died instantly and 390 others were injured, many seriously. Of the deaths from the explosion, 202 were African Americans, and the accident accounted for 15 percent of all African American casualties in World War II. Naval personnel worked quickly to contain the fires and to prevent other explosions from occurring. The nearby town was evacuated.

The cause of the explosion at the Port Chicago Naval Magazine was never determined, although it was attributed to some sort of mistake in the loading of the torpedoes and other ordnance into the ship, which was notoriously difficult work, especially under rushed conditions. The final Naval inquiry claimed it was impossible to determine the cause of the explosion.

The Port Chicago mutiny

After the fires had been contained, the gruesome task of cleaning up remained—body parts and corpses littered the bay and port. Less than a month later, these same sailors involved in the cleanup of their colleagues were themselves ordered to resume the dangerous task of ammunition loading. On August 9 1944 (three weeks after the disaster), 258 out of the 320 African-American sailors in the ordnance battalion refused to load any ammunition, in what was later branded the "Port Chicago mutiny". It was seen as underscoring the tense race relations in the armed forces at the time. Despite the clear questions about unsafe working conditions at the facility and the unequal treatment of African-American enlistees compared to their white commanding officers, the case went to court-martial.

The Port Chicago 50

Two hundred and eight sailors were convicted in summary courts-martial, and received bad conduct discharges. The remaining 50 men, known today as The Port Chicago 50, were found guilty of mutiny in a subsequent court martial, and were sentenced to dishonorable discharges and prison sentences of 8 and 15 years of hard labor.

Future Supreme Court Justice Thurgood Marshall sued the Navy on behalf of the 50 sailors. Although he was unable to get the convictions overturned, Marshall succeeded in winning clemency for the 50 sailors, but not until after the war in 1946.

Freddie Meeks, one of the few remaining survivors of the 50 court-martialed sailors, petitioned for a Presidential pardon after a Congressional effort to have the convictions overturned was unsuccessful. In September 1999, Congressman George Miller (Democrat, CA 7th Dist) and 36 other members of Congress sent a letter to President Clinton requesting he grant the pardon. In December the same year, President Bill Clinton issued a pardon for Meeks.

Port Chicago today

, dedicated to the lives lost in the explosion and crediting the aftermath of the disaster as the first step toward "racial justice and equality" in the United States.

Incident in popular culture

The disaster was featured in a "JAG" episode titled "" that aired in April 2002.

The story of the Port Chicago 50 was the subject of the 1999 Emmy-nominated TV film "Mutiny" written by James S. Henerson, directed by Kevin Hooks with Morgan Freeman as one of three executive producers.

Five of the survivors of the disaster (including Meeks) were featured on the radio show This American Life, in the episode "The Job That Takes Over Your Life", which originally aired 9/27/96.

See also

* Port Chicago Naval Magazine National Memorial
* Halifax Explosion
* Texas City Disaster
* List of the largest artificial non-nuclear explosions

References and/or further reading

Books

*cite book
last = Allen
first = Robert L.
authorlink =
year = 2006
chapter =
title = The Port Chicago Mutiny
publisher = Heyday Books
location = Berkeley, CA
isbn = 9781597140287
oclc = 63179024

External links

* [http://www.history.navy.mil/faqs/faq80-1.htm U.S. Navy version of the incident]
* [http://www.usmm.org/portchicago.html U.S. Maritime Service Veterans memorial page]
* [http://www.nps.gov/poch/ Port Chicago Naval Magazine National Monument] - National Park Service site
* [http://www.cccoe.k12.ca.us/pc The Port Chicago Disaster: A Resource for Students and Teachers]
* [http://www.talkinghistory.org/collison.html The Port Chicago 50: An Oral History by Dan Collison]
* [http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0181769/ Mutiny at IMDb]


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Port Chicago — can refer to:* Port Chicago, California, a town in the United States. * Port Chicago disaster, a deadly explosion that occurred at the Port Chicago Naval Magazine in Port Chicago, California on 17 July 1944, killing 320 people * Port Chicago… …   Wikipedia

  • Port-Chicago-Katastrophe — Port Chicago Naval Magazine National Memorial Gedenkstätte …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Port Charles (fictional city) — Port Charles, New York Skyline as seen in the General Hospital: Night Shift opening. Notable in the skyline are General Hospital, ELQ, and the Metro Court Hotel General Hospital …   Wikipedia

  • Chicago Fire Department — Established August 2, 1858 Staffing Career Strength 4 …   Wikipedia

  • Port of Haifa — The Port of Haifa is the largest of Israel s three major international seaports, which include the Port of Ashdod, and the Port of Eilat. It has a natural deep water harbor which operates all year long, and serves both passenger and cargo ships.… …   Wikipedia

  • Port-au-Prince — Infobox Settlement official name = Ville de Pagename other name = native name = (Vil Pòtoprens in Haitian Creole) nickname = settlement type = motto = imagesize =300px image caption = Port au Prince (Rue Césars / Rue Docteur Aubry) flag size =… …   Wikipedia

  • Hindenburg disaster — Infobox Aircraft accident name = LZ 129 Hindenburg caption = Hindenburg a few seconds after catching fire. date = May 6, 1937 type = Airship fire site = Lakehurst Naval Air Station in Manchester Township, New Jersey coords =… …   Wikipedia

  • History of Chicago — Site of Chicagou on the lake, in Guillaume de L Isle s map (Paris, 1718) The history of Chicago, Illinois, has played an important role in the history of the United States. Americans founded the city in 1832. The Chicago area s recorded history… …   Wikipedia

  • Great Chicago Fire — Artist s rendering of the fire, by John R. Chapin, originally printed in Harper s Weekly; the view faces northeast across the Randolph Street Bridge. The Great Chicago Fire was a conflagration that burned from Sunday, October 8, to early Tuesday …   Wikipedia

  • 1871 Great Chicago Fire — The Great Chicago Fire was a conflagration that burned from Sunday October 8 to early Tuesday October 10, 1871, killing hundreds and destroying about four square miles in Chicago, Illinois. Though the fire was one of the largest U.S. disasters of …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.