Pharynx


Pharynx

Infobox Anatomy
Name = PAGENAME
Latin =
GraySubject = 244 | GrayPage = 1141 |
| Caption = Head and neck.


Caption2 = Pharynx
Precursor =
System =
Artery = pharyngeal branches of ascending pharyngeal artery, ascending palatine, descending palatine, pharyngeal branches of inferior thyroid
Vein = pharyngeal veins
Nerve = pharyngeal plexus
Lymph =
MeshName = Pharynx
MeshNumber = A03.556.750
DorlandsPre = p_16
DorlandsSuf = 12633198
The pharynx (plural: "pharynges") is the part of the neck and throat situated immediately posterior to (behind) the mouth and nasal cavity, and cranial, or superior, to the oesophagus, larynx, and trachea.

Functions

It was part of the digestive system and respiratory system of many organisms.

Because both food and air pass through the pharynx, a flap of connective tissue called the epiglottis closes over the trachea when food is swallowed to prevent choking or aspiration. In humans the pharynx is important in vocalization.

In persons with hayfever, oral allergy syndrome and related allergies, the pharynx is often a reaction site to allergens, with common symptoms including burning and itching.

Parts

The human pharynx is conventionally divided into three sections:

Oropharynx

The oropharynx lies behind the oral cavity. The anterior wall consists of the base of the tongue and the vallecula; the lateral wall is made up of the tonsil, tonsillar fossa, and tonsillar (faucial) pillars; the superior wall consists of the inferior surface of the soft palate and the uvula.

Nasopharynx

The nasopharynx lies behind the nasal cavity.

Postero-superiorly this extends from the level of the junction of the hard and soft palates to the base of skull, laterally to include the fossa of Rosenmuller.

The inferior wall consists of the superior surface of the soft palate.

Laryngopharynx

The laryngopharynx, also known as the hypopharynx, roughly corresponds to the levels between C4 to C6, it includes the pharyngo-esophageal junction (postcricoid area), the piriform sinus, and the posterior pharyngeal wall.

Like the oropharynx above it the hypopharynx serves as a passageway for food and air and is lined with a stratified squamous epithelium.

It lies inferior to the upright epiglottis and extends to the larynx, where the respiratory and digestive pathways diverge.

At that point, the laryngopharynx is continuous with the esophagus posteriorly. The esophagus conducts food and fluids to the stomach; air enters the larynx anteriorly. During swallowing, food has the "right of way", and air passage temporarily stops.


=Additional

References

*
* "Human Anatomy and Physiology" Elaine N. Marieb and Katja Hoehn, Seventh Edition.
* "TNM Classification of Malignant Tumours" Sobin LH & Wittekind Ch (eds)Sixth edition UICC 2002 ISBN 0-471-22288-7

ee also

*Adenoid
*Eustachian tube
*Hyoid
*Keratosis pharyngis
*Larynx
*Tonsil
*Uvula

External links

*


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • pharynx — [ farɛ̃ks ] n. m. • 1538; faringa fin XVe; gr. pharugx, pharuggos « gorge » ♦ Conduit musculo membraneux qui constitue un carrefour des voies digestives et respiratoires, entre la bouche et l œsophage d une part, les fosses nasales et le larynx d …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Pharynx — Phar ynx, n.; pl. {pharynges}. [NL., fr. Gr. ?, ?: cf. F. pharynx.] (Anat.) The part of the alimentary canal between the cavity of the mouth and the esophagus. It has one or two external openings through the nose in the higher vertebrates, and… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • pharynx — 1690s, from Gk. pharynx (gen. pharyngos) windpipe, throat, related to pharanx cleft, chasm …   Etymology dictionary

  • pharynx — [far′iŋks] n. pl. pharynges [fə rin′jēz΄] or pharynxes [ModL < Gr pharynx (gen. pharyngos), throat < IE * bhorg , throat, gullet > L frumen] the muscular and membranous cavity of the alimentary canal leading from the mouth and nasal… …   English World dictionary

  • Pharynx — (gr.), der Schlundkopf; daher Pharingēus, auf den Schlundkopf sich beziehend. Pharyngītis, Entzündung des Schlundkopfs. Pharyngokēle, Schlundkopfvorfall. Pharyngopalatinus musculus, Gaumenrachenmuskel. Pharyngoparalysis, Schlundkopflähmung.… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Pharynx — (griech.), der Schlundkopf (s. d.) …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Pharynx — Pharynx, griech., der Schlund; Pharyngitis, Entzündung des Schlundkopfs …   Herders Conversations-Lexikon

  • Pharynx — Pharynx, Schlund, bei vielen Wirbellosen muskulöser vorderster Abschnitt des Verdauungstrakts; bei Wirbeltieren aus dem ⇒ Kiemendarm hervorgehendes Verbindungsstück zwischen Mundhöhle und Oesophagus sowie zwischen Nasenhöhle und Kehlkopf …   Deutsch wörterbuch der biologie

  • pharynx — ► NOUN (pl. pharynges) ▪ the membrane lined cavity behind the nose and mouth, connecting them to the oesophagus. ORIGIN Greek pharunx …   English terms dictionary

  • pharynx — /far ingks/, n., pl. pharynges /feuh rin jeez/, pharynxes. Anat. the tube or cavity, with its surrounding membrane and muscles, that connects the mouth and nasal passages with the esophagus. See diag. under mouth. [1685 95; < NL < Gk phárynx… …   Universalium

  • Pharynx — Système respiratoire humain Le pharynx est un carrefour aéro digestif entre les voies aériennes (de la cavité nasale au larynx) et les voies digestives (de la cavité buccale ou bouche à l œsophage). On rencontre également à son niveau l ouverture …   Wikipédia en Français


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.