House of Valois


House of Valois

The House of Valois was a cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty, succeeding the House of Capet (or 'Direct Capetians') as kings of France from 1328 to 1589. A cadet branch of the family reigned as dukes of Burgundy from 1361 to 1482.

They were descendants of Charles of Valois, the fourth son of King Philip III and based their claim to be ahead of Edward III of England and Jeanne de Navarre on a reintroduction of the Salic law.

Unexpected inheritance

The Capetian dynasty seemed secure both during and after the reign of Philip IV. Philip had left three surviving sons (Louis, Philip and Charles) and a daughter (Isabella). Each son became king in turn, but died young and without male heirs (all had daughters though). When Charles IV died in 1328, the French Succession was thrown wide open.

In 1328 there were 3 reasonable candidates to the throne;

• Jeanne, daughter of Louis X who was then 16 years old. She would become Joan II of Navarre in later years.

• Isabella of France, daughter and only surviving child of Philip IV. She was the sister to the previous three Kings of France. She had been married to the late King Edward II of England and was the mother of the new King of England Edward III.

• Philip, son of Charles of Valois, who was the closest male heir and grandson of Philip III. Because his father was the brother of the late Philip IV, he was therefore a nephew of Philip IV and the cousin of Louis X, Philip V and Charles IV. Ironically he would be known as 'the fortunate' for his previous slim chance of becoming King.

Under Salic law, which only recognised the male line, the throne would be passed through the male descendants of Charles of Valois. In England, King Edward III heard the news and made his own bid for the crown. His mother was Isabella, the sister of the three previous Kings of France, and as such his claim was very strong (were it not for Salic law). As expected, Edward’s protests fell on deaf ears. It was obvious that no Frenchman would accept an English king as his ruler.

Because diplomacy and negotiation had failed, Edward III would have to back his ideas with force if he was to claim the throne. These events were a key reason for the Hundred Years War between England and France.

List of Valois kings of France

Valois (direct)

*Philippe VI, the Fortunate 1328-1350, son of Charles of Valois
*Jean II, the Good 1350-1364
*Charles V, the Wise 1364-1380
*Charles VI, the Well-Beloved, later known as the Mad 1380-1422
*Charles VII, the Victorious or the Well-Served 1422-1461
*Louis XI, the Universal Spider 1461-1483
*Charles VIII, the Affable 1483-1498

Valois-Orléans

*Louis XII, the Father of His People 1498-1515, great-grandson of Charles V of France

Valois-Angoulême

*François I -- 1515-1547, great-great-grandson of Charles V of France
*Henri II -- 1547-1559
*François II -- 1559-1560
*Charles IX -- 1560-1574
*Henri III -- 1574-1589

The application of the Salic Law meant that with the extinction of the Valois line on the male side, the Bourbon Dynasty followed as descendants of Louis IX.

List of Valois kings of Poland

*Henryk I -- 1573-1574

Other significant titles held by the House of Valois

Counts and Dukes of Anjou (House of Valois-Anjou)

* Louis I, duke (1360–1383) (also king of Jerusalem and Naples as Louis I), second son of John II of France
* Louis II (1377–1417), son of (also king of Naples as Louis II)
* Louis III (1403–1434), son of (also king of Naples as Louis III)
* René I (1409–1480), brother of (also king of Jerusalem and Naples as René I)
* Charles IV (1436–1481), nephew of

Dukes of Burgundy (House of Valois-Burgundy)

* Philip II the Bold (13631404), fourth son of John II of France
* John II the Fearless (14041419)
* Philip III the Good (14191467)
* Charles I the Bold (14671477)
* Mary I the Rich (14771482)

Dukes of Brabant (House of Valois-Burgundy-Brabant)

* Anthony I (1406–1415), second son of Philip the Bold of Burgundy
* John IV (1415–1427)
* Philip I (1427–1430)

Counts of Nevers (House of Valois-Burgundy-Nevers)

* Philip II (1404–1415), third son of Philip the Bold of Burgundy
* Charles I (1415–1464)
* John II (1464–1491)

Counts and Dukes of Alençon (House of Valois-Alençon)

* Charles II, count (1325-1346), second son of Charles of Valois
* Charles III, count (1346-1361)
* Peter II, count (1361–1391)
* John I, count (1391–1414)
* John I, duke (1414-1415)
* John II, duke (1415-1424 and 1449–1474)
* René I, duke (1478-1492)
* Charles IV, duke (1492–1525)

Illegitimate family branches

* House of Valois-Dunois, counts of Longueville (see Jean de Dunois)
* House of Valois-Saint-Remy, counts of Saint-Rémy (see Jeanne of Valois-Saint-Rémy)

Forms of address

Forms of address for Valois kings included "Most Christian Majesty".

ee also

* List of French monarchs
* Kings of France family tree
* Early Modern France
* Ancien Régime in France
* Valois Tapestries

References

External links

* [http://www.valois.org www.valois.org] - The Royal House Of Valois

-


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • House of Valois-Anjou — The Valois House of Anjou, or the Younger House of Anjou, was a noble French family, deriving from the royal family, the House of Valois. They were monarchs of Naples, as well as various other territories.The house began in the 1350s, when king… …   Wikipedia

  • House of Valois-Burgundy — The term Valois Dukes of Burgundy is employed to refer to the dynasty which began after John II of France (also Duke of Burgundy as John I) granted the Duchy of Burgundy to his youngest son, Philip the Bold*Philip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy as… …   Wikipedia

  • House of Orléans — Country France Ancestral house House of Bourbon descended from Capetian dynasty Titles …   Wikipedia

  • House of Capet — For a full history of the Capetian family, see Capetian dynasty. History of France …   Wikipedia

  • House of Bourbon — Bourbons redirects here. For other uses, see Bourbon (disambiguation). House of Bourbon Country France, Navarre, Spain, Luxembourg Ancestral house Capetian Dynasty …   Wikipedia

  • Valois Dynasty — ▪ French dynasty       the royal house of France from 1328 to 1589, ruling the nation from the end of the feudal period into the early modern age. The Valois kings continued the work of unifying France and centralizing royal power begun under… …   Universalium

  • Valois Tapestries — The Valois Tapestries are a series of eight tapestries depicting festivities or magnificences Strong, Roy, Splendor at Court , pp. 121–167.] at the Court of France in the second half of the 16th century. The tapestries were worked in the Spanish… …   Wikipedia

  • House of Habsburg — Habsburg redirects here. For the House of Habsburg Lorraine, please see House of Lorraine. For other uses, please see Habsburg (disambiguation). House of Habsburg Country Austria, Holy Roman Empire, Spain Italy …   Wikipedia

  • House of Baux — The House of Baux is a French noble family from the south of France.Lords of Baux*Pons (971 ?) *Hugh 1 (? 1059), son of *William I Hugh (1050 1110), son of *Raymond I (1110 1150), son of *Hugh II (1150 1167) son of *Betrand I (1167 1181), brother …   Wikipedia

  • House of Guise —     House of Guise     † Catholic Encyclopedia ► House of Guise     The House of Guise, a branch of the ducal family of Lorraine, played an important part in the religious troubles of France during the seventeenth century. By reason of descent… …   Catholic encyclopedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.