- Alfonso, Duke of Anjou and Cádiz
Alfonso, Duke of Anjou and Cádiz ("Alfonso Jaime Marcelino Manuel Victor Maria de Borbón y Dampierre", French citizen as "Alphonse de Bourbon") (
April 20, 1936– January 30, 1989) was a grandson of King Alfonso XIII of Spainand a legitimistclaimant to the throne of France.
Alfonso was born in the Clinica Santa Anna in
Rome, [Begoña Aranguren, "Emanuela de Dampierre, Memorias: Esposa y madre de los Borbones que pudieron reinar en España" (Madrid: Esfera, 2003), 111.] the elder son of Infante Jaime of Spain and of his wife, Emmanuelle de Dampierre. He was baptised at the home of his maternal grandmother, the Italian princess Donna Vittoria Ruspoli, of the princes of Poggio Suasa, the Palazzo Ruspoli, on the Via del Corsoby Cardinal Eugenio Pacelli (later Pope Pius XII). [Aranguren, 112; Marc Dem, "Le duc d'Anjou m'a dit: La vie de l'aîné des Bourbons" (Paris: Perrin, 1989), 16.]
Since Alfonso's mother was not born a princess of royal descent, his grandfather Alfonso XIII did not consider young Alfonso in line to the Spanish throne in accordance with the
Pragmatic Sanctionof 1776. Alfonso's father Jaime disagreed, however, and maintained that his sons were Spanish dynasts with the style "His Royal Highness".Fact|date=September 2007 In Spain up until 1972 Alfonso was generally addressed as "Don Alfonso de Borbón y Dampierre". Elsewhere he was often addressed as a prince with the style "His Royal Highness".
From his birth Alfonso was considered a French prince with the style "His Royal Highness" by those legitimists who believed that Alfonso XIII was also the heir to the French throne. When his grandfather died
February 28, 1941, Alfonso's father Jaime succeeded him in this French claim; Alfonso was thereupon recognised by the legitimists as Dauphin of France.
In 1941 Alfonso moved with his family to
Lausannein Switzerland. They lived first at the Hotel Royal, before Alfonso and his younger brother Gonzalo were sent to the Collège Saint-Jean in Fribourg. [Dem, 23.] On 8 December 1946Alfonso made his first communion; on the same day he was confirmed by Cardinal Pedro Segura y Sáenz, Archbishop of Seville. [Dem, 24.]
November 25, 1950, Alfonso received the title "duc de Bourbon" ( Duke of Bourbon) from his father. ["État présent de la Maison de Bourbon", 3e éd. (Paris: Editions de Léopard d'or, 1985), 115.]
In the 1960s General
Francisco Francotoyed with the idea of naming Alfonso as his successor as Head of State of Spain, before designating Juan Carlos as the future monarch in July 1969. In December 1969 Alfonso was appointed Ambassador of Spain to Sweden, a position he held until 1973.
March 8, 1972, in the Palace of El Pardoin Madrid, Alfonso married Doña María del Carmen Martínez-Bordiú y Franco, daughter of Don Cristóbal Martínez-Bordiú, 10th Marquess of Villaverde, and of his wife, Doña Carmen Franco y Polo, 1st Duchess of Franco (only daughter of General Franco). The witnesses of the marriage were General Franco and Alfonso's mother. Alfonso and Carmen received a civil divorce 1982 and an annulmentin 1986.
Alfonso and Carmen had two sons:
* Don "Francisco" Alfonso Jaime Cristobal Victor José Gonzalo Cecilio de Borbón y Martínez-Bordiú (
November 22, 1972- February 7, 1984).
* Don "Luis-Alfonso" Gonzalo Victor Manuel de Borbón y Martínez-Bordiú (born 1974).
November 22, 1972, Alfonso received the Spanish title "duque de Cádiz" (Duke of Cadiz) from General Franco, and was recognised with the style "His Royal Highness". The title Duke of Cadiz was a title used by the Royal House of Spain and had formerly been held by Alfonso's great-great-grandfather the Infante Francisco de Asis.
March 20, 1975, Alfonso's father Jaime died; he was immediately recognised by his supporters as King Alphonse III of France. On August 3, 1975, he took the courtesy title "duc d'Anjou" ( Duke of Anjou). ["État présent de la Maison de Bourbon", 3e éd., 115.]
From 1977 to 1984 Alfonso was President of the Spanish Skiing Federation. From 1984 to 1987 he was President of the Spanish Olympic Committee. ["Alfonso de Borbón, 52, of Spain Dies in Colorado Skiing Accident", "The New York Times" (
February 1 1989): A19.]
February 7, 1984, Alfonso was driving home with his sons from a ski trip in the Pyrenees. His car collided with a truck. His eldest son Francisco was killed in the accident; his younger son Luis-Alfonso was in hospital for a month; Alfonso himself required six operations. [Marc Dem, "Le duc d'Anjou m'a dit: la vie de l'aîné des Bourbons" (Paris: Perrin, 1989), 139.] A judge ruled that Alfonso had been negligent and stripped him of the custody of Luis-Alfonso. ["Alfonso de Borbón, 52, of Spain Dies in Colorado Skiing Accident", "The New York Times" ( February 1 1989): A19.]
In 1987 Prince Henri d'Orléans, eldest son of the
Orléanistclaimant to the throne of France, initiated a court action against Alfonso for his use of the title Duke of Anjou and the coat-of-arms France Moderne (three fleur-de-lisor); Henri asked the court to fine Alfonso 50 000 French francs for each future violation. In 1988 Ferdinand, Duke of Castro and Prince Sixtus Henry of Bourbon-Parmajoined Henri's lawsuit in reference to the use of the title Duke of Anjou, but not in respect to the coat-of-arms. On December 21, 1988, the Tribunal de grand instance of Parisruled that the lawsuit was inadmissible because the title's legal existence could not be proven; that neither the plaintiff (Henri) nor the intervenors (Fernando and Sixtus) had established their claims to the title; and that Henri was not injured from the use of the plain arms of France by the Spanish branch of the Bourbon family. [François Velde, " [http://www.heraldica.org/topics/france/proces2.htm Lawsuit brought by the comte de Clermont against the duc d'Anjou (1987-89)] ".]
Alfonso died in a skiing accident in
Beaver Creek, Coloradoon January 30, 1989. ["Alfonso de Borbón, 52, of Spain Dies in Colorado Skiing Accident", "The New York Times" ( February 1 1989): A19.] He collided with a cable which was being raised to support a banner at the finish line of a course at the FIS Alpine World Ski Championships.
In March 1989 Prince Henri d'Orléans and Prince Sixtus Henry of Bourbon-Parma appealed the judgement in the lawsuit about the use of a title and arms by Alfonso; the original judgement against them was upheld.
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1= 1. Alfonso, Duke of Anjou and Cádiz
Infante Jaime, Duke of Segovia
3= 3. Emmanuelle de Dampierre
Alfonso XIII of Spain
Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg
6= 6. Roger de Dampierre, 2nd Duke of San Lorenzo
7= 7. Vittoria Ruspoli
Alfonso XII of Spain
Maria Christina of Austria
Prince Henry of Battenberg
Princess Beatrice of the United Kingdom
12= 12. Richard de Dampierre, 1st Duke of San Lorenzo
13= 13. Jeanne Carraby
14= 14. Emanuele Ruspoli, 1st Prince of Poggio-Suasa
15= 15. Josephine Mary Curtis
Francis of Spain
Isabella II of Spain
Archduke Karl Ferdinand of Austria
Archduchess Elisabeth Franziska of Austria
Prince Alexander of Hesse and by Rhine
Julia von Hauke
Albert, Prince Consort
Victoria of the United Kingdom
24= 24. Henri de Dampierre
25= 25. Élisabeth Corbin
26= 26. Pierre Etienne Carraby
27= 27. Marie Marguerite Ybry
28= 28. Bartolomeo Ruspoli
29= 29. Carolina Ratti
30= 30. Joseph David Curtis
31= 31. Elizabeth Shipton-Gilesahnentafel bottom
Dem, Marc. "Le duc d'Anjou m'a dit: la vie de l'aîné des Bourbons". Paris: Perrin, 1989. ISBN 226200725X.
Silve de Ventavon, Jean. "La légitimité des lys et le duc d'Anjou". Paris: Editions F. Lanore, 1989. ISBN 2851570609.
Zavala, José M. "Dos infantes y un destino". Barcelona: Plaza & Janés, 1998. ISBN 8401550068.
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