- Michael I Cerularius
Michael I Cerularius Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople See Patriarchate of Constantinople Enthroned 1043 Reign ended 1059 Predecessor Alexius I Studites Successor Constantine III Lichoudas Personal details Birth name Michael Keroularios Born Constantinople, Byzantine Empire Died Constantinople, Byzantine Empire Nationality Byzantine Denomination Eastern Orthodoxy Residence Constantinople
Michael I Cerularius (c. 1000–1059), also known as Michael Keroularios or Patriarch Michael I, was the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople from 1043 to 1059.
Born in Constantinople, Patriarch Michael I Cerularius is noted for disputing with Pope Leo IX over church practices in respect of which the Roman Church differed from Constantinople, especially the use of unleavened bread in the Eucharist.
- "The first pope who used it [the Donation] in an official act and relied upon it, was Leo IX; in a letter of 1054 to Michael Cærularius, Patriarch of Constantinople, he cites the "Donatio" to show that the Holy See possessed both an earthly and a heavenly imperium, the royal priesthood."
Leo IX assured the Patriarch that the donation was completely genuine, not a fable or old wives' tale, so only the apostolic successor to Peter possessed that primacy and was the rightful head of all the Church.
This letter of Pope Leo IX was addressed both to Michael Cærularius, Patriarch of Constantinople, and Leo of Ohrid, Archbishop of Bulgaria, and was in response to a letter sent by Leo, Metropolitan of Achrida to John, Bishop of Trani (in Apulia), that categorically attacked the customs of the Latin Church that differed from those of the Greeks. Especially criticized were the Roman traditions of fasting on the Saturday Sabbath and consecration of unleavened bread. Leo IX in his letter accused Constantinople of historically being the source of heresy and claimed in emphatic terms the primacy of the Bishop of Rome over even the Patriarch of Constantinople, who would have none of it.
It can be argued that in 1054 the Patriarch's letter to Pope Leo IX initiated the events which followed because it claimed the title "ecumenical patriarch" and addressed Pope Leo as "brother" rather than "father." Pope Leo IX sent Cardinal Humbert of Silva Candida on a legatine mission to treat with the Patriarch. Cerularius refused to meet with Cardinal Humbert and kept him waiting with no audience for months.
Thus, Cardinal Humbert of Silva Candida delivered a notice of excommunication against Patriarch Michael on July 16, 1054, despite the death of Pope Leo three months prior and thus the invalidity of the excommunication. Michael in turn excommunicated the cardinal and the Pope and subsequently removed the pope's name from the diptychs starting the East-West Schism.
This schism led to the end of the alliance between the Emperor and the Papacy, and caused later Popes to ally with the Normans against the Empire. Patriarch Michael closed the Latin churches in his area which exacerbated the schism. In 1965, those excommunications were rescinded by Pope Paul VI and Patriarch Athenagoras when they met in the Second Vatican Council. Although the excommunication delivered by Cardinal Humbert was invalid, this gesture represented a significant step towards restoring communion between Rome and Constantinople.
The short reign of the Empress Theodora saw Michael intrigue against the throne. Michael Psellus notes that while their initial relations had been cordial, once Theodora took the Imperial throne they entered into open conflict as Michael "was vexed because the Roman Empire was being governed by a woman" and on this topic "he spoke his mind freely.". The historian suggests that Theodora would have deposed Michael for his open effrontery and sedition had she lived longer.
Cerularius had a hand in negotiating the abdication of Michael VI Stratiotikos, convincing him to step down on 31 August 1057, in favour of the rebellious general Isaac, for whom the army declared on 8 June. The emperor duly followed the patriarch's advice and became a monk. Having had a role in bringing him to the throne, Cerularius next quarrelled with Isaac I Komnenos over confiscation of church property. Michael went so far as to take the highly symbolic step of donning the purple shoes ceremonially reserved for the Emperor. Michael apparently planned a rebellion to overthrow the Emperor and claim the Imperial Throne for himself or for his relative Constantine Doukas. Isaac exiled Michael to Proconnesus in 1058 and, as Michael refused to step down, had Psellus drew up the Accusation of heresy and treason against him. Cerularius died before coming to trial.
- Michael Psellus, Fourteen Byzantine Rulers (The Chronographia), E.R.A. Sewter, trans. New York: Penguin, 1966.
- Skylitzes, John (John Wortley, trans. and J-C. Cheynet, notes). Cambridge: University Press, 2010.
- ^ Michael Cærularius - Catholic Encyclopedia article
- ^ Migne's Patrologia Latina, Vol. 143 (cxliii), Col. 744-769. Also Mansi, Sacrorum Conciliorum Nova Amplissima Collectio, Vol. 19 (xix) Col. 635-656.
- ^ PSellus, p. 269.
- ^ Norwich, pg. 332
- ^ Psellus, p. 315. Editor's n. I. See also Skylitzes, p. 464, note 56.
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Constantine III Leichoudes
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Modern period (since 1923 AD)† in exile at Nicaea ‡ sometimes not counted among the patriarchs
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Michael I — may refer to: Michael I Rhangabes, Byzantine Emperor (died in 844) Michael I Cerularius, Patriarch Michael I of Constantinople (c. 1000–1059) Mikhail of Vladimir (died in 1176) Michael I Komnenos Doukas (died in 1215) Michael I of Russia… … Wikipedia
CERULARIUS Michael — vide Michael … Hofmann J. Lexicon universale
MICHAEL Cerularius — Patriarcha Constantinopolitan. post. Alexin, A. C. 1043. prolixam contra Latinos Epistolam scripsit, postmodum ab Isaaco Comneno, quem tamen ad Imperium promoverat. in exilium eiectus est, A. C. 1058. ubi paulo post obiit … Hofmann J. Lexicon universale
Cerularius — Cerularius, Michael, wurde 1043 Patriarch zu Konstantinopel und gab den Hauptanstoß zur bleibenden Trennung der griech. und kath. Kirche, indem er aus Ehrsucht 1054 in einem Rundschreiben alle alten Anklagen gegen die Abendländer wiederholte u.… … Herders Conversations-Lexikon
Michael Caerularius — Michael Cærularius † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Michael Cærularius (Keroulários). Patriarch of Constantinople (1043 58), author of the second and final schism of the Byzantine Church, date of birth unknown; d. 1058. After the… … Catholic encyclopedia
Michael — (v. hebr.), Name, bedeutet: wer ist wie Gott? I. Engel: 1) Bei den nachexilischen Juden einer der sieben Erzengel, Vertreter u. Beschützer des Jüdischen Volkes u. als solcher in der jüdischen Mythologie dem Sammael gegenübergestellt; er soll auch … Pierer's Universal-Lexikon
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Cerularius, Michael — (d. 1059) Patriarch. Cerularius became a monk after the suicide of his brother and he was consecrated Patriarch of Constantinople in 1043. He disapproved of the practices of the Roman Church and, as Patriarch, he tried to force the Latin… … Who’s Who in Christianity
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