Timeline of Eastern philosophers



This is a wide-ranging list of philosophers from the Eastern traditions of philosophy, with special interest in Indo-Chinese philosophy. The list stops at the year 1950, after which philosophers fall into the category of Contemporary philosophy.

Chinese philosophers

Ancient Chinese philosophers

Before 256 BCE (until the end of the Zhou Dynasty)

* Guan Zhong (died in 645 BCE)
* Confucius (traditionally 551–479 BCE) — founder of Confucianism
* Sun Tzu (c. 544–c. 496 BCE) — military philosopher

475–221 BCE (Warring States Period)

* Gaozi (c. 420 BCE)
* Laozi (4th century BCE, approx.) — influenced Taoism
* Liezi (c. 440–c. 360 BCE)
* Mencius (most accepted dates: 372–289 BCE; other possible dates: 385–303 BCE or 302 BCE) — political philosopher, social contract
* Mozi (c. 470–c. 390 BCE) — political and religious philosopher
* Gongsun Longzi (fl. 300 BCE)
* Hsu Hsing (c. 315 BCE)
* Hui Shi (4th century BCE)
* Shang Yang (died 338 BCE)
* Shen Buhai (died 337 BCE)
* Shen Dao (circa 350–275 BCE)
* Sung Hsing (360–290 BCE)
* Yang Chu (370–319 BCE)
* Zhuang Zi (4th century BCE, approx.) — major Taoist philosopher
* Han Feizi (died 233 BCE) — totalistic legalism
* Xun Zi (c.310–237 BCE) — Confucianist, pessimistic about human nature
* Zou Yan (305?–240? BCE)— School of Naturalists, Yin-Yang, Five Elements

221BCE–220 CE (Qin, Han and Xin 221BCE–220 CE (0

* Cheng Hsuan (127–200 CE)
* Chia Yi (201–169 BCE)
* Dong Zhongshu (c.176–c.104 BCE)
* Ho Yen (190–249 CE)
* Huai Nun Tzu (179–122 BCE)
* Wang Chong (27–97 CE)
* Yang Xiong (53 BCE–18 CE)

220 CE–907 CE (Three Kingdoms period to Tang Dynasty)

* Zhi Dun (314–366)
* Fazang (643–712)
* Han Yu (768–824)
* Juan Chi (210–263)
* Ko Hung (4th century)
* Kuo Hsiang (died 312)
* Li Ao (722–841)
* Linji (died 866)
* Sengzhao (384–414)
* Wang Pi (226–249) — commentator on Lao Zi and the "I Ching"
* Zhiyi (538–597)
* Zongmi (780–841)

907–1368 (Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period to Yuan Dynasty)

* Chang Tsai (1020–1077)
* Cheng Hao (1032–1085) — established the Confucian "School of Mind"
* Cheng Yi (1033–1107)
* Zhou Dunyi (1017–1073)
* Hu Yuan (993–1059) — revived Confucianism
* Shao Yung (1011–1077)
* Zhu Xi (1130–1200) — thinker of the Confucianist "School of Principle"
* Hu-Hung (1100–1155)
* Lu Hsiang-shan (1139–1193)

1368–1912 (Ming and Qing Dynasties)

* Chang Hsueh-ch'eng (1738–1801)
* Ch'en Hsien-chang (1428–1500)
* Chiao Hung (1540–1620)
* Huang Zongxi (1610–1695)
* Kang Youwei (1858–1927)
* Liang Qichao (1873–1929)
* Liu Tsung-chou (1578–1645)
* Sun Yat-sen (1866–1925)
* Tai Chen (1724–1777)
* T'an Ssu-t'ung (1864–1898)
* Wang Fuzhi (1619–1692)
* Wang Yangming (1472–1529)
* Yen Yuan (1635–1704)

Modern Chinese philosophers

1912–1950

* Ch'ien Mu (1895–1990)
* Thome H. Fang (1899–1976)
* Feng Youlan (1895–1990)
* Hsiung Shih-li (1885–1968)
* Hsu Fu-kuan (1903–1982)
* Hu Shih (1891–1962)
* Liang Sou-ming (1893–1988)
* Liu Shaoqi (1898–1969)
* Mao Zedong (1893–1976)
* Mou Tsung-san (1909–1995)
* T'ang Chun-i (1909–1978)
* Hao Wang (1921–1995)

Indian philosophers

Ancient philosophers

Prehistory

* Rishaba — the first official religious guru of Jainism, as accredited by later followers
* Yajnavalkya — one of the vedic sages, greatly influenced Buddhistic thought

1000–600 BCE (Vedic period)

* Parshva — a Jainist guru

600–400 BCE (Buddhism and Jainism)

* Cārvāka (?) — materialism
* Siddhartha Gautama (circa 563–483 BCE) — founder of Buddhism
* Mahavira (599–527 BCE) — heavily influenced Jainism, the 24th Tirthankara of Jainism
* Mohabiir — Jainism

321–184 BCE (Mauryan Empire)

* Aksapada Gautama (circa 2nd century BCE)
* Chanakya (circa 350–275 BCE)

184 BCE–100 CE

*Patanjali — Yoga Sutra
*Badarayana (lived between 200 BCE and 400 CE) — (Author of Brahma Sutra)

100–300 (Cholas, Cheras, Pandavas)

* Nagarjuna (circa 150–250 CE) — Madhyamaka Buddhism

300–550 (Gupta Empire)

* Bhartrhari
* Bodhidharma (circa 440–528) — Zen Buddhist
* Buddhaghosa (5th century)
* Dignaga (5th century)
* Uddyotakara
* Vasubandhu (?)
* Vatsyayana (?)

600–900

* Candrakirti (born circa 600) — Madhyamaka Buddhist
* Dharmakirti (circa 7th century)
* Adi Shankara (circa 788–820) — Advaita Vedanta school

900–1100 (Muslim dominance)

* Abhinavagupta (circa 975–1025)
* Ramanuja (1017–1137 CE) — qualified non-dualism
* Udayana

1100–1500

* Basaveshwara (1134–1196)
* Shri Madhvacharya (1238–1317)
* Chaitanya Mahaprabhu (1486–1534)
* Gangeśa Upādhyāya (13th century)

1500–1800 (Mughal Empire)

* Gadadhara Bhattacharya
* Shah Wali Allah
* Vallabhacharya (1479–1531)

Modern Indian philosophers

1800–1900 (British rule)

* Rabindranath Tagore — individualism

20th century

* Swami Vivekanand (1863–1902)
* Sri Aurobindo (1872–1950)
* Mahatma Gandhi (1869–1948)
* Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan (1888–1975)
* Amartya Sen (born 1933)
* Osho (1931–1990)
* Jiddu Krishnamurti (1895–1986)

Japanese philosophers

Ancient Japanese philosophers

Until 1185 CE (until the end of the Heian Period)

* Kūkai (774–835)
* Hōnen (1133–1212)

1185–1333 (Kamakura Period)

* Shinran (1173–1261)
* Dōgen Zenji (1200–1253)
* Nichiren (1222–1282)

1333–1867 (Muromachi Period to Edo Period)

* Zeami Motokiyo (c. 1363–c. 1443)
* Fujiwara Seika (1561–1619)
* Miyamoto Musashi (1584–1645)
* Kumazawa Banzan (1619–1691)
* Ito Jinsai (1627–1705)
* Kaibara Ekiken (1630–1714)
* Ogyū Sorai (1666–1728)
* Hakuin Ekaku (1686–1769)
* Tominaga Nakamoto (1715–1746)
* Motoori Norinaga (1730–1801)
* Nishi Amane (1829–1897)
* Osho (1931–1990)

Modern Japanese philosophers

1867–1950

* Nishida Kitaro (1870–1945)
* Tanabe Hajime (1885–1962)
* Kuki Shūzō (1888–1941)
* Watsuji Tetsuro (1889–1960)
* Sakurazawa Yukikazu (George Ohsawa) (1893–1966)
* Miki Kiyoshi (1897–1945)
* Nishitani Keiji (1900–1990)

Korean philosophers

* Wonchuk (613–696)
* Wonhyo Daisa (617–686)
* Uisang (625–702)
* Jinul (1158–1210)
* Yi Hwang (1501–1570)
* Sosan Hyujong (1520–1604)
* Yi I (1536–1584)
* Yi Kan (1677–1727)
* Han Wonjin (1682–1751)
* Tasan Chông Yagyong (1762–1836)
* Eun Shig Park (1859–1925)
* Seok Heon Ham (born 1901–1989)

Tibetan philosophers

* Sa skya pandita (1182–1251)
* Je Tsongkhapa (1357–1419)
* Gyeltsap Darma Rinchen (1364–1432)
* Kaydrup glek belsangbo (1385–1438)
* Mikyo Dorje (1507–1554)

External links

* [http://www.wsu.edu:8080/~dee/CHPHIL/CHPHIL.HTM Chinese Philosophy by Richard Hooker]


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