Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople
The Ecumenical Patriarch (Greek: Η Αυτού Θειοτάτη Παναγιότης, ο Αρχιεπίσκοπος Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, Νέας Ρώμης και Οικουμενικός Πατριάρχης) is the Archbishop of Constantinople – New Rome – ranking as primus inter pares (first among equals) in the Eastern Orthodox communion, which is seen by followers as the One, Holy, Catholic, and Apostolic Church.
The Ecumenical Patriarch has been historically known as the Greek Patriarch of Constantinople, as distinct from the Armenian Patriarch of Constantinople and the ancient Latin Patriarch of Constantinople. Historically, within the five ecumenical sees of Pentarchy, the patriarch is regarded as the successor of Saint Andrew, the Apostle. The current holder of the office is Bartholomew I.
The Turkish government recognises him as the spiritual leader of the Greek minority in Turkey, and refer to him as the Greek (lit. Roman) Orthodox Patriarch of the Phanar (Turkish: Fener Rum Ortodoks Patriği). The Patriarch was subject to the authority of the Ottoman Empire after the conquest of Constantinople in 1453, until the declaration of Turkish Republic in 1923. Today, according to the Turkish law, he is subject to the authority of the Republic of Turkey and must be a citizen of Turkey to be elected Patriarch.
The Patriarch of Constantinople has been designated the Ecumenical Patriarch since the sixth century. The exact significance of the style, which has been used occasionally for other prelates since the middle of the fifth century, is nowhere officially defined but, according to the Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, the title has been criticized in the Catholic Church as incompatible with its own claims by the See of Rome.
Status in the Orthodox Church
The Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople is first in honour among all the Eastern Orthodox bishops, presides in person - or through a delegate - over any council of Orthodox primates and/or bishops in which he takes part and serves as primary spokesman for the Orthodox communion, especially in ecumenical contacts with other Christian denominations. He has no direct jurisdiction over the other patriarchs or the other autocephalous Orthodox churches, but he, alone among his fellow-primates, enjoys the right of convening extraordinary synods consisting of them and/or their delegates to deal with ad hoc situations and has also convened well-attended Pan-Orthodox Synods in the last forty years.
In addition to being the spiritual leader of 300 million Orthodox Christians worldwide, he is the direct administrative superior of dioceses and archdioceses serving millions of Greek, Ukrainian, Rusyn and Albanian believers in North and South America, Western Europe, Australia and New Zealand, Hong Kong, Korea, Southeast Asia and parts of modern Greece which, for historical reasons, do not fall under the jurisdiction of the Church of Greece.
His actual position is Patriarch of the Orthodox Church of Constantinople, one of the fourteen autocephalous and several autonomous churches and the most senior (though not oldest) of the four orthodox ancient primatial sees among the five patriarchal Christian centers comprising the ancient Pentarchy of the undivided Church. In his role as head of the Orthodox Church of Constantinople, he also holds the title Archbishop of Constantinople, New Rome.
He should not be confused with the Latin Patriarch of Constantinople, an office that is now extinct, and created after the Latin capture of Constantinople in 1204, during the Fourth Crusade. That office became effectively redundant after the city was recaptured by the Byzantine Greeks, half a century later. Thus he is also known, outside Orthodoxy, as the Greek Patriarch of Constantinople. His official title is "His All-Holiness the Archbishop of Constantinople New Rome and Ecumenical Patriarch".
The monks of Mount Athos form an autonomous monastic community that recognizes the Ecumenical Patriarch as their only head and bishop. The European Union treats this "Athonite Republic," or "Autonomous Monastic State of the Holy Mountain," as part of Greece, a member state.
Role in Orthodox episcopacy
The Ecumenical Patriarch has a unique role among Orthodox bishops, though it is not without its controversy. He is primus inter pares ("first among equals"), as he is senior among all Orthodox bishops. This primacy, expressed in canonical literature as presbeia ("prerogatives", literally: "seniorities"), grants to the Ecumenical Patriarch the right to preside at pan-Orthodox synods.
Additionally, the canonical literature of the Orthodox Church grants to the Ecumenical Patriarch the right to hear appeals in cases of dispute between bishops. However, whether these canonical rights are limited only to his own patriarchate or are universal throughout the Orthodox Church is the subject of debate, especially between the Ecumenical Patriarchate and the Moscow Patriarchate.
Historically, the Ecumenical Patriarch has heard such appeals and sometimes was invited to intervene in other churches' disputes and difficulties. Even as early as the time of St. John Chrysostom (5th century), Constantinople was instrumental in the deposition of multiple bishops outside its traditional jurisdiction. This still occurs today, as when in 2006 the patriarchate was invited to assist in declaring the Archbishop of the Cypriot Orthodox Church incompetent due to his having Alzheimer's disease. Additionally, in 2005, the Ecumenical Patriarchate convoked a pan-Orthodox synod to express the Orthodox world's confirmation of the deposition of Patriarch Irenaios of Jerusalem. In 2006, the patriarchate was invited to hear the appeal of a Russian Orthodox bishop in the United Kingdom in a dispute with his superior in Moscow, though the result of that appeal - and the right to make it - were both rejected by the latter.
The Ecumenical Patriarch has no direct jurisdiction outside the Patriarchate of Constantinople granted to him in Orthodox canonical literature, but his primary function regarding the whole Orthodox Church is one of dealing with relations between autocephalous and autonomous churches. That is, his primary role is one of promoting and sustaining Church unity.
This unique role often sees the Ecumenical Patriarch referred to as the "spiritual leader" of the Orthodox Church in some sources, though this is not an official title of the patriarch nor is it usually used in scholarly sources on the patriarchate. Such a title is acceptable if it refers to this unique role, but it sometimes leads to the mistaken belief that the office is thus the equivalent of an Orthodox papacy. There is, however, no Orthodox notion equivalent to the papacy: the Orthodox churches operate in the synodical system, whereby ecclesiastical matters are settled by the competent synod of bishops, in which each bishop has one vote. The five patriarchs of the ancient Pentarchy (Rome, Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem, in that order) are to be given seniority of honour, but have no actual power over other bishops other than the power of the synod they are chairing (and in which they also wield one vote).
In 2007, the Patriarch gave his approval to the Declaration of Ravenna, a Catholic–Orthodox document re-asserting that the Bishop of Rome is indeed the Prōtos ("First") of the Church, as in "first among equals" and not supreme, although future discussions are to be held on the concrete ecclesiological exercise of papal primacy. According to "Subsistit in" in Lumen Gentium, the Patriarch is a validly consecrated bishop in Roman ecclesiology, and there is merely an imperfect ecclesial communion between Constantinople and Rome, which exists nevertheless and which may be improved at some point in history.
Because of the work of Ecumenical Patriarch Dimitrios, who established September 1st as the day for the protection of the environment, and especially the ongoing work of the current Patriarch, Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew has been given the title, "Green Patriarch". Thus, the person of Bartholomew and by extension the position of the Ecumenical Patriarch is now being viewed as a religious spokesperson on environmental issues and the "green" spiritual leader in the world.
The (arch)bishopric of Constantinople has had a continuous history since the founding of the city in 330 AD by Constantine the Great. After Constantine the Great had enlarged Byzantium to make it into a new capital city in 330, it was thought appropriate that its bishop, once a suffragan of Heraclea Pontica and traditionally a successor of Saint Andrew the Apostle, should become second only to the Bishop of Old Rome. Soon after the transfer of the Roman capital, the bishopric was elevated to an archbishopric. For many decades the heads of the church of Rome opposed this ambition, not because anyone thought of disputing their first place, but because they defended the 'Petrine principle' by which all Patriarchates were derived from Saint Peter and were unwilling to violate the old order of the hierarchy for political reasons.
In 381, the First Council of Constantinople declared that "The Bishop of Constantinople shall have the primacy of honour after the Bishop of Rome, because it is New Rome" (canon iii). The Patriarchs refused to confirm this canon. Nonetheless, the prestige of the office continued to grow not only because of the obvious patronage of the Byzantine Emperor but because of its overwhelming physical and geographical importance. In practice, the Bishop of Rome eventually acknowledged this situation.
The Council of Chalcedon in 451 established Constantinople as a patriarchate with ecclesiastical jurisdiction over Asia Minor (the dioceses of Asiane and Pontus) and Thrace as well as over the barbaric territories, non-converted lands outside the defined area of the Western Patriarchate (Old Rome) and the other three patriarchates, Alexandria, Antioch and Jerusalem, gave it appellate jurisdiction extraterritorially over canon law decisions by the other patriarchs and granted it honours equal to those belonging to the first Christian see, Rome, in terms of primacy, Rome retaining however its seniority (canon xxviii). Leo I refused to accept this canon, basing himself on the fact that it was made in the absence of his legates. In the 6th century, the official title became that of "Archbishop of Constantinople, New Rome, and Ecumenical Patriarch."
The current Patriarch (since 1991) is Bartholomew I who has become better-known than any of his predecessors in modern times as a result of his numerous pastoral and other visits to numerous countries in five continents and his setting up of a permanent bureau at the EU headquarters, in addition to enhancing the long-established Patriarchal Centre in Pregny-Chambésy, Switzerland and also his ecological pursuits which have won him the epithet of "the Green Patriarch."
When the Ottoman Turks conquered Constantinople in 1453, the Patriarchate had ceased to function. The Patriarchate was restored by the conquering Islamic Ottoman ruler, Sultan Mehmed II, who wished to establish his dynasty as the direct heirs of the Eastern Roman Emperors, and who adopted the imperial title Kayser-i-Rûm "Caesar of Rome", one of his subsidiary titles but a most significant one. He bestowed the office of Patriarch in 1454 to the illustrious Byzantine scholar-monk George Scholarius, who was well-known for his opposition to union with the Latin West, who took the name of Gennadius II.
The Patriarch was designated millet-bashi (ethnarch) of the Millet of Rum (Turkish for Rome, i.e. Byzantium), which included all Orthodox Christians under Ottoman rule, regardless of their nationality (ethnicity) in the modern sense. This role was carried out by ethnic Greeks at their great peril, in the midst of enormous difficulties and traps and inevitably with mixed success. Several incumbents of the patriarchal throne were summarily executed by the Ottoman authorities, most notably Patriarch Gregory V, who was lynched on Easter Monday 1821 as partial retribution for the outbreak of the last and only successful Greek Revolution.
In the 19th century, the rising tide of nationalism and secularism among the Balkan Christian nations led to the establishment of several autocephalous national churches, generally under autonomous Patriarchs or Archbishops, leaving the Ecumenical Patriarch only direct control over the ethnically Greek-originated Orthodox Christians of Turkey, parts of Greece and the archdioceses in North America, Asia, Africa and Oceania where growing Greek and other migrant communities have gradually constituted a significant orthodox diaspora. Turkish and Armenian Orthodox Christians in Turkey have independent Churches.
Relation to the Republic of Turkey
With the proclamation of the Republic of Turkey on October 29, 1923, the authority of the Ottoman Empire over the Patriarch was transferred to the Republic. The Turkish state only recognizes the Patriarch as the spiritual leader of the Greek minority in Turkey, and officially refers to him as the "Greek Orthodox Patriarch of the Phanar" (Turkish: Fener Rum Ortodoks Patriği) (Phanar is the neighbourhood in Istanbul where the patriarchate is located). According to Turkish law, still in force today, he is subject to the authority of the Republic of Turkey; however, Turkey allows the Standing Synod of Metropolitan Bishops to elect the Patriarch. To be electable, Turkish law requires the candidates to be Turkish citizens by birth. Since the establishment of modern Turkey, the position of the Ecumenical Patriarch has been filled by Turkish-born citizens of Greek ethnicity. As nearly all Greek Orthodox have left Turkey (see Population exchange between Greece and Turkey and Istanbul Pogrom), this considerably narrows the field of candidates for succession.
Human rights groups and Christian governments have long protested against conditions placed by the secular government of Turkey on the Ecumenical Patriarch, a religious office. For example, the ecumenical status accorded him traditionally within Eastern Orthodoxy, and recognized previously by the Ottoman governments, has on occasion been a source of controversy within the Republic of Turkey. This policy results in problems in the function of the Patriarchate, since clergy coming from abroad are not eligible to apply for residence and work permits. In its early days the Turkish state promoted a rival Turkish Orthodox Patriarchate, whose congregation, however, has remained limited.
Expropriation of Church property and the conditions of state control imposed on the Orthodox Theological School of Halki that have led to its closure by the Patriarchate, are also cited by human rights groups. Lewis D. Eigen and others have, however, observed that the conditions were aimed by the Turkish secular state at Muslim radicals, who, they believe, would preach hate and terror if allowed to control their own religious seminaries; the Christians were caught in the "crossfire." However, in 2004 Patriarch Bartholomew, with the help of the Turkish government, succeeded, after eighty years, in altering the composition of the twelve-member Standing Synod of Metropolitan Bishops in Constantinople so that it can include six bishops from outside Turkey. He has also been convening biennially in Constantinople convocations of all bishops in his jurisdiction.
It is claimed that the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople has been the target of attacks on occasion from 1993 to 2004, including desecration of patriarchal cemeteries and personal assaults against the Ecumenical Patriarch.
- Archons of the Ecumenical Patriarchate
- Church of St George, Istanbul
- Eastern Catholic Church
- Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople
- Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America
- History of the Eastern Orthodox Church
- List of Ecumenical Patriarchs of Constantinople
- Mount Athos
- Patriarch Athenagoras I of Constantinople
- Patriarch Bartholomew I of Constantinople
- Patriarch Gregory II of Constantinople
Notes and references
- ^ a b "Oecumenical Patriarch." Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005.
- ^ "The Patriarch Bartholomew". 60 Minutes. CBS. 20 December 2009. http://www.cbsnews.com/video/watch/?id=6001717n. Retrieved 11 January 2010.
- ^ Website of Bartholomew, Archbishop of Constantinople New Rome and Ecumenical Patriarch, Ec-patr.org.
- ^ Constantine Markides: AG investigates church sex scandal. Retrieved on 2006-11-28.
- ^ BBC online: Orthodox leader demoted to monk. Retrieved on 2006-11-28.
- ^ Ecumenical Patriarchate: Press Release for the election of Bishop Basil of Amphipolis. Retrieved on 2006-11-28.
- ^ Divided in Ravenna, Russian and Estonian Orthodox to talk
- ^ Goarch.org
- ^ About.com
- ^ Ens-newswire.com
- ^ Beliefnet.com
- ^ a b "Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople", Encyclopædia Britannica 2005 Deluxe Edition CD-ROM.
- ^ Ecumenical Patriarchate website: Biography of Patriarch Bartholomew I. Retrieved on 2006-11-28.
- ^ EU Turkey Civic Commission: EU Draft Report on Turkey's Progress Towards Accession 2006/2118 (INI). Retrieved on 2006-11-28
- ^ a b Greek Foreign Ministry - Ecumenical Patriarchate
- ^ Lewis D. Eigen, Turkish Discrimination Against Christian Schools–Or Is It?, Scriptamus, 2009, Wordpress.com
- ^ Human Right Internet: The United Nations Human Rights System. Retrieved on 2011-06-01
- Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople
- Vice President Al Gore welcomes the "Green Patriarch" to the Vice Presidential Residence in Washington, DC.
- Patriarchs of Constantinople
- CBS 60 Minutes featured on 20 December 2009 a segment entitled "The Patriarch Bartholomew"
- A repository with scientific papers on various aspects of the history of the Patriarchate in Byzantine times in English and in German
The Pentarchy Patriarch of Rome
Patriarch of Alexandria
Patriarch of Antioch
Patriarch of Jerusalem
Patriarch of Constantinople
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Patriarchs of Constantinople
Byzantine period (451–1453 AD)Anatolius · Gennadius I · Acacius · Fravitta · Euphemius · Macedonius II · Timothy I · John II · Epiphanius · Anthimus I · Menas · Eutychius · John III · John IV · Cyriacus II · Thomas I · Sergius I · Pyrrhus · Paul II · Peter · Thomas II · John V · Constantine I · Theodore I · George I · Paul III · Callinicus I · Cyrus · John VI · Germanus I · Anastasius · Constantine II · Nicetas I · Paul IV · Tarasius · Nicephorus I · Theodotus I · Antony I · John VII · Methodius I · Ignatius · Photius I · Stephen I · Antony II · Nicholas I · Εuthymius I · Stephen II · Tryphon · Theophylact · Polyeuctus · Βasil I · Αntony III · Nicholas II · Sisinnius II · Sergius II · Eustathius · Alexius · Michael I · Constantine III · John VIII · Cosmas I · Eustratius · Nicholas III · John IX · Leon · Michael II · Cosmas II · Nicholas IV · Theodotus II · Neophytus I · Constantine IV · Luke · Michael III · Chariton · Theodosius I · Basil II · Nicetas II · Leontius · Dositheus · George II · John X · Michael IV† · Theodore II† · Maximus II† · Μanuel I† · Germanus II† · Methodius II† · Manuel II† · Arsenius† · Nicephorus II† · Germanus III · Joseph I · John XI · Gregory II · Athanasius I · John XII · Nephon I · John XIII · Gerasimus I · Isaias · John XIV · Isidore I · Callistus I · Philotheus · Macarius · Nilus · Antony IV · Callistus II · Matthew I · Euthymius II · Joseph II · Metrophanes II · Gregory III · Athanasius II
Patriarchs of Constantinople
Ottoman period (1453–1923 AD)Gennadius II · Isidore II · Joasaph I · Sophronius I · Mark II · Symeon I · Dionysius I · Raphael I · Maximus III · Nephon II · Maximus IV · Joachim I · Pachomius I · Theoleptus I · Jeremias I · Joannicius I · Dionysius II · Joasaph II · Metrophanes III · Jeremias II · Pachomius II · Theoleptus II · Matthew II · Gabriel I · Theophanes I · Meletius I · Neophytus II · Raphael II · Cyril I · Timothy II · Gregory IV · Anthimus II · Cyril II · Athanasius III · Neophytus III · Parthenius I · Parthenius II · Joannicius II · Cyril III · Paisius I · Parthenius III · Gabriel II · Parthenius IV · Dionysius III · Clement · Methodius III · Dionysius IV · Gerasimus II · Athanasius IV · James · Callinicus II · Neophytus IV · Gabriel III · Neophytus V · Cyprianus · Athanasius V · Cyril IV · Cosmas III · Jeremias III · Callinicus III‡ · Paisius II · Serapheim I · Neophytus VI · Cyril V · Callinicus IV (III) · Serapheim II · Joannicius III · Samuel · Meletius II · Theodosius II · Sophronius II · Gabriel IV · Procopius · Neophytus VII · Gerasimus III · Gregory V · Callinicus V (IV) · Jeremias IV · Cyril VI · Eugenius II · Anthimus III · Chrysanthus · Agathangelus · Constantius I · Constantius II · Gregory VI · Anthimus IV · Anthimus V · Germanus IV · Meletius III · Anthimus VI · Cyril VII · Joachim II · Sophronius III · Joachim III · Joachim IV · Dionysius V · Neophytus VIII · Anthimus VII · Constantine V · Germanus V · Meletius IV
Patriarchs of Constantinople
Modern period (since 1923 AD)† in exile at Nicaea ‡ sometimes not counted among the patriarchs
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