Liquid scintillation counting

Liquid scintillation counting is a standard laboratory method in the life-sciences for measuring radiation from beta-emitting nuclides. Scintillating materials are also used in differently constructed "counters" in many other fields.

Samples are dissolved or suspended in a "cocktail" containing an aromatic solvent (historically benzene or toluene, but more recently less hazardous solvents have come into favour) and small amounts of other additives known as fluors. Beta particles emitted from the sample transfer energy to the solvent molecules, which in turn transfer their energy to the fluors; the excited fluor molecules dissipate the energy by emitting light. In this way, each beta emission (ideally) results in a pulse of light. Scintillation cocktails often contain additives that shift the wavelength of the emitted light to make it more easily detected.

The samples are placed in small transparent or translucent (often glass or plastic) vials that are loaded into an instrument known as a liquid scintillation counter. The counter has two photomultiplier tubes connected in a coincidence circuit. The coincidence circuit assures that genuine light pulses, which reach both photomultiplier tubes, are counted, while spurious pulses (due to line noise, for example), which would only affect one of the tubes, are ignored.Counting efficiencies under ideal conditions range from about 30% for tritium (a low-energy beta emitter) to nearly 100% for phosphorus-32, a high-energy beta emitter. Some chemical compounds (notably chlorine compounds) and highly colored samples can interfere with the counting process. This interference, known as "quenching", can be overcome through data correction or through careful sample preparation.

High-energy beta emitters such as P-32 can also be counted in a scintillation counter without the cocktail. This technique, known as Cherenkov counting, relies on the Cherenkov radiation being detected directly by the photomultiplier tubes. Cherenkov counting in this experimental context is normally used for quick rough measurements, since it is more liable to variation caused by the geometry of the sample.

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