Bay checkerspot butterfly
name = Bay checkerspot butterfly
status = LT
status_system = ESA
genus = "
species = "E. editha"
subspecies = "E. e. bayensis"
Scientific name= "Euphydryas editha bayensis"
trinomial = "Euphydryas editha bayensis"
trinomial_authority = Sternitsky, 1937 & Dos Passos, 1964
The Bay checkerspot butterfly ("Euphydryas editha bayensis") is a federally threatened
insectspecies which is native to the U.S.State of California. Since the 1980s the population of Checkerspots has been in serious decline. Because this particular species is so well studied and observed the decline was quickly recognized leading to its federally threatened status relatively quickly in 1987. [http://essig.berkeley.edu/endins/baycheck.htm Bay Checkerspot Butterfly] , Essig Museum of Entomology, UC Berkley.] Recently, researchers have advocated a reclassification for this subspecies of the checkerspot common to western North America, "Euphydryas editha". The classification, to "Euphydryas editha editha", is for reasons of historical precedence. [http://www.fws.gov/endangered/federalregister/2000/p001016.pdf Proposed Rule--Critical Habitats] (
Butterflies first dispersed through North America at a time when South America still touched Africa and Europe was still attached to the northern part of the North American continent. It was this geographic setup that allowed butterflies to spread throughout the world. Butterflies likely descended an evolutionary tree that followed a path from
lamp shells to bryozoans to mollusks to segmented worms and then, eventually, butterflies. The order Lepidopteramay be the most recently evolved of all insect orders, except for fleas. [ [http://bss.sfsu.edu/holzman/courses/Fall00Projects/MissionBlue.htm The Biogeography of the mission blue butterfly] , San Francisco State University, Department of Geography, Autumn 2000.]
The bay checkerspot butterfly is a medium sized butterfly with a wing span of slightly more than 2 inches. As a member of the family
Nymphalinaethe checkerspot is part of a group of brush-footed butterflies. The insect's forewings are marked with black bands along the veins of the wing's upper surface. The bands contrast sharply with bright red, yellow and white spots. [http://www.fws.gov/sacramento/es/animal_spp_acct/bay_check.htm Bay Checkerspot Butterfly] , U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Sacramento Field Office.] The Bay checkerspot differs from other checkerspots. From the LuEsther's checkerspot("E. editha luestherae") by being darker, it also lacks the relatively uninterrupted red band on the outer wing which the LuEsther's checkerspot has. It is not as dark and brighter red and yellow than the Island checkerspot("E. editha insularis"), which lives on the Channel Islands and nearby mainland. It is the black banding that gives the Bay checkerspot its unique appearance and its name. The bands give the Bay checkerspot a much more checkered appearance than other subspecies such as the Quino checkerspot butterfly("E. editha quino") or the Mono checkerspot("E. editha monoensis") [http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/recovery_plans/1998/980930c.pdf Recovery Plan for Serpentine Soil Species of the San Francisco Bay Area] (
dwarf plantain.] Adult butterflies emerge in early spring. The adults, which live an average of ten days emerge during a six week period from late February to early May. The male Bay checkerspot typically emerges four to eight days before the female. The males have one goal, reproduction. They find and mate with a female immediately upon emerging. The male mates many times while most females mate only once during the flight season. Besides mating the adults spend time foraging for nectar and for the females, laying eggs.
The eggs are usually laid in March and April. The adult female will lay up to five masses of eggs which contain 2 to 250 eggs each. The eggs are deposited at the base of the dwarf plantain plant or less frequently the owl's clover or paintbrush. The eggs take about ten days to hatch and upon emergence from the eggs the
larvaegrow for a period of two weeks or more during which they shed their skin up to three times. Any larvae that successfully enters the fourth instar enter a period of diapause that lasts through the entire summer. During diapause they spend time under rocks or within cracks in the soil. When the diapauseends they resume activity, feeding and move to complete their development into adult Bay checkerspot butterflies.
While the larvae are dependent on the host plants, mostly the dwarf plantain for sustenance the adult butterflies live on nectar. They feed on a variety of plants associated with serpentine grasslands. Some of these plants include
California goldfields, Desert parsley, scytheleaf onion, false babystars, intermediate fiddleneckand others. Female fecundityis dramatically affected by nectar availability.
This species of butterfly faces declining habitat which has contributed to its migration onto the list of federally threatened species. Like other endangered and threatened species of butterfly in and around the Bay Area the Checkerspot is faced with rapid human development of areas once considered prime habitat. Development and the proliferation of
invasive species, exotic non-natives that naturalize in the area, are two of the three most grave threat to this and several other species of butterfly. The threat to the butterfly that is likely greatest comes from the increasing emission of Nitrogen in California.
The historic range of the Checkerspot included many areas around the
San Francisco Bay. Most of the San Francisco peninsula, mountains near San Jose, Oakland hillsand several locales around Alameda Countywere once home to populations of the butterfly. Areas east, west and south of the bay, from Twin Peaks to Mount Diabloin Contra Costa County, all the way south to Hollister, the butterfly occurred. Many of these areas no longer hold the species as development of the area increased throughout the 20th century. Today the only populations known inhabit areas of San Mateo and Santa Clara Counties. Disturbances, specifically the altered regimes of these disturbances (i.e. fire, grazing) have, along with invasive grassland plants, induced decline in the population of the host plants.
The current range is much reduced and patchy at that. Of all occurrences of the butterfly known when the species was listed as threatened in 1987, all in San Mateo County have disappeared. The exception is a reintroduction of approximately 400 larvae to Edgewood Park in February 2007. The species was last observed at San Bruno Mountain in 1985 and at Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve in 1998. All remaining known populations of the butterfly are in Santa Clara County. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service recommends that any area of appropriate habitat within the historic range should be considered "potentially occupied." One site in Santa Clara County that has a large source population, that may number in the hundreds of thousands, is near the City of Morgan Hill on a ridge line currently called Coyote Ridge.
Jasper Ridge Biological Preservehave gone extinct.] In the area of Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve local populations were deemed extinct in 1998. The populations of butterflies at Jasper Ridgehad been the subject of intensive study and research at the lead of Stanford biologist Dr. Paul Ehrlich. Ehrlich had studied the Jasper Ridge populations since 1960 and researchers were able to examine 70 years of climate data and conclude that gigantic fluctuations in local climate probably hastened the demise of the Jasper Ridge Bay checkerspot populations. Ehrlich contends that prior to Spanish settlement of California the Bay checkerspots were almost certainly ubiquitous in California. It was the inadvertent import of invasive plant species in the hay that settlers fed cattle that brought unnatural competition for the native plants that sustained the Bay checkerspot.
The butterfly and its host plants thrive in areas with
serpentine soil, soils derived from the serpentinemineral, and other ultramaficrocks. The habitat has been described as consisting of three general types. Type one is the primary habitat which occurs on native grasslands located upon very large serpentine outcroppings. Type two is secondary or "satellite" habitat "islands" which occur in native grasslands on smaller serpentine outcrops. These satellites are typically generating very robust populations of Bay checkerspots in favorable whether with good habitat conditions. Type three are the tertiary habitats. These areas are where both Bay checkerspot larva and the plants they feed on occur in non serpentine soils with similarities to serpentine derived soil.
The possible reclassification of "Euphydryas editha bayensis" would indicate a change in range for the Bay checkerspot because of several populations of checkerspot butterflies whose subspecific status has been uncertain. If the nomenclature change was accepted it could represent a range extension for the threatened butterfly.
The Bay checkerspot depends upon plants in two different genre as a larva. The primary host plant is of the genus
Plantagowhile the secondary host plants occur in the genus Castilleja.
dwarf plantain"P. erecta ", is the one of the primary host plants for the Bay checkerspot butterfly in the genus Plantago. In many years the plantain dries up causing the checkerspot larvae to seek a secondary host plant. The plantain is listed as endangered in New Jersey and Maryland; in Maryland it is known as the slender plantain.
Plantago erecta is native to California and only found in western North America. As the primary host plant for the Bay checkerspot the plantain is an important species for conservation of the butterfly. Known by a host of common names, as many plant and animal species are, its nomenclatures include California plantain, English plantain, Foothill plantain, dotseed plantain, and dwarf plantain. This
plantainis typically found in coastal sage scrub, foothill woodland, and chaparral biomes. [ [http://www.calflora.org/cgi-bin/species_query.cgi?where-cname=Foothill+plantain Plantago erecta] , Taxon Report, Calflora Database.]
"Castilleja exserta "
"C. exersta", it is known by a handful of common names,
Exserted Indian paintbrush, sometimes Red owl's clover, or Purple Indian paintbrush as well. It is one of two secondary larval host plants of the butterfly that remains edible later in the season and acts as a back up when the dwarf plantain dries up. The plant can grow up to 16 inches in height. It prefers mesas, slopes and open areas in ponderosa pine forests and poppy fields at elevations from 1,500 to 4,500 feet (1,370 m). The flowers bloom from March to May and are about 1.25 inches long and formed in dense spikes, they are a magenta or purple color on the lower corolla lips and have yellow or white tips. The bract, modified leaves, are a reddish purple and hold 5 to 7 lobes, each about one inch long. [http://www.colby-sawyer.edu/academic/ces/herbarium/desert/owlclover.html Purple, Mojave or Common Owl's Clover] , Colby-Sawyer College.] It ranges from middle to southern California, into southern Arizona and northern Mexico. [http://enature.marinopenspace.org/openspace/mcosd/showSpeciesRECNUM.asp?recnum=WF1688 Purple Owl's Clover] , Wildflowers, Marin County Open Space District.]
"Castilleja densiflora "
"C. densiflora", commonly referred to as purple owl's clover is the second of two secondary larval host plants of the butterfly. Similar to "C. exersta", it often remains green later into the spring than the butterfly's primary host plant. The plant is generally between 4 and 12 inches in height and grows in small colonies. Flowers can be observed between April and July. Flowers are pink/purple to white/yellow with five petals with white lobes that form a yellow "beak" and "eye spots" on the lower lip, which resembles the face of an owl. The species can be found in a variety of habitats including: Foothill Woodland, Mixed Evergreen Forest, Northern Coastal Scrub, Chaparral, Foothill Woodland, Yellow Pine Forestis, and native grasslands.
The Bay checkerspot butterfly is the subject of a number of conservation programs, both private and public. Some of the more notable projects are headed by the
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service(USFWS) and Stanford University. On Sept. 11, 1984 the USFWS proposed that 8,300 acres (34 km²) in five sites be declared "critical habitat" for the Bay checkerspot. Areas included San Bruno Mountain, Edgewood County Parkand its adjacent watershed lands, Redwood City, between the boundary with Woodside, Jasper Ridge and Coyote Ridge in the Morgan Hill zone.
The USFWS has identified several of these areas as core habitat areas, which it considers essential to the survival of the species. These areas include some of those mentioned above and others. Areas along the Coyote Ridge, including Kirby, Metcalf, San Felipe, Silver Creek Hills have been designated "core habitat areas." An area of 1,100 acres (4 km²) in the
Santa Teresa Hillshas been labeled a "potential core area" by the Wildlife Service. The Service also denotes some other areas, near core populations, of good quality, meaning suitable habitat. Tulare Hill is one of those areas and along with the Santa Teresa Hills and Redwood City, is considered a "stepping stone."
The nitrogen effect
One of the interesting dynamics of conservation of this butterfly is associated with increased
nitrogenthrough air pollution. Increased nitrogen increases the fertility of serpentine soils, soils naturally low in nitrogen. This increased fertility allows invasive plants to thrive and exclude the nectar sources that the Bay checkerspot needs. This is where moderate grazing brings help to the threatened checkerspot. In a large metapopulation south of San Jose the removal of cattle from grasslands where the butterfly habitated led to a significant decrease in the butterfly population. This is because grazing leads to a net export of nitrogen as the cattle are removed for slaughter after eating the plants of the grasslands. Through this, moderate grazing enhances the butterfly's chance for survival. [Lebuhn, Gretchen. [http://online.sfsu.edu/~lebuhn/482/pdfs/lecture%206-metapopulation.pdf Biology of the Bay Checkerspot Butterfly] (
Increasing nitrogen emission is a problem facing the delicate balance within the ecosystems that contain the Bay checkerspot in many areas. At
Coyote Ridgethe problem is well documented by conservation biologist Stuart Weiss. While faced with a declining population of Bay checkerspots at Coyote Ridge, Weiss searched for a causality. He found the link between a combination of pollution from the freeway below the ridge and, again, a cutback in cattle grazing locally. Weiss documented how nitrogen oxideemissions from cars enriched the nutrient poor serpentine soil. This is a prime example of the nitrogen effect explained above. Aside from helping decrease nitrogen the cattle also help to control invasive grasses by eating them. Any question about whether or not nitrogen emissions from cars traversing Highway 101, 110,000 vehicles daily, evaporate when faced with monitoring statistics from Weiss. His monitoring equipment has confirmed that 15 to 20 pounds of nitrogen per acre are deposited on Coyote Ridge annually. Some of the particles stick to the plant and ground and are washed into the soil, still others are directly absorbed by the plants themselves. By contrast, pollution from power plants and vehicles drop only about four to five pounds of nitrogen per acre per year on the Jasper Ridge preserve. [Eilperin, Juliet. [http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/05/21/AR2006052100725_pf.html The Checkerspot Mystery: An Ecological Whodunit] , Washington Post, May 22, 2006.]
Global warmingis predicted by the California Climate Change Centerto increase California's mean temperate by 1.5 to 6 degrees Celsius by 2100, with greater variation in rainfall. This will shift the growing seasons of the plants the caterpillars depend on. As of 2007, conservation biologists began formally debating assisted migration-- finding a cooler region to repopulate with the butterfly -- as a method for preserving the species. [ [http://www.nytimes.com/2007/01/23/science/23migrate.html?ex=1327208400&en=7bedbd7d7551ee6e&ei=5090&partner=rssuserland&emc=rss A Radical Step to Preserve a Species: Assisted Migration] , Carl Zimmer, New York Times. January 23, 2007.]
Jasper Ridge Biological Preservewas once home to a population of the threatened checkerspot. That population went extinct in 1998. Ehrlich and his colleagues accumulated a mass of data about the fluctuations of the Bay checkerspot populations at Jasper Ridge than probably any other non-vertebrae known. As such Stanford University has dispatched Ehrlich and others to conduct "Longterm studies of the Bay checkerspot butterfly and feasibility of reintroduction. The professors participating, one each from biology, history, soil science and law are examining the issues at heart in restoring any extinct species or lost habitat. The goal of this study is to help determine whether and how to attempt a reintroduction of Bay checkerspots to Jasper Ridge. [http://jrbp.stanford.edu/db/projects/project_display.php?project_id=80 JRBP Research Projects] , Reintroduction Study, Stanford University.]
Other goals of the Jasper Ridge study include, analyze the regulatory framework for endangered species and how changes might aid recovery of species, characterize the genetics of research collections and possible donor populations and to look at the historical changes in ownership, management and condition of the serpentine grasslands that the Bay checkerspot calls home.
The region known as Coyote Ridge refers to an unnamed ridge in Santa Clara County. A variety of names have been applied to areas along the ridge where known populations of Bay checkerspots have or do currently live. Some of these names include, Morgan Hill, Kirby Canyon, East Coyote Foothills and, of course, Coyote Ridge. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service identified four core areas along Coyote Ridge that require attention as Bay checkerspot habitat. They have termed them Kirby, Metcalf, San Felipe and Silver Creek Hills.
Right before the Bay checkerspot was federally listed the USFWS entered into an agreement with Waste Management of California, Inc. and also the city of San Jose. The agreement was made under provisions of the Endangered Species Act, specifically section 7.a.4. The agreement provided for the mitigation and compensation for any take of Bay checkerspots due to any construction and operations at Kirby landfill in Kirby Canyon, along Coyote Ridge. The landfill is located adjacent to the large Kirby population of Bay checkerspots. Key aspects of the agreement include:
*limited impacts to total area, with impacts concentrated in lower quality habitat
*phased landfill use
*restoration of filled areas with appropriate vegetation
*a 15-year lease of 267 acres (1.1 km²) of high quality habitat for Bay checkerspot conservation
*restoration and management of other Bay checkerspot habitat
*monitoring of Bay checkerspot habitat and populations
*possible acquisition of Bay checkerspot habitat for further protection
*establishment of a trust fund to finance the agreement
Projects at Kirby Canyon were behind the original schedule in the late 1990s. Revegetation efforts were slowed in large part due to lower than expected rates landfill filling. Waste Management fulfilled the ten year duration of the agreement and offered after to fund 50 percent of the agreement for three additional years.
Metcalf has been designated a "Critical Habitat" area by a 2001 USFWS rule change. The area, known in the rule as the Metcalf Unit, includes 3,351 acres (14 km²) of Santa Clara County. The habitat contains the Metcalf area for Bay checkerspot which one of the four largest habitat areas and three largest current populations of Bay checkerspot. As of spring 2000 the area supported the densest population of Bay checkerspots known. With hundreds of acres of serpentine soils, thousands of Bay checkerspot butterflies occur within the unit, which is considered one of the centers of the subspecies' metapopulation in Santa Clara County. The USFWS Recovery Plan for Serpentine Soils Species put a high priority for conservation of the butterfly and its habitat. Metcalf is adjacent to Kirby to south and San Felipe to east, Silver Creek Hills is to the north and the Tulare Hill Corridor is to the west. This connectivity is crucial for Bay checkerspot dispersal throughout the Coyote Ridge area. The land in the Metcalf area is widely distributed amongst various parties. Portions of it lie within the city of San Jose and on private lands in unincorporated Santa Clara County. Parts of the Santa Clara County Motorcycle Park, Coyote Creek Park and the land of the Santa Clara Valley Water District fall within the Metcalf Unit.
Primarily on private lands, 998 acres (4 km²), of land, termed the San Felipe Unit by USFWS, has been declared "Critical Habitat" for the Bay checkerspot butterfly per a 2001 rule. On the land is the San Felipe population area which is one of the four largest habitat areas and three largest current populations of Bay checkerspots. The San Felipe area is considered Santa Clara County's metapopulation of the butterfly. The Recovery Plan, from the USFWS, considered the San Felipe area to be of the highest priority for conservation. Though several hundred acres of serpentine soils occur within the unit and include nectaring and dispesal areas there are no public lands in San Felipe.
It was a housing and golf course project that spurred the creation of the Silver Creek Butterfly Conservation Area. The homes were built, about 1,500 of them, and the golf course went in on about 1,500 acres (6 km²) in the Silver Creek Valley, east of San Jose. The project resulted in the loss of about 18.5 acres of serpentine habitat for the Bay checkerspot. As compensation the developer, Shea Homes, in 1991, established a permanent 115 acre site for butterfly conservation in the Silver Creek Hills. The company also provided for ten years of monitoring of the preserve. Shea Homes also deposited $100,000 into an account dedicated to regional conservation of the Bay checkerspot, money now managed by USFWS.
With the Silver Creek Butterfly Conservation Area up and running the area population of Bay checkerspots increased markedly. By 1994 there were tens of thousands of adult butterflies. This population crashed in 1995 and 1996 due to problems implementing necessary management actions. By 1997 no post-
diapauselarvae were found and only three adults were observed during annual monitoring. Other populations are located on nearby property in the Silver Creek Hills and the nearby San Felipe habitat area.
Edgewood Park & Natural Preserve
Edgewood Park is located in San Mateo County, California, and provides a small habitat for the Bay checkerspot, one of the few remaining in the state, it is scattered and isolated like much of the remaining serpentine soil habitat areas left for the Bay checkerspot. The park is a 467 acre (1.9 km²) woodland and grassland preserve located off of Interstate 280. The preserve has hiking opportunities throughout its serpentine grasslands. [ [http://www.co.sanmateo.ca.us/smc/department/home/0,,5556687_12305995_12328420,00.html Edgewood Park & Natural Preserve] , Environmental Services Agency, County of San Mateo.]
The preserve was threatened by a proposed golf course development in 1983. A 1993 resolution helped secure the park's future. That year the San Mateo County Board of Supervisors closed the golf course issue when they adopted a resolution that designated Edgewood Park "a scenic natural area where outstanding features as well as significant wildlife habitats are preserved in their present state for the enjoyment, education and well-being of the public." At the same time the county also modified their agreement with Midpeninsula Open Space District, adding a clause to prohibit golf course development and emphasize natural resource preservation and low intensity recreation. The Bay checkerspot went locally extinct during the early 2000s, last observed at Edgewood Park in 2002. This local extinction was attributed to nitrogen deposition from cars traveling on adjacent Highway 280, which fertilized invasive Italian ryegrass and choked out native plants required by the butterflies. Subsequently, the habitat was restored by mowing at an appropriate time of year to reduce the Italian ryegrass and allow the native plants to regrow. In early 2007, 1000 Bay checkerspot larvae were reintroduced to the park.
an Bruno Mountain
San Bruno MountainHabitat Conservation Plan (HCP), the first of its kind in the United States, was adopted in 1983. Currently, it is the only HCP that potentially addresses the Bay checkerspot. The plan covers some 3,400 acres (14 km²) in northern San Mateo County and identifies seven animal species and 44 plant species to be conserved. Among them, the federally endangered Mission blueand the Bay checkerspot butterfly, the Bay checkerspot was not federally listed when the plan was adopted. Thus, this HCP's primary focus is on the two species of butterfly that were federally listed when it was adopted in 1983, the Mission blue butterfly and San Bruno elfin butterfly. The permit for the plan expires on March 31, 2013and there are currently no provisions in the HCP for incidental take of Bay checkerspots. The Bay checkerspot was lost on San Bruno Mountain around 1986. The impetuses included fires, non native plant species and "natural fluctuations. The reintroduction of the Bay checkerspot is one of the goals of the San Bruno HCP.
List of subspecies to Euphydryas editha
* [http://www.butterflyrecovery.org/species_profiles/bay_checkerspot/ Bay Checkerspot Butterfly] , Butterfly Conservation Initiative. [http://www.butterflyrecovery.org/]
* [http://www.stanford.edu/~rawlings/coyote/index.htm Coyote Ridge:Treasure of Santa Clara County] , Stanford University.
* [http://www.friendsofedgewood.org Friends of Edgewood] , Friends of Edgewood Natural Preserve
* [http://www.co.sanmateo.ca.us/smc/department/home/0,,5556687_12305995_12328420,00.html Edgewood Park & Natural Preserve] , San Mateo County. [http://www.co.sanmateo.ca.us/smc/county/home/0,,1774_2126,00.html]
* [http://jrbp.stanford.edu/ Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve] , Stanford University. [http://www.stanford.edu/]
* [http://siliconvalleylc.org/protected.html Silicon Valley Land Conservancy]
* [http://www.cnps-yerbabuena.org/hab_weiss_serpentine.html Serpentine grass restoration at Edgewood Park] : by Stuart Weiss, Ph.D.
* [http://www.openspace.org/ Midpeninsula Regional Open Space District]
* [http://www.fws.gov/Endangered/esaall.pdf Endangered Species Act of 1973] (
* [http://www.cnrgonline.com/admin/files/Habita_survey.pdf Critical Habitat Survey] , (
* [http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=2001_register&docid=fr30ap01-14.pdf Federal Rule regarding Critical Habitat] , (
April 30, 2001.
* [http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/recovery_plans/1998/980930c.pdf Recovery Plan for Serpentine Soil Species of the San Francisco Bay Area] , (
* [http://www.fs.fed.us/r5/shastatrinity/publications/trinity-serpentine.shtml Trinity Serpentine Soil Survey] , Shasta-Trinity National Forest, June 2004, U.S. Forest Service. [http://www.fs.fed.us/]
* [http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/c/a/2001/05/02/MNW83822.DTL Critical habitat now includes 23,903 acres within two counties] , San Francisco Chronicle, Eric Brazil,
May 2, 2001.
* [http://www.motherearthnews.com/Nature_and_Environment/1981_March_April/Extinction__It_Should_Concern_Us_All Extinction: It should concern us all] , "Mother Earth News", Anne and Paul Ehrlich, March/April 1981.
* [http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/2002/09/19/SP159274.DTL San Bruno's mounting challenge] , "San Francisco Chronicle", Paul McHugh, Sept. 19, 2002.
* [http://www.stanford.edu/group/CCB/Pubs/paulpdfs/2002_mclaughlinetal_climatepopextinction.pdf Climate change hastens extinction] , (
March 6, 2002.
* [http://plantbiology.ucr.edu/documents/files_of_Allen/manuscripts/Download:Fenn_Baron_Allen_et_al._2003_Biosci.pdf Ecological Effects of Nitrogen Deposition in the Western United States] , (
* [http://www.stanford.edu/group/CCB/Pubs/paulpdfs/2001_erhlich_tropbutterflies_LepidopteraNews.pdf Tropical Butterflies: A Key Model Group that Can be "Completed"] , (
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