Spirit Cave, Thailand
The Spirit Cave ( _th. ถ้ำผีแมน, "tham phi maen") is an archaeologic site in Pang Mapha district,
Mae Hong Son Province, Northwestern Thailand. It was occupied from about 9000 until 5500 BC by Hoabinhianhunters and gatherers.
The site is located at an elevation of 650 m. above sea level on a hillside overlooking the
Salween River. It was excavated in the mid 1960s by Chester Gorman. Two other significant sites nearby are the Banyan Valley Caveand the Steep Cliff Cave.
New Stone Age
The site is dated in the
Neolithicor New Stone Age, a period in the development of human technology that is traditionally the last part of the Stone Age. Beginning with the rise of farming, which produced the " Neolithic Revolution" and ending when metal tools became widespread in the Copper Age( chalcolithic) or Bronze Age
The plant domestication
Gorman [Gorman C. (1971) The
Hoabinhianand After: Subsistence Patterns in Southeast Asia during the Late Pleistoceneand Early Recent Periods. World Archaeology 2: 300-20] claimed that Spirit Cave included remains of Prunus (almond), Terminalia, Areca (betel), Vicia (broadbean) or Phaseolus, Pisum (pea) or Raphia Lagenaria (bottle gourd), Trapa (Chinese water chestnut), Piper (pepper), Madhuca (butternut), Canarium, Aleurites (candle nut), and Cucumis (a cucumber type) in layers dating to c. 9800-8500 BP. None of the recovered specimens differed from their wild phenotypes. He suggested that these may have been used as foods, condiments, stimulants, for lighting and that the leguminousplants in particular 'point to a very early use of domesticatedplants' [Gorman C. (1969) Hoabinhian: A pebble tool complex with early plant associations in Southeast Asia. Science 163: 671-3 ] . He later wrote [Gorman C. (1971) The Hoabinhian and After: Subsistence Patterns in Southeast Asia during the Late Pleistocene and Early Recent Periods. World Archaeology 2: 311] that 'Whether they are definitely early cultigens remains to be established... What is important, and what we can say definitely, is that the remains indicate the early, quite sophisticated use of particular species which are still culturally important in Southeast Asia.'
In 1972 W.G. Solheim, as the director of the project of which Spirit Cave was part, published an article in Scientific American discussing the finds from Spirit Cave. While Solheim noted that the specimens may 'merely be wild species gathered from the surrounding countryside', he claimed that the inhabitants at Spirit Cave had 'an advanced knowledge of
horticulture'. Solheim's chronologicalchart suggests that 'incipient agriculture' began at about 20,000 B.C. in southeast Asia. He also suggests that ceramic technology was invented at 13,000 B.C. although Spirit Cave does not have ceramics until after 6800 B.C. [Solheim, W.G. (1972) An earlier agricultural revolution. Scientific American 226: 34-41 ]
Although Solheim concludes that his reconstruction is 'largely hypothetical', his
overstatementof the results of Gorman's excavation has led to inflated claims of Hoabinhian agriculture. These claims have detracted from the significance of Spirit Cave as a site with well-preserved evidence of human subsistenceand palaeoenvironmental conditions during the Hoabinhian.
*cite book|title=Early Cultures of Mainland Southeast Asia|author=Charles Higham|pages=46-49|publisher=River Books|year=2002
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