Three Rivers Stadium


Three Rivers Stadium

Infobox Stadium
stadium_name = Three Rivers Stadium
nickname = The House That Clemente Built


location = 600 Stadium Circle
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15212
coordinates =
broke_ground = April 26, 1968
opened = July 16, 1970
renovated =
expanded =
closed = December 16, 2000
demolished = February 11, 2001
owner = City of Pittsburgh
operator =
surface = Tartan Turf (1970–1982)
AstroTurf (1983–2000)
construction_cost = US$55 million
architect = Deeter Ritchy Sipple, Michael Baker, Jr. and Osborn Engineering
project_manager =
main_contractors =
former_names =
tenants = Pittsburgh Pirates (1970–2000)
Pittsburgh Steelers (1970–2000)
Pittsburgh Maulers (1985)
Pittsburgh Panthers (2000)
seating_capacity = 38,496 (2001)
dimensions = Left Field — 335 ft / 102 m
Left-Center — 375 ft / 114 m
Center Field — 400 ft / 122 m
Right-Center — 375 ft / 114 m
Right Field — 335 ft / 102 m
Wall height — 10 ft / 3 m

Three Rivers Stadium was a multi-purpose stadium located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania from 1970 to 2000. It was home to the Pittsburgh Pirates and the Pittsburgh Steelers, the city's Major League Baseball (MLB) franchise and National Football League (NFL) franchise respectively.

Built as a replacement to Forbes Field, which opened in 1909, the US$55 million multi-purpose was designed to maximize efficiency. Ground was broken in April 1968 and an oft behind-schedule construction plan lasted for 29 months.cite web |url= http://www.steelers.com/article/40498/|title= 31 Slices of Three Rivers History|accessdate=2008-08-07 |work= Three Rivers Stadium|publisher= PittsburghSteelers.com] The stadium opened on July 16, 1970 when the Pirates played their first game. In the 1971 World Series, Three Rivers Stadium hosted the first World Series game played at night. The following year the stadium was the site of the Immaculate Reception, which is regarded as the greatest play in NFL history. The final game in the stadium was won by the Steelers on December 16, 2000. Three Rivers Stadium also hosted the Pittsburgh Maulers of the United States Football League and the University of Pittsburgh Panthers football team for a single season each. [cite web |url= http://www.usfl.info/maulers/|title= Pittsburgh Maulers|accessdate=2008-08-07 |publisher= USFL.com] [cite web |url= http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/inside_game/don_banks/news/2000/12/13/banks_insider_dec13/|title= A fond farewell |accessdate=2008-08-07 |publisher= CNN Sports Illustrated|date= 2000-12-15]

History

Planning and construction

A proposal for a new sports stadium in Pittsburgh was first made in 1948, however, plans did not attract much attention until the late 1950s.harvnb|Mehno|1995|pp=9] The Pittsburgh Pirates played their home games at Forbes Field, which opened in 1909, [harvnb|Leventhal|2000|pp=52] and was the oldest venue in the National League (Chicago's Wrigley Field was next-oldest, having been built in 1914). The Pittsburgh Steelers, who had moved from Forbes Field to Pitt Stadium in 1964, were large supporters of the project. For their part, according to longtime Pirates announcer Bob Prince, the Pirates wanted a bigger place to play in order to draw more revenue.cite book|last=Smith|first=Curt|authorlink=Curt Smith (author)|title=Storied Stadiums|year=2001|publisher=Carroll & Graf|location=New York City|isbn=0786711876]

In 1958, the Pirates sold Forbes to the University of Pittsburgh for $2 million. The university wanted the land for expanded graduate facilities. As part of the deal, the university leased Forbes back to the Pirates until a replacement could be built. [harvnb|Mehno|1995|pp=9–10] An early design of the stadium included plans to situate the stadium atop a bridge across the Monongahela River, however, plans of the "Stadium over the Monongahela" were not pursued. A design was presented in 1958 which featured an open center field design—through which fans could view Pittsburgh's "Golden Triangle".harvnb|Mehno|1995|pp=10] A site on the city's Northside was approved on August 10, 1958, due to land availability and parking space, the latter of which had been a problem at Forbes Field. The same site had hosted Exposition Park, which the Pirates had left in 1909. [harvnb|McCollister|1998|pp=175] The stadium was located in a hard-to-access portion of downtown, making it hard in later years to get in before games and leave after games. Political debate continued over the "North Side Sports Stadium" and the project was often behind schedule and over-budget. Arguments were made by commissioner Dr. William McCelland that the Pirates and Steelers should fund a higher percentage of the $33 million project. Due to lack of support, however, the arguments faded.

Ground for Three Rivers Stadium was broken on April 25, 1968. Due to the Steelers' suggestions, the stadium's design was changed to enclose center field. Construction continued, though it became plagued with problems such as thieves stealing materials from the building site. In November 1969, Arthur Gratz asked the city for an additional $3 million, which was granted.harvnb|Mehno|1995|pp=13] In January 1970, the opening target date of the stadium was set for May 29, however, because of a failure to install the lights on schedule opening day was pushed back to July 16. The stadium was named due to its location at the confluence of the Allegheny River and Monongahela River, which forms the Ohio River. It would sometimes be called "The House That Clemente Built" after Pirates' right-fielder Roberto Clemente. [harvnb|Gershman|1993|pp=224]

Design and alterations

Three Rivers Stadium was similar in design to other stadiums built in the 1960s and 1970s, such as Riverfront Stadium, the Houston Astrodome, and Busch Memorial Stadium, which were designed as multi-purpose facilities to maximize efficiency. [harvnb|Gershman|1993|pp=191] [cite book |title= Creating Breakthrough Products|last= Cagan|first= Jonathan|coauthors= Craig M. Vogel|year= 2001|publisher= FT Press|url= http://books.google.com/books?id=F5KA5gT_3p0C&pg=PA217&dq=Three+Rivers+Stadium&sig=ACfU3U3l4u4kB0B52ZaWVwswox4Qxl7SYg|isbn= 0139696946|pages= 217] Due to their similar design these stadiums were nick-named "cookie-cutter" ballparks. The sight lines were more favorable to football; almost 70 percent of the seats in the baseball configuration were in foul territory. The stadium originally seated 58,729 for baseball. [cite news |author= Associated Press|authorlink= Associated Press|title= Pirates to Reduce Stadium Capacity |url= http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9F0CE6DB1238F937A15752C0A965958260&scp=6&sq=Three%20Rivers%20Stadium&st=cse|work= Sports|publisher= The New York Times|date= 1993-01-24|accessdate=2008-08-07] In the early 1990s, the Pirates placed tarps on most of the upper deck to create a better baseball atmosphere, reducing capacity to 47,687.cite web |url= http://www.sportingnews.com/archives/threerivers/facts.html|title= Three Rivers Stadium - (Pittsburgh, 1970-2000) |accessdate=2008-08-07 |author= Steve Gietschier|publisher= "Sporting News"] The stadium originally contained Tartan Turf, though it was replaced by a number of other surfaces including AstroTurf.harvnb|Mehno|1995|pp=14] The field originally used "Gamesaver vacuum vehicles" to dry the surface, though they were replaced by an underground drainage system. In 1975, the baseball field's outfield fences were moved ten feet closer to home plate, in an attempt to boost home run numbers. The bullpens were moved to multiple locations throughout the stadium's history; however, their first position was also their final one—beyond the right-field fence. Due to Three Rivers Stadium's multi-purpose design bands including the Rolling Stones and The Who hosted concerts at the venue.harvnb|Mehno|1995|pp=15] In 1985, Bruce Springsteen and the E Street Band hosted the largest concert in Pittsburgh history, when they performed for 65,935 on-lookers. And in 1992, the Pittsburgh Penguins celebrated their second Stanley Cup victory at the Stadium.

Demolition

In September 1991, planning began to build a new baseball park for the Pittsburgh Pirates. [cite journal |last= Bouma|first= Ben|year= 1998|title= Heading for Home|journal= On Deck: The Official Magazine of the Pittsburgh Pirates|volume= 3|issue= 3|pages= 42–8|accessdate=2008-07-20] As talks continued, a proposal to re-model Three Rivers Stadium into a full-time football stadium was made.cite news|last= Cook|first= Ron|title= Plan B flawed; option is worse|publisher = Pittsburgh Post-Gazette|date= 1998-06-22|url= http://www.post-gazette.com/sports_headlines/19980622bcook3.asp|accessdate= 2008-04-05] However, Steelers ownership did not support the idea, stating that a new venue would be needed for the franchise to remain competitive. [cite news |first= Ed|last= Bouchette|title= Heinz Field: Standing up to the competition |url= http://www.post-gazette.com/steelers/20010824hsteele0824p2.asp|publisher= Pittsburgh Post-Gazette|date= 2001-08-24|accessdate=2008-08-05] On July 9, 1998, the Allegheny Regional Asset District board approved an $809 million plan which would fund the Pirates' PNC Park and the Steelers' Heinz Field. [cite news|last= Barnes|first= Tom|coauthors= Dvorchak, Robert|title= Plan B approved: Play ball!|publisher= Pittsburgh Post-Gazette|date= 1998-07-10|url= http://www.post-gazette.com/regionstate/19980710bplanb3.asp|accessdate= 2008-04-05] Ground was broken for the new stadiums in 1999. [cite news |title= Steelers Break Ground for New Football Stadium|url= http://www.steelers.com/article/41646/|publisher= PittsburghSteelers.com|date= 1999-06-18|accessdate=2008-08-06] [cite news|last= Barnes |first= Tom |title= City, Pirates break ground for PNC Park with big civic party |publisher= Pittsburgh Post-Gazette|date= 1999-04-08|url= http://www.post-gazette.com/regionstate/19990408stadium2.asp|accessdate = 2008-04-11] On October 1, 2000, the Pirates were defeated 10–9 by the Chicago Cubs in their final game at Three Rivers Stadium. After the game, former Pirate Willie Stargell threw out the ceremonial last pitch. [cite book |title= The Pittsburgh Pirates|last= Finoli|first= Dave|year= 2006|publisher= Arcadia Publishing|url= http://books.google.com/books?id=zf2llq672W4C|isbn= 0738549150|pages= 127] Two months later on December 16, 2000, the Steelers concluded play at Three Rivers Stadium, with a victory over the Washington Redskins. [cite news |title= PRO FOOTBALL; Steelers Rout Redskins in Last Three Rivers Game |url= http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C01EFD91439F934A25751C1A9669C8B63&scp=4&sq=Three%20Rivers%20Stadium&st=cse|work= Sports|publisher= The New York Times|date= 2000-12-17|accessdate=2008-08-07] Three Rivers Stadium was imploded on February 11, 2001 at 8:00 a.m.cite web |url= http://archives.cnn.com/2001/US/02/11/three.rivers.stadium.02/|title= Pittsburgh brings down Three Rivers Stadium|accessdate=2008-08-07 |work= U.S.|publisher= CNN.com|date= 2000-02-11] The 19-second implosion cost $5.1 million and implemented the use of 4,800 pounds of explosive. [cite news |title= PLUS: STADIUMS; Three Rivers Is Demolished at 30 |url= http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9502E4D81131F931A25751C0A9679C8B63&fta=y&scp=2&sq=Three%20Rivers%20Stadium&st=cse|work= Archives|publisher= The New York Times|date= 2000-02-12|accessdate=2008-08-07] [cite web |url= http://www.thepittsburghchannel.com/sports/455543/detail.html|title= Three Rivers Stadium: History|author= Associated Press|accessdate=2008-08-07 |work= Sports|publisher= ThePittsburghChannel.com|date= 2000-02-11]

Events

Pirates

Three Rivers Stadium opened on July 16, 1970, when the Pittsburgh Pirates lost to the Cincinnati Reds, 3–2, in front of 48,846 spectators.harvnb|Leventhal|2000|pp=50] [cite news |first= Leonard|last= Koppett|title= Pirates Open Their New Park, But Reds Celebrate 3-2 Victory|url= http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F10912F6345D16768FDDAE0994DF405B808BF1D3&scp=7&sq=Three%20Rivers%20Stadium&st=cse|work= Sports|publisher= The New York Times|date= 1970-07-17|accessdate=2008-08-07] The first pitch was thrown by Dock Ellis—a strike—to Ty Cline.harvnb|Mehno|1995|pp=42] The first hit in the stadium was by Pittsburgh's Richie Hebner, in the bottom of the first inning. The Pirates lifted their local blackout policy so that local fans could see the inaugural game. [harvnb|Mehno|1995|pp=8] In the Pirate's lowest season of attendance, 1985, an average of 9,085 people attended each game.cite web |url= http://www.baseball-reference.com/teams/PIT/attend.shtml|title= Pittsburgh Pirates Attendance, Stadiums and Park Factors|accessdate=2008-08-07 |work= Pittsburgh Pirates |publisher= Baseball Reference.com] The average attendance would peak in 1991, when Pittsburgh attracted 25,498 spectators to an average game. Game one of the 1970 National League Championship Series, at Three Rivers Stadium, was the first post-season baseball game to be played on an artificial surface.harvnb|Leventhal|2000|pp=51] The following season, the Pirates advanced to the World Series against the Baltimore Orioles. Three Rivers Stadium hosted game four, in which the Pirates defeated the Orioles in the first ever World Series game played at night. Pittsburgh would host its third Major League Baseball All-Star Game in 1974. The National League won the game by a score of 7–2. Pirates' pitcher Ken Brett was the game winning pitcher. [cite news |first= Rich|last= Emert|title= Where are they now? Brett's All-Star win a big thrill |url= http://www.post-gazette.com/sports/other/20030714where0714p4.asp|publisher= Pittsburgh Post-Gazette|date= 2003-07-14|accessdate=2008-08-07] Twenty years later, the midsummer classic returned to Three Rivers Stadium. In front of 59,568 spectators, the largest crowd to ever attend a baseball game at the stadium, the National League won 8-7 in the 10th inning. On July 6, 1980, the Pirates beat the Chicago Cubs 5-4 in 20 innings—the most innings ever played at the stadium. The longest game at the stadium was played on August 6, 1989, when Jeff King hit a walk-off home run 5 hours and 42 minutes into the 18-inning contest, as the Pirates once again beat the Cubs 5-4. [cite news |author= Associated Press|authorlink= Associated Press|title= Pirates' Long Ball Wins a Long Game |url= http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=950DEFDF133EF934A3575BC0A96F948260&scp=18&sq=Three%20Rivers%20Stadium&st=cse|work= Sports|publisher= The New York Times|date= 1989-08-07|accessdate=2008-08-07] On September 30, 1972, Pirates' right-fielder Roberto Clemente got his 3,000th hit at Three Rivers Stadium, three months before his death.

teelers

The Pittsburgh Steelers played their first game in Three Rivers Stadium on September 20, 1970—a 19–7 loss to the Houston Oilers. Throughout their 31 seasons in Three Rivers Stadium, the Steelers posted a record of 182–72, including a 13-5 playoff record. The Steelers sold out every home game from 1972 through the closing of the stadium, a steak which continues through 2008. [cite news |author= Associated Press|authorlink= Associated Press|title= Steelers' former radio announcer Myron Cope dies at 79|url=http://www.usatoday.com/sports/football/nfl/steelers/2008-02-27-cope-obit_N.htm |work= |publisher= USA Today|date= 2008-02-28|accessdate=2008-06-07] The largest attendance for a football game was on January 15, 1995, when 61,545 spectators witnessed the Steelers defeat to the San Diego Chargers. On December 23, 1972, Three Rivers Stadium was site to the Immaculate Reception, which became regarded as the greatest play in NFL history.cite web |url= http://www.steelers.com/article/40510/|title= Number one|accessdate=2008-08-07 |work= Three Rivers top Greatest Play and Game|publisher= PittsburghSteelers.com] cite web |url= http://www.sportingnews.com/archives/threerivers/reception.html|title= The house that the 'Immaculate Reception' built|accessdate=2008-08-07 |author= Chuck Finder|publisher= "Sporting News"] Three Rivers Stadium hosted seven AFC Championship Games from 1972 to 1998, the Steelers won five. In the , the Steelers' Randy Fuller deflected a Hail Mary pass intended for Indianapolis Colts receiver Aaron Bailey as time expired, to win the franchise's fifth bid to the Super Bowl.cite web |url= http://www.steelers.com/article/40508/|title= Number three|accessdate=2008-08-07 |work= Three Rivers top Greatest Play and Game|publisher= PittsburghSteelers.com] The Steelers played the Oakland Raiders on January 4, 1976, in what was dubbed "The Ice Bowl". The Steelers, who despite giving up eight turnovers, won the game after scoring two touchdowns in the final quarter. A Steelers symbol recognized worldwide, The Terrible Towel debuted on December 27, 1975 at Three Rivers Stadium. [cite book |title=Double Yoi! |last=Cope |first=Myron |edition= 1st edition |year=2002 |publisher=Sports Publishing, L.L.C. |isbn=1582615489| pages=142–7]

Notes

References

*cite book |title= Diamonds: The Evolution of the Ballpark|last= Gershman|first= Michael|year= 1993|publisher= Houghton Mifflin|location= Boston, New York City|isbn= 0395612128
*cite book |title= Take Me Out to the Ballpark|last= Leventhal|first= Josh|coauthors= Jessica MacMurray|year= 2000|publisher= Workman Publishing Company|location= New York, New York|isbn= 1579121128
*cite book |title= The Bucs! The Story of the Pittsburgh Pirates|last= McCollister|first= John|year= 1998|publisher= Addax Publishing Group|location= Lenexa, Kansas|isbn= 1886110409
*cite journal |last= Mehno|first= John|year= 1995|title= History of the Stadium|journal= Pittsburgh Pirates Official 1995 Commemorative Yearbook|publisher= Sports Media, Inc.|accessdate=2008-08-07

External links

* [http://www.3riversstadium.com/index2.html Official website]


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