Extremes on Earth

This article describes extreme locations on Earth. Entries listed in bold are Earth-wide extremes.

Extreme elevations and temperatures per continent

ContinentElevation (height above sea level)Temperature (recorded)
America, North
−66 °C (−87 °F)
Northice, Greenland
9 January 1954
America, South
Asia [ [http://www.bbc.co.uk/weather/world/city_guides/results.shtml?tt=TT004630 Average conditions for Verkhoyansk from the BBC] ]
−71.2 °C (−96.2 °F) Extrapolated
Oymyakon, Siberia, Russia (then in the Soviet Union)
26 January 1926 [ [http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2004/05/0512_040512_tvoymyakon.html Life Is a Chilling Challenge in Subzero Siberia from the National Geographic] ]
[A] : Height above sea level is the usual choice of definition for elevation. In terms of the point farthest away from the centre of the Earth, Chimborazo in Ecuador (6,267 m) can be considered the planet's most extreme high point. This is due to the Earth's oblate spheroid shape, with points near the Equator being farther out from the centre than those at the poles.
[B] : This is the highest recorded air temperature. Higher surface temperatures have been measured, for example, 70.7 °C (159.3 °F) in 2005 in the Lut desert, Iran. [ [http://www.csmonitor.com/2006/1102/p16s01-sten.html Satellites seek global hot spots | csmonitor.com ] ] [ [http://discovermagazine.com/2007/jun/hustle-flow The Ceaseless Buzzing of Kinetic Energy] , Daniel Engber, May 30, 2007, "Discover", on line; accessed May 9, 2008.] [ [http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Newsroom/NewImages/images.php3?img_id=17470 New Images - The Hottest Spot on Earth] , news, Earth Observatory, NASA. Accessed on line May 9, 2008.]
[C] : A temperature of 53.1 °C (128.0 °F) was recorded in Cloncurry, Queensland on 16 January, 1889 under non-standard exposure conditions and is therefore not considered official. [http://www.abc.net.au/am/content/2003/s1015670.htm Transcript of report on the highest temperature]
[D] : Temperatures of 50+ °C in Spain and Portugal were recorded in 1881, but the standard with which they were measured and the accuracy of the thermometers used are unknown; therefore, they are not considered official. Unconfirmed reports also indicate that a set of Spanish stations may have hit 48.0°C during the 2003 heat wave. [ [http://wmo.asu.edu/europe-highest-temperature Europe: Highest Temperature] WM0]

Greatest vertical drop

Greatest purely vertical drop
Greatest nearly vertical drop (summit elevation 6,286 metres/20,608 feet)

"See also List of mountains and Seven Summits."


Deepest mine3,581 metres (11,748 feet)
East Rand Mine, South Africa
Deepest cave2,140 metres (7,021 feet)
Voronya Cave, Arabika Massif, Abkhazia, Georgia.
Deepest pitch (single vertical drop)603 metres (1,978 feet)
Vrtoglavica Cave, Slovenia

"See also List of caves."

Greatest oceanic depths

Atlantic Ocean8,648 metres (28,374 feet)
Milwaukee Deep, Puerto Rico Trench
Arctic Ocean5,450 metres (17,881 feet)
Litke Deep, Eurasia Basin
Indian Ocean8,047 metres (26,401 feet)
Diamantina Deep, Diamantina Trench, South East Indian Basin
Mediterranean Sea5,267 metres (17,280 feet)
Calypso Deep, Ionian Basin, 45 miles SW of Pylos, Greece
Pacific Ocean10,923 metres (35,838 feet)
Challenger Deep, Mariana Trench
Southern Ocean7,235 metres (23,690 feet)
South Sandwich Trench (southernmost portion, at 60°S)

Deepest ice

Ice sheets on land, but having the base below sea level. Places under ice are not considered to be on land.

Coldest and hottest inhabited places on Earth

Hottest inhabited placeFitzroy Crossing, Western Australia and Wyndham, Western Australia whose average maximum temperatures are 35.6 °C (96 °F)
Coldest inhabited placeOymyakon (Russian: Оймяко́н), a village (selo) in Oymyakonsky Ulus of the Sakha Republic, Russia, located along the Indigirka River. [p. 57, "Extreme Weather: A Guide & Record Book", Christopher C. Burt and Mark Stroud, New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2007, ISBN 039333015X.]

Northern and southernmost points of land on Earth

Northernmost point on EarthKaffeklubben Island, east of Greenland (coord|83|40|N|29|50|W)
Various shifting gravel bars lie further north, the most famous being Oodaaq
Southernmost point on EarthThe geographic South Pole

ee also

* Canada Weather Extremes
* Extreme points of the World
* List of extrasolar planet extremes
* List of statistically superlative countries
* List of weather records
* Northernmost settlements
* Southernmost settlements
* The World's most northern
* The World's most southern

External links

* [http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/climate/globalextremes.html United States National Climatic Data Center]


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