Bashkortostan


Bashkortostan
Republic of Bashkortostan
Республика Башкортостан (Russian)
Башҡортостан Республикаһы (Bashkir)
—  Republic  —

Flag

Coat of arms
Anthem: National Anthem of the Republic of Bashkortostan
Coordinates: 54°28′N 56°16′E / 54.467°N 56.267°E / 54.467; 56.267Coordinates: 54°28′N 56°16′E / 54.467°N 56.267°E / 54.467; 56.267
Political status
Country Russia
Federal district Volga[1]
Economic region Urals[2]
Established March 23, 1919
Capital Ufa
Government (as of August 2010)
 - President[3] Rustem Khamitov
 - Legislature State Assembly—Kurultai[3]
Statistics
Area (as of the 2002 Census)[4]
 - Total 143,600 km2 (55,444.3 sq mi)
Area rank 27th
Population (2010 Census)[5]
 - Total 4,072,102
 - Rank 7th
 - Density 28.36 /km2 (73.5 /sq mi)
 - Urban 60.45%
 - Rural 39.55%
Population (2002 Census)[6]
 - Total 4,104,336
 - Rank 7th
 - Density 28.58 /km2 (74.0 /sq mi)
 - Urban 64.0%
 - Rural 36.0%
Time zone(s) YEKST (UTC+06:00)[7]
ISO 3166-2 RU-BA
License plates 02
Official languages Russian;[8] Bashkir[9]
http://www.bashkortostan.ru

The Republic of Bashkortostan (Russian: Респу́блика Башкортоста́н, Respublika Bashkortostan; Bashkir: Башҡортостан Республикаһы, Başqortostan Respublikahı), also known as Bashkiria (Башки́рия, Bashkiriya) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). It is located between the Volga River and the Ural Mountains. Its capital is the city of Ufa. Population: 4,072,102 (2010 Census preliminary results).[5]

BashkirWhiteHouse

Contents

Terminology

"Bashkortostan" derives from the name of the Bashkir ethnic group and the Persian suffix -stan (an ending common to many Central Asian countries).

History

The first settlements in the territory of modern Bashkortostan were set up in the early Paleolithic period; however, it was the Bronze Age which served as a spur to populate this territory. When people of Abashevo culture started settling here, they possessed high skills in manufacturing bronze tools, weapons, and decorations. They were the first to establish permanent settlements in the Southern Urals.

Bashkortostan is a territory in the Southern Urals and in Cis-Urals, named after its native people - Bashkirs (bashkort). The Russian (Slavonic) name of the country — Bashkiriya — formed at the end of the XVI century. Originally it was used in the form «Bashkir’», «Bashkirda», «Bashkir horde». The first written references to Bashkir tribes were in compositions of Herodotus (fifth century B.C.). The ethnonym Bashkirs first became known in the 9th century. Valuable information is contained in works by Sallam Tardzheman (IX cent.) and Ibn-Fadlan (X cent.); Al-Balkhi (X cent.) wrote about Bashkirs as a people, divided into two groups, one of which inhabited the Southern Urals, the other near the Danube river , close to the boundaries of Byzantium. His contemporary Ibn-Ruste wrote that Bashkirs were «an independent people, occupying territories on both sides of the Ural mountain ridge between Volga, Kama, Tobol and upstream of Yaik river».

After the early-feudal Mongolian state had broken down, the territory of modern Bashkortostan was divided between Kazan, Siberia Khanates and Nogai Horde. The tribes that lived there were headed by bi (tribal heads). After Kazan fell to Ivan the Terrible in 1554–1555, representatives of western and northwestern Bashkir tribes approached the Tsar with a request to voluntarily join the Muscovy.

Starting from the second half of the 16th century, Bashkiria's territory began taking shape as a part of the Russian state. In 1798 the Spiritual Assembly of Russian Muslims was established— an indication that the tsarist Government recognized the rights of Bashkirs, Tatars, and other Muslim nations to profess Islam and perform religious rituals. Ufa Governorate (guberniya), with a center in Ufa, was formed in 1865— another step towards territorial identification.

After the Russian revolution, Bashkir Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (ASSR) was established, firstly as Little Bashkortostan, but eventually all of Ufa Governorate was incorporated into the newly established republic. During the Soviet period, Bashkiria was granted broad autonomous rights— the first among other Russian regions. The administrative structure of the Bashkir ASSR was based on principles similar to those of other autonomous republics of Russia.

The extraction of crude oil in Bashkiria began in 1932. At the end of 1943, large crude oil deposits were discovered. During World War II, Bashkiria became one of the major regions of the Soviet Union to accommodate plants and factories evacuated from Western Russia, as well as great masses of people, as well as providing the country with weaponry, fuel, and foodstuffs. After the war, a good number of industries were further developed in Bashkiria such as mining, machine building and, especially, oil-refining. Bashkiria's industry became a solid base for the further economic growth of all European outlying territories of Russia.

On October 11, 1990 the Supreme Soviet of the Republic adopted the Declaration on state sovereignty of the Bashkir ASSR. On February 25, 1992 the Bashkir ASSR was renamed the Republic of Bashkortostan.

On March 31, 1992 a Federative Compact "On separation of authorities and powers among federal organs of power of the Russian Federation and the organs of power of the Republic of Bashkortostan" was signed. On August 3, 1994 a Compact "On separation of authorities and mutual delegating of powers among the organs of power of the Russian Federation and the organs of power of the Republic of Bashkortostan" was signed.

Geography

Bashkortostan contains part of the southern Urals and the adjacent plains.

  • Area: 143,600 km² (according to the 2002 Census) or 142,900 km² (according to Bashkortostanstat[10])

Bashkortostan is traversed by the northeasterly line of equal latitude and longitude.

Rivers

The Ufa River

There are over 13,000 rivers in the republic. Many rivers are part of the deepwater transportation system of European Russia; they provide access to ports of the Baltic and Black seas.

Major rivers include:

Lakes

There are 2,700 lakes and reservoirs in the republic. Major lakes and reservoirs include:

  • Asylykül Lake (23.5 km²)
  • Qandrykül Lake (15.6 km²)
  • Urgun Lake (12.0 km²)
  • Pavlovskoye Reservoir (120.0 km²)
  • Nugushkoye Reservoir (25.2 km²)

Mountains

Mount Yamantau

The republic contains part of the southern Urals, which stretch from the northern to the southern border. The highest mountains include:

Natural resources

The Republic of Bashkortostan is one of the richest territories of Russia in mineral resources with deposits of some 3,000 mineral resources. Bashkortostan is rich in crude oil reserves, and was one of the principal centers of oil extraction in the Soviet Union. Other major resources are natural gas, coal, ferrous metal ores, manganese, chromite, iron ores, non-ferrous metals ores (lead, tungsten), non-metallic ores (rock crystal, fluorite, iceland spar, sulfide pyrites, barite, silicates, silica, asbestos, talcum), deposits of precious and semi-precious stones and natural stones (malachite, jade, granite).

The republic has enough mineral resources to provide its power and fuel complex as well as petro-chemical, chemical, agro-industrial complex, ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy, glass-making and ceramic branches with raw materials.

Bashkortostan is one of the major raw materials bases for Russia non-ferrous metallurgy. The republic has good deposits of lignite with a high degree of bitumenosity. This lignite can be used for obtaining a variety of different chemical products like resins, surface-active substances, gummy fertilizers, and other stimulants for plants growth. Mining-chemical raw materials (rock salt, lime, phosphorites, barytes, etc.) are quite substantial, and are utilized in the republic economy.

Bashkortostan is also rich in woods. The total territory covered with forests is about 62,000 square kilometers (24,000 sq mi). More than one third of the republic territory is covered with woods. The following types of trees dominate: birch tree, conifers, lime, oak, and maple. The general stock of timber according to some evaluation is 717.9 million m³. Bashkortostan forests have special sanctuaries and national parks. They cover more than 10,000 square kilometers (3,900 sq mi).

Bashkortostan is also rich in springs and sources of mineral, medicinal, and drinking water.

Climate

  • Average annual temperature: 0.3 °C (mountains) to 2.8 °C (plains)
  • Average January temperature: −16 °C (3 °F)
  • Average July temperature: 18 °C (64 °F)

Administrative divisions

Map of the Republic of Bashkortostan

Politics

The head of the government of the Republic of Bashkortostan is the President, who is appointed by the President of Russia for a four-year term. According to the Constitution, the President of the Republic of Bashkortostan guarantees rights and liberties of the country's people and citizens, protects economic and political interests of the Republic of Bashkortostan, and secures legitimacy, law and order within its territory.

Rustem Khamitov assumed office as president on July 19, 2010. His predecessor was Murtaza Rakhimov, elected on December 17, 1993. Before the elections, Rakhimov was the Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the Republic— the highest post at that time. Rakhimov was re-elected in December 2003 in a poll condemned by the OSCE for exhibiting "elements of basic fraud."

The Republic's parliament is the State Assembly—Kurultai, popularly elected every five years. The one-chamber State Assembly has 120 deputies.

The Republic's Constitution was adopted on December 24, 1993. Article 1 of the Constitution stipulates that Bashkortostan is a sovereign state within Russia, it has state power beyond the limits of authority of the Russian Federation and the powers of the Russian Federation concerning the aspect of joint authority of the Russian Federation and the Republic of Bashkortostan. The Republic of Bashkortostan is a full-fledged subject of the Russian Federation on equal and agreed bases.

The relations of the Republic of Bashkortostan and the Russian Federation are at present based on the articles of the Constitution of the Russian Federation, the Constitution of the Republic of Bashkortostan, the Federative Compact (with amendments), and the Agreement on Separation of authorities and powers and mutual delegating of powers among the organs of state power of the Republic of Bashkortostan.

The judicial power of the republic is in the hands of the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court, the Court of Appeals, district Courts, and justices of the peace.

In full accord with universally recognized principles of international law, articles of the European Charter on local self-government and the Constitution of the Russian Federation, the Republic of Bashkortostan ensures in its Constitution that local self-government is recognized and guaranteed within the republic's territory.

The Republic of Bashkortostan resolves all issues of administrative-territorial structure on its own. The list of districts and towns, municipalities, as well as the order of establishing, amending and changing borders of municipalities and their names are stipulated by the Republic of Bashkortostan law "On administrative-territorial structure of the Republic of Bashkortostan and territory of municipalities".

Economy

Assy resort

Bashkortostan is one of the most developed regions of the Russian Federation in terms of its gross regional output, volume of industrial production, agricultural production, and investment in fixed assets.

The economy of Bashkortostan, being one of the largest industrial centers of Russia, is very diverse. Bashkortostan has a large agricultural sector. But the republic's most important industry is chemical processing; Bashkortostan produces more oil than any other region of Russia, about 26 million tons annually, and provides 17% of the country's gasoline and 15% of its diesel fuel. Other important products manufactured in Bashkortostan include alcohols, pesticides and plastics. The republic's gross regional product in 2007 was 645 billion rubles (over €18 billion).[11] More than half of Bashkortostan's industry is based in Ufa, the republic's capital.

Major economic indices
2002 2003 2004
Gross regional product 214.8 279.7 n/a billion roubles
Industrial production volume 161.7 192.1 354 billion roubles
Construction 1,408 1,471.5 1508.4 th.m.²
Agricultural produce 50.1 52.1 57.2 billion roubles
Investments into fixed capital 52.1 53.7 62.4 billion roubles
Accumulated foreign investments 71.7 97.6 157.1 million US$
Foreign trade turnover 2646 3045.3 3840.6 million US$
Export 2303.4 2724.4 3525.9 million US$
Import 342.3 320.9 314.7 million US$
Wholesale trade turnover 117.7 118.1 151.2 billion roubles

Demographics

Ufa city
Village on the Inzer river
  • Population development
Year Population
1897 1,991,000
1913 2,811,000
1926 2,547,000
1939 3,158,000
1959 3,340,000
1970 3,818,000
1979 3,849,000
1989 3,950,482[12]
2002 4,104,336[6]
2010 4,072,102[5]
  • Population: 4,104,336 (2002)
    • Urban: 2,626,613 (70.8%)
    • Rural: 1,477,723 (29.2%)
    • Male: 1,923,233 (46.9%)
    • Female: 2,181,103 (53.1%)
  • Females per 1000 males: 1,134
  • Average age: 35.6 years
    • Urban: 35.2 years
    • Rural: 36.4 years
    • Male: 33.4 years
    • Female: 37.7 years
  • Number of households: 1,429,004 (with 4,066,649 people)
    • Urban: 931,417 (with 2,592,909 people)
    • Rural: 497,587 (with 1,473,740 people)
  • Vital statistics
Source: Russian Federal State Statistics Service
Births Deaths Birth rate Death rate
1970 63,498 28,004 16.6 7.3
1975 63,096 31,802 16.5 8.3
1980 67,743 36,067 17.6 9.4
1985 76,839 39,101 19.9 10.1
1990 63,899 38,157 16.2 9.7
1991 58,240 39,638 14.7 10.0
1992 53,271 43,539 13.3 10.9
1993 46,772 50,738 11.6 12.6
1994 47,296 54,267 11.7 13.4
1995 45,622 51,734 11.2 12.7
1996 45,228 49,600 11.1 12.1
1997 43,776 49,354 10.7 12.0
1998 44,465 48,470 10.8 11.8
1999 41,368 52,608 10.0 12.8
2000 41,642 53,550 10.1 13.0
2001 42,793 55,001 10.4 13.4
2002 45,481 57,836 11.1 14.1
2003 45,583 58,237 11.1 14.2
2004 45,733 57,726 11.2 14.1
2005 44,094 57,787 10.8 14.2
2006 45,055 55,319 11.1 13.6
2007 51,453 55,144 12.7 13.6
2008 54,493 55,568 13.4 13.7


Ethnic groups

The Bashkirs, photo by Mikhail Bukar, 1872

According to the 2002 Census the ‘national composition’ was • Russian 36.32% • Bashkir 29.76% • Tatar 24.14% • Chuvash 2.86% • Mari 2.58% • Ukrainian 1.35% • Mordovian 0.63% • Udmurt 0.55% • Belarusians 0.42% • Armenian 0.21% • German 0.20% • Uzbek 0.13% • Azeri 0.12% • Kryashen 0.11% • Kazakh 0.10% • Tajik 0.07% • Jewish 0.06% • and various other groups of less than two thousand persons each. An additional 0.11% of the inhabitants declined to state their nationality on the census questionnaire.[13] Historical figures are shown below:

census 1926 census 1939 census 1959 census 1970 census 1979 census 1989 census 2002
Bashkirs 625,845 (23.5%) 671,188 (21.2%) 737,744 (22.1%) 892,248 (23.4%) 935,880 (24.3%) 863,808 (21.9%) 1,221,302 (29.8%)
Russians 1,064,707 (39.9%) 1,281,347 (40.6%) 1,418,147 (42.4%) 1,546,304 (40.5%) 1,547,893 (40.3%) 1,548,291 (39.3%) 1,490,715 (36.3%)
Tatars 621,158 (23.3%) 777,230 (24.6%) 768,566 (23.0%) 944,505 (24.7%) 940,436 (24.5%) 1,120,702 (28.4%) 990,702 (24.1%)
Chuvash 84,886 (3.2%) 106,892 (3.4%) 109,970 (3.3%) 126,638 (3.3%) 122,344 (3.2%) 118,509 (3.0%) 117,317 (2.9%)
Mari 79,298 (3.0%) 90,163 (2.9%) 93,902 (2.8%) 109,638 (2.9%) 106,793 (2.8%) 105,768 (2.7%) 105,829 (2.6%)
Ukrainians 76,710 (2.9%) 99,289 (3.1%) 83,594 (2.5%) 76,005 (2.0%) 75,571 (2.0%) 74,990 (1.9%) 55,249 (1.3%)
Others 113,232 (4.2%) 132,860 (4.2%) 129,686 (3.9%) 122,737 (3.2%) 115,363 (3.0%) 111,045 (2.8%) 123,222 (3.0%)

Spoken languages: Russian (96%), Tatar (34%), Bashkir (26%).[14]

Religion

Lyalya-Tyulpan Mosque in Ufa

Adherents of Islam account for the majority of Bashkir and Tatar. Most Russians, Chuvash and Ukrainians are Orthodox Christians.Most Mari are Pagan.Non-religious people form a substantial part of any ethnic group in Bashkortostan. There are 13,000 Jews in the republic, with a historic synagogue in Ufa, and a new Jewish Community Center built in 2008.[15]

Education

About sixty scientific organizations are active in the republic. Fundamental and applied scientific research is under way at twelve institutes of the Russian Academy of Sciences, twenty-nine institutes of different branches of industry, as well as numerous design bureaus and organizations, universities, and colleges.

The country's system of popular education took shape over many centuries and reflects the Bashkir people's folklore, national customs, and traditions. When Islam spread in Bashkiria in the 10th century, an educational system began to emerge gradually— primarily religious schools operated under the supervision of mosques (maktabeh and madrasah).

In addition, many institutions of higher education operate in the republic, including branches of 16 leading Russian universities and colleges. Specialists graduate with degrees in about 200 trades and professions.

Education is primarily in Russian and Bashkir.

Culture

Bashkir State Academic Theater of Drama in Ufa

Bashkortostan is one of the largest cultural centers of Russia. The republic is located on the border of Europe and Asia and inhabited by peoples of more than a hundred nationalities.

In addition, Bashkortostan is home to song and dance companies, a network of national theaters, museums, and libraries, and a number of annual folk festivals. The republic has seven Bashkir, four Russian, and two Tatar State Drama Theaters, a State Opera and Ballet Theater, a National Symphony Orchestra, "Bashkortostan" film studio, thirty philharmonic collectives, and the Bashkir State Folk Dance Ensemble.

The Bashkir School of Dance is well respected, with many students receiving international awards at competitions in Russia and other countries. World-renowned ballet dancer Rudolf Nureyev, as a child, was encouraged to dance in Bashkir folk performances, and began his dancing career in Ufa.

See also

References

  1. ^ Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", №20, ст. 2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000).
  2. ^ Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. (Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
  3. ^ a b Constitution, Article 6
  4. ^ Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Территория, число районов, населённых пунктов и сельских администраций по субъектам Российской Федерации (Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)" (in Russian). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002). Federal State Statistics Service. http://perepis2002.ru/ct/html/TOM_01_03.htm. Retrieved 2011-11-01. 
  5. ^ a b c Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2011). "Предварительные итоги Всероссийской переписи населения 2010 года (Preliminary results of the 2010 All-Russian Population Census)" (in Russian). Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2010). Federal State Statistics Service. http://www.perepis-2010.ru/results_of_the_census/results-inform.php. Retrieved 2011-04-25. 
  6. ^ a b Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек (Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000)" (in Russian). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002). Federal State Statistics Service. http://www.perepis2002.ru/ct/doc/1_TOM_01_04.xls. Retrieved 2010-03-23. 
  7. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication).
  8. ^ Official the whole territory of Russia according to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia.
  9. ^ Constitution, Article 1
  10. ^ Bashkortostanstat. "Basic parameters of Bashkortostan Republic". http://www.bashstat.ru/bashdigital/region15/DocLib/%D0%A0%D0%91_%20%D0%B2%20%D1%86%D0%B5%D0%BB%D0%BE%D0%BC.htm. Retrieved 2008-05-17. [dead link]
  11. ^ "The Republic of Baskhorostan". Russia Profile. http://www.russiaprofile.org/resources/territory/districts/bashkortostan/. 
  12. ^ "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров. (All Union Population Census of 1989. Present population of union and autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and okrugs, krais, oblasts, districts, urban settlements, and villages serving as district administrative centers.)" (in Russian). Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (All-Union Population Census of 1989). Demoscope Weekly (website of the Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. 1989. http://demoscope.ru/weekly/ssp/rus89_reg.php. Retrieved 2010-03-23. 
  13. ^ (XLS) National Composition of Population for Regions of the Russian Federation. 2002 Russian All-Population Census. 2002. http://www.perepis2002.ru/ct/doc/English/4-2.xls. Retrieved 2006-07-20. 
  14. ^ Russian Census 2002. 6. Владение языками (кроме русского) населением отдельных национальностей по республикам, автономной области и автономным округам Российской Федерации(Knowledge of languages other than Russian by the population of republics, autonomous oblast and autonomous districts)(Russian)
  15. ^ "Bashkortostan Jews Centered", Dateline World Jewry, World Jewish Congress, July/August 2008

Sources

  • №ВС-22/15 24 декабря 1993 г. «Конституция Республики Башкортостан», в ред. Закона №23-з от 18 сентября 2008 г. (#VS-22/15 December 24, 1993 Constitution of the Republic of Bashkortostan, as amended by the Law #23-z of September 18, 2008. ).
  • Ilishev, Ildus G. (December 1998). "Russian federalism: Political, legal, and ethnolingual aspects — a view from the republic of Bashkortostan". Nationalities Papers 26 (4): 723–759. doi:10.1080/00905999808408597. 

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