Hereditary fructose intolerance

DiseaseDisorder infobox
Name = Fructose intolerance
ICD10 = ICD10|E|74|1|e|70
ICD9 = ICD9|271.2
ICDO =


Caption = Fructose
OMIM = 229600
MedlinePlus = 000359
eMedicineSubj = ped
eMedicineTopic = 988
DiseasesDB = 5003
MeshID = D005633

Hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) or fructose poisoning is a hereditary condition caused by a deficiency of liver enzymes that metabolise fructose. It is also known as hereditary fructosemia, or fructose in the blood (-emia means in the blood)

Causes

The deficient enzyme is aldolase-B, which converts fructose-1-phosphate to DHAP and glyceraldehyde. This means that the fructose cannot be further metabolised beyond fructose-1-phosphate. This traps phosphates; which are needed to phosphorylate glycogen phosphorylase which carries on to release units of glucose-1-phosphate from glycogen. (Glucose-1-phosphate gets converted to glucose-6-phosphate and then dephosphorylated to form glucose).

In addition, Aldolase A plays an important role in gluconeogenesis, producing fructose-1,6-bisphosphate from glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and DHAP. But, glucose may still be released through the breakdown of glycogen. Although, it cannot be synthesized from gluconeogenesis, resulting in severe hypoglycaemia.

Presentation

If fructose is ingested, other symptoms such as vomiting, hypoglycemia, jaundice, hemorrhage, hepatomegaly, hyperuricemia and eventually kidney failure will follow.

Treatment

Treatment is with a fructose free diet, which if adhered to, is concordant with a good prognosis. [GPnotebook|-389021656]

Fructose and sucrose eliminated from diet.

Related conditions

Hereditary fructose intolerance should not be confused with fructose malabsorption. The latter is the same as dietary fructose intolerance (DFI), a deficiency of fructose transporter enzyme in the enterocytes, which leads to abdominal bloating, diarrhea and/or constipation.

ee also

* Inborn error of metabolism

References

External links

* [http://www.bu.edu/aldolase/HFI/hfiinfo/ Boston University HFI Lab]
* http://www.uihealthcare.com/topics/medicaldepartments/foodandnutrition/dfi/whatisdfi.html
* [http://www.food-info.net/uk/intol/hfi.htm Food-Info.net Fructose Intolerance (with list of acceptable and non-acceptable carbohydrates)]
* [http://www.bu.edu/aldolase/HFI/hfiinfo/detail.html]
* [http://ndt.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/18/6/1220 Case Study]
* [http://hfiinfo.proboards42.com/index.cgi HFI-Info Discussion Board]


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