Centered square number


Centered square number

In elementary number theory, a centered square number is a centered figurate number that gives the number of dots in a square with a dot in the center and all other dots surrounding the center dot in successive square layers. That is, each centered square number equals the number of dots within a given city block distance of the center dot on a regular square lattice. While centered square numbers, like figurate numbers in general, have few if any direct practical applications, they are sometimes studied in recreational mathematics for their elegant geometric and arithmetic properties.

The figures for the first four centered square numbers are shown below:

Like all centered polygonal numbers, centered square numbers can also be expressed in terms of triangular numbers:

:C_{4,n} = 1 + 4, T_{n-1},,

where

:T_n = {n(n + 1) over 2} = {n^2 + n over 2} = {n+1 choose 2}

is the "n"th triangular number. This can be easily seen by removing the center dot and dividing the rest of the figure into four triangles, as below:

Properties

The first few centered square numbers are:

:1, 5, 13, 25, 41, 61, 85, 113, 145, 181, 221, 265, 313, 365, 421, 481, 545, 613, 685, 761, 841, 925, 1013, 1105, 1201, 1301, 1405, 1513, 1625, 1741, 1861, 1985, 2113, 2245, 2381, 2521, 2665, 2813, 2965, 3121, 3281, 3445, 3613, 3785, 3961, 4141, 4325, … OEIS|id=A001844.

All centered square numbers are odd, and in base 10 one can notice the one's digits follows the pattern 1-5-3-5-1.

All centered square numbers and their divisors have a remainder of one when divided by four. Hence all centered square numbers and their divisors end with digits 1 or 5 in base 6, 8 or 12.

All centered square numbers except 1 are the third term of a Leg-Hypotenuse Pythagorean triple (for example, 3-4-5, 5-12-13).

Centered square prime

A centered square prime is a centered square number that is prime. Unlike regular square numbers, which are never prime, quite a few of the centered square numbers are prime. The first few centered square primes are:

:5, 13, 41, 61, 113, 181, 313, 421, 613, 761, 1013, 1201, 1301, 1741, 1861, 2113, 2381, 2521, 3121, 3613, … OEIS|id=A027862.

References

* U. Alfred, "n" and "n" + 1 consecutive integers with equal sums of squares", "Math. Mag.", 35 (1962): 155 - 164.
*
* A. H. Beiler, "Recreations in the Theory of Numbers". New York: Dover (1964): 125
*Conway, J. H. and Guy, R. K. "The Book of Numbers". New York: Springer-Verlag, pp. 41-42, 1996. ISBN 0-387-97993-X

External links

* [http://www.muljadi.org/Median.htm (n^2 + 1) / 2 as a special case of M(i,j) = (i^2 + j) / 2]


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