All You Zombies—

:"For the song by The Hooters, see All You Zombies"

Infobox short story |
name = All You Zombies—
title_orig =
translator =
author = Robert A. Heinlein
country = flagicon|USA United States
language = English
series =
genre = Science fiction
published_in = Fantasy and Science Fiction
publisher =
media_type =
pub_date = 1959
english_pub_date =
preceded_by =
followed_by =
"'—All You Zombies—'" is a science fiction short story by Robert A. Heinlein, written in a single day, July 11, 1958, and first published in the March 1959 issue of "Fantasy and Science Fiction" magazine, after having been rejected by "Playboy".

The story develops the themes begun in the author's previous story "By His Bootstraps", published some 18 years previous, and involves a number of paradoxes caused by time travel. Since its publication, "'—All You Zombies—'" has become one of the most famous science fiction stories about time travel. In 1980 it was nominated for the Balrog Award for short fiction. [ [ Locus Magazine award index, 1980 Balrog] ]

Some of the themes of this story appear later in "The Cat Who Walks Through Walls", including the Circle of Ouroboros and the Temporal Corps.


"'—All You Zombies—'" chronicles a young man (later revealed to be intersex) taken back in time and tricked into impregnating his younger, female self (before he underwent a sex change); he thus turns out to be the offspring of that union, with the paradoxical result that he is both his own mother and father. As the story unfolds, all the major characters are revealed to be the same person, at different stages of her/his life.

Narrative order of events

The story involves an intricate series of time-travel journeys. It begins with a young man speaking to the narrator, the Bartender, in 1970. The young man is called the Unmarried Mother, because he writes stories for confession magazines, many of them presumably from the point of view of an unmarried mother.

Cajoled by the Bartender, the Unmarried Mother explains why he understands the female viewpoint so well: he was born a girl, in 1945, and raised in an orphanage. While a fairly ugly teenager in 1963, he (that is, she) was seduced, impregnated, and abandoned by an older man. During the delivery of her child, doctors discovered she had an intersex condition: internally, she had both male and female sex organs. Complications during delivery forced them to give her a sex change. The baby was later kidnapped and not seen again. The now-former girl had to adjust to being a man and surviving as such, despite being unprepared for any job. As a girl he/she had preferred etiquette lessons, hoping to join an organization dedicated to providing "comfort and companionship" to astronauts, known at various times by the elaborate acronyms "W.E.N.C.H.E.S" (Women's Emergency National Corps, Hospitality & Entertainment Section), "A.N.G.E.L.S." (Auxiliary Nursing Group, Extraterrestrial Legions), and the Women's Hospitality Order Refortifying & Encouraging Spacemen (the only name without its acronym spelled out in the story). Handicapped by the physical aftereffects of childbirth, he used his secretarial skills to type manuscripts, and eventually began writing.

Professing sympathy, the Bartender offers to top his story. He guides him into a back room, and casts a net over the two of them. This is part of a time machine. The young man is set loose in 1963 where he dates, falls for, seduces, impregnates, and leaves a young girl; at the same time the Bartender goes forward nine months, kidnaps a baby and takes it to an orphanage in 1945. He then returns to 1963, and picks up the Unmarried Mother, who is just beginning to realize what has happened. As the Bartender tells him, "Now you know who "he" is—and after you think it over you'll know who you are . . . and if you think hard enough, you'll figure out who the baby is . . . and who "I" am."

The Bartender then drops the Unmarried Mother—his younger self—at an outpost of the Temporal Bureau, a time-traveling secret police force that changes events in history to protect the human race. He has just recruited himself.

Finally the Bartender returns to 1970, arriving a short time after he left the bar. He yells at a customer playing "I'm My Own Grandpa" on the jukebox. Closing the bar he time-travels again to his home base. As he beds down for a much-deserved rest, he contemplates the scar left over from the Caesarean section performed when he gave birth to his daughter, father, mother and entire history. He thinks "I "know" where "I" came from—but "where did all you zombies come from?", possibly referring to the rest of the humanity, those whose existence did not come from his own closed loop of creation.

Chronological order of events

*On September 20, 1945, the Bartender drops off baby Jane at an orphanage. She grows up there. She dreams of joining one of the "comfort organizations" dedicated to providing R&R for spacemen.

*Nearly 18 years later, the man who refers to himself as "an unmarried mother" is dropped off at April 3, 1963, by the Bartender. He meets and after some weeks of dating seduces the 17-year-old Jane, who has an intersex condition. From Jane's point of view, he then disappears.

*Jane becomes pregnant. After giving birth by C-section, she is found to be a "true hermaphrodite" who has been severely damaged by the pregnancy and birth; on waking she learns that she has been subjected (without her consent) to a "sex change" which reassigns her sex to male.

*On March 10, 1964, the Bartender steals the baby and takes it back in time to the orphanage. Jane, now male, becomes a stenographer, and then a writer. When asked his occupation, he replies, somewhat truculently, "I'm an unmarried mother—at four cents a word. I write confession stories." He becomes a regular at the bar where the narrator, the Bartender, works.

*On November 7, 1970, the Bartender meets the Unmarried Mother, conducts him into the back office, and takes him back to 1963 to "find" the man who got him pregnant. He returns to the bar, seconds after going into the back room, and yells at the customer playing "I'm My Own Grandpa". From his own point of view he has carried out his mission of ensuring his existence.

*On August 12, 1985, the Bartender brings the Unmarried Mother to the Rockies base and enlists him in the Temporal Bureau.

*On January 12, 1993, the Bartender, who is also Jane/mother/father, arrives back at his base from 1970 to think about his life.

:"I" know "where" I "came from—but" where did all you zombies come from?

:"I felt a headache coming on, but a headache powder is one thing I do not take. I did once—and you all went away.

:"So I crawled into bed and whistled out the light."

:You "aren’t really there at all. There isn’t anybody but me—Jane—here alone in the dark."

:"I miss you dreadfully!"

Outside references

*"All You Zombies" is the title of a chapter in the John Varley novel "Millennium", a time-travel story which uses the titles of famous time-travel stories as chapter titles.



*Robert A. Heinlein. "Grumbles from the Grave". Del Rey, 1980.
* [ James Gifford. "The New Heinlein Opus List" from "Robert A. Heinlein: A Reader's Companion"]

ee also

* "The Man Who Folded Himself"
* Predestination paradox
* Ontological paradox

External links

* [ "'—All You Zombies—'"] Full text at UCSD
* [ Timeline explanation for "'—All You Zombies—'"]
* [ All You Zombies- by Robert Heinlein] - a short review of the story at
*isfdb title|id=58494|title="All You Zombies..."

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