List of countries by intentional homicide rate

List of countries by intentional homicide rate per year per 100,000 inhabitants for the years from 2000 onwards. The reliability of underlying national murder rate data may vary.[1] The legal definition of "intentional homicide" differs among countries. Intentional homicide may or may not include infanticide, assisted suicide or euthanasia.

Intentional homicide demographics are affected by changes in trauma care, leading to changed lethality of violent assaults, so the intentional homicide rate may not necessarily indicate the overall level of societal violence.[2] They may also be underreported for political reasons.[3][4]

Another problem for the comparability of the following figures is that some data may include attempts. In general the values in this list should not include attempts except it is mentioned otherwise.

A study undertaken by the Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development estimated that there were approximately 490,000 intentional homicides in 2004. The study estimated that the global rate was 7.6 intentional homicides per 100,000 inhabitants for 2004.[5]

For the year 2010 UNODC made a similar study. It presumed a number of 468,000 intentional homicides for this year. That would correspond to a worldwide rate of 6.9.[6]

Intentional homicide rate per 100,000.
  0-1
  1-2
  2-5
  5-10
  10-20
  >20


Intentional homicide rates per 100,000 population by region 2004[5] 2010[6]
Southern Africa 37.3 32
Central America 29.3 25
South America 25.9 21
West and Central Africa 21.6 19
East Africa 20.8 23
Africa 20 17.4
Caribbean 18.1 21
Americas 16.2 15.5
East Europe 15.7 7
North Africa 7.6 6
World 7.6 6.9
North America 6.5 4.7
Central Asia and Transcaucasian countries 6.6 6
Europe 5.4 3.5
Near and Middle East/Southwest Asia 4.4 3
Oceania 4 3.5
South Asia 3.4 4
Asia 3.2 3.1
Southeast Europe 3.2 1.5
East and Southeast Asia 2.8 3
West and Central Europe 1.5 1.2


Contents

2010s

Country Sources 2010
 Honduras [7][8] 78
 El Salvador [7][8] 66
 Jamaica [7] 52
 Venezuela [9] 48
 Belize [7][8][10] 42
 Guatemala [7][8] 41
 Colombia [11] 38
 Saint Kitts and Nevis [7] 38
 Trinidad and Tobago [12] 37
 South Africa [13] 32
 Bahamas [7] 28
 Brazil [14] 25
 Dominican Republic [7] 25
 Saint Lucia [7] 25
 Dominica [7] 22
 Panama [7][8] 22
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines [7] 22
 Ecuador [7] 18
 Guyana [7] 18
 Mexico [15] 18
 Russia [16] 13
 Nicaragua [7][8] 13
 Grenada [7] 12
 Paraguay [7] 12
 Barbados [7] 11
 Costa Rica [7][8] 11
 Bolivia [7] 8.9
 Moldova [7] 7.4
 Haiti [7] 6.9
 Antigua and Barbuda [7] 6.8
 Estonia [17] 6.3
 Uruguay [7] 6.1
 Thailand [7] 5.3
 United States [18] 4.8
 Georgia [7] 4.1
 Latvia [19] 3.6
 Taiwan [20] 3.2
 Bangladesh [21] 2.4
 Lebanon [7] 2.2
 Israel [7][22] 2.1
 Macedonia [7] 1.94
 New Zealand [23] 1.76
 Czech Republic [24] 1.67
 Canada [25] 1.62
 Morocco [7] 1.40
 Chile [26] 1.33
 Ireland [27] 1.25
 Netherlands [28] 0.87
 Denmark [29] 0.85
 Germany [30] 0.84
 Japan (including attempts) [31] 0.83
 Austria [32] 0.56

2000s














Country Sources 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Most
recent
 El Salvador [7] 60 60 47 56 65 62 65 57 52 71 71
 Honduras [33][34][35][36][8] 50 54 56 34 32 35 43 50 58 67 67
 Jamaica [7] 34 44 40 37 55 62 50 58 60 62 62
 Guatemala [37][8] 26 25 31 35 36 42 45 45 49 52 52
 Saint Kitts and Nevis [7] 13 13 11 21 23 16 34 32 45 52 52
 Venezuela [38][7] 33 32 38 44 37 37 45 48 52 49 49
 Trinidad and Tobago [12] 10 13 15 20 22 33 31 33 46 43 43
 Colombia [39][11] 64 64 67 52 45 39 37 37 34 39 39
 South Africa [40][41] 50 48 48 43 40 40 41 39 37 34 34
 Belize [42][8] 16 25 33 25 29 30 33 31 32 29 29
 Bahamas [7] 21 16 16 16 14 17 19 24 22 25 25
 Dominican Republic [7][43] 14 13 14 21 25 26 23 22 25 24 24
 Panama [44][8] 10 10 12 11 10 11 11 13 20 24 24
 Brazil [7] 30 31 32 33 31 29 31 29 30 23 23
 Saint Lucia [7] 15 21 26 22 22 21 23 15 23 23 23
 Ecuador [7] 17 16 16 14 18 18 21 21 22 22
 Dominica [7] 2.9 1.44 13 12 12 12 7.3 10 10 19 19
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines [7] 19 11 19 17 25 22 12 33 25 18 18
 Guyana [7] 10 11 19 28 18 19 22 15 21 16 16
 Mexico [15] 14 14 13 10 11 11 11 10 12 15 15
 Russia [45][46][16] 28 30 31 29 27 25 20 18 17 15 15
 Nicaragua [47][8][7] 9.4 10 11 12 11 12 12 13 13 14 14
 Paraguay [48][49][50] 12 17 17 15 12 12 12
 Costa Rica [7][51][8] 6.4 6.4 6.3 7.2 6.6 7.8 8.0 8.3 11 11 11
 Kazakhstan [7] 16 15 13 13 14 12 12 11 11 11
 Uganda [52][50] 8.0 7.4 8.7 9.1 6.3 8.7 8.7
 Indonesia [50][7] 8.9 8.1 8.1
 Kyrgyzstan [7] 8.3 7.7 8.2 8.4 8.3 9.7 8.8 8.1 8.0 7.9 7.9
 Mongolia [48][52][50][7] 14 13 12 12 11 7.9 7.6 7.6
 Pakistan [7] 6.2 6.5 6.2 6.1 6.2 6.1 6.2 6.4 7.2 7.3 7.3
 Estonia [53][17] 10 10 10 14 9.4 12 8.9 8.2 7.8 7.1 7.1
 Barbados [7] 7.5 9.3 9.3 12 8.1 9.2 13 9.2 8.5 7.0 7.0
 Ukraine [7] 9.3 9.5 10 10 9.1 8.6 8.1 7.2 7.0 7.0
 Bolivia [7] 6.5 5.7 7.6 7.5 6.9 6.9
 Uruguay [7] 6.4 6.6 6.9 5.9 6.0 5.7 6.1 5.8 6.6 6.8 6.8
 Grenada [7] 15 5.9 14 8.8 5.9 11 12 11 14 6.7 6.7
 Moldova [7] 10 10 10 9.1 7.9 7.1 6.9 5.9 6.4 6.7 6.7
 Lithuania [7] 9.9 10 7.2 9.3 8.4 8.9 7.4 7.0 7.1 5.6 5.6
 Argentina [54][7] 7.2 8.2 9.2 7.6 5.9 5.5 5.3 5.3 5.8 5.5 5.5
 Philippines [7] 7.4 7.4 8.1 7.8 7.6 7.5 7.1 6.7 6.5 5.4 5.4
 Thailand [7] 8.1 7.9 7.0 9.8 6.5 7.2 7.0 6.5 5.8 5.4 5.4
 Peru [7] 3.2 3.0 2.7 2.9 3.0 2.9 2.7 3.0 5.2 5.2
 United States [55][56] 5.5 5.6 5.6 5.7 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.6 5.4 5.0 5.0
 Belarus [7] 10 9.7 9.9 8.9 8.3 8.4 7.5 6.7 5.6 4.9 4.9
 Latvia [19] 9.2 9.0 8.8 9.4 8.6 5.5 6.5 5.1 5.2 4.8 4.8
 Georgia [7] 5.0 5.6 6.3 6.6 6.2 9.0 7.3 7.5 6.0 4.7 4.7
 Cuba [7] 5.8 5.9 7.0 6.4 6.5 6.2 5.5 5.5 4.6 4.6
 Sri Lanka [52][50][7] 6.4 6.7 6.3 10 8.4 7.4 4.6 4.6
 Suriname [7] 4.6 17 12 12 14 14 12 8.8 8.3 4.6 4.6
 Turkmenistan [7] 7.7 7.1 5.8 5.3 5.1 4.9 4.4 4.4
 Mauritius [7] 2.2 2.3 2.5 2.9 2.8 2.9 3.9 3.5 3.7 4.2 4.2
 Yemen [49][50] 4.0 3.5 3.2 4.5 4.4 4.0 4.0 4.0
 Turkey [53][57] 10.0 8.6 8.3 7.6 7.1 7.0 6.6 4.3 3.8 3.8
 Taiwan [20] 5.1 4.8 5.2 4.7 4.0 4.0 4.0 3.8 3.5 3.6 3.6
 Montenegro [57][7] 4.4 3.2 2.3 3.5 4.0 1.62 3.7 3.5 3.5
 Cambodia [7] 4.6 3.2 3.3 3.9 3.9 3.4 3.4
 India [7][58] 4.2 4.0 3.9 3.5 3.6 3.5 3.5 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.4
 Uzbekistan [7] 4.3 4.3 4.2 3.8 3.7 3.5 3.3 3.1 3.1 3.1
 Iran [52][7] 2.6 2.9 3.0 3.0
 Albania [7] 9.0 6.8 5.8 4.6 3.8 4.2 2.8 3.3 2.9 2.9
 Libya [50] 2.2 2.9 2.9
 South Korea [7][59] 2.0 2.3 2.1 2.1 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.9 2.9
 Fiji [50] 3.1 2.8 2.8
 Liechtenstein [53][57] 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.9 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.8 2.8
 Nepal [7] 2.6 3.4 3.4 2.9 3.5 3.3 2.3 3.1 3.2 2.8 2.8
 Bangladesh [21] 2.6 2.4 2.3 2.6 2.3 2.7 2.4 2.6 2.6 2.6
 Maldives [52][60][50] 2.5 2.8 1.28 1.73 3.0 2.6 2.6
 Cyprus [53][57][7] 1.16 1.00 0.43 2.1 2.1 2.0 1.57 1.41 1.14 2.4 2.4
 Syria [7] 2.2 2.3 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.3 2.4 2.8 2.7 2.4 2.4
 Finland [7] 2.9 3.0 2.5 2.0 2.8 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.3 2.3
 Malaysia [48][49][50] 2.4 2.3 2.0 2.3 2.3
 Armenia [7] 3.0 2.9 2.3 2.2 2.4 1.79 2.4 2.3 2.5 2.2 2.2
 New Zealand [23] 1.63 1.55 1.87 1.61 1.47 1.77 1.53 1.54 1.55 2.2 2.2
 Azerbaijan [52][49][60][50][7] 2.8 2.7 2.6 2.2 2.4 2.4 2.2 2.0 2.1 2.1
 Israel [7] 2.4 3.6 3.6 3.2 2.7 2.5 2.8 1.94 2.3 2.1 2.1
 Romania [53][57][7] 2.5 2.7 2.5 2.5 2.4 2.1 2.0 1.83 2.2 1.96 1.96
 Bulgaria [7] 4.1 3.9 3.2 3.2 3.1 2.5 2.4 2.2 2.3 1.91 1.91
 Vietnam [50] 3.8 1.72 1.85 1.85
 Canada [61][62][63][64] 1.78 1.78 1.86 1.74 1.95 2.05 1.86 1.80 1.83 1.81 1.81
 Bosnia and Herzegovina [48][50][65] 3.9 1.80 1.85 1.93 1.72 1.80 1.80
 Tajikistan [7] 4.6 3.7 2.9 2.6 2.2 2.4 4.3 2.3 1.76 1.76
 Macedonia [7] 2.7 3.0 3.5 2.4 2.8 2.6 2.5 2.1 1.75 1.75 1.75
 Belgium [7] 2.1 2.8 3.1 2.2 2.6 2.1 2.1 2.0 1.87 1.74 1.74
 Czech Republic [57][66] 2.7 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.2 1.82 2.3 1.90 1.94 1.74 1.74
 Jordan [65] 1.91 1.83 1.20 1.74 1.74
 Serbia [7] 2.5 2.7 2.1 2.2 1.59 1.89 1.76 2.4 1.73 1.73
 Chile [26] 1.86 1.88 1.77 1.69 1.85 1.90 1.92 1.62 1.68 1.68
 Myanmar [7] 2.3 2.0 1.78 1.67 1.61 1.46 1.67 1.60 1.60
 Slovakia [7] 2.6 2.4 2.6 2.7 2.3 1.96 1.64 1.64 1.73 1.54 1.54
 Luxembourg [53][57] 0.92 1.37 0.90 0.70 0.44 0.87 1.92 1.47 1.45 1.45
 Kuwait [60][50] 1.71 0.99 1.15 1.38 1.38
 Morocco [7] 1.60 1.86 1.57 1.71 1.56 1.54 1.62 1.67 1.36 1.37 1.37
 Hungary [7] 2.0 2.5 2.0 2.3 2.1 1.63 1.73 1.53 1.47 1.39 1.39
 Greece [7] 0.98 0.91 0.65 1.03 0.84 0.96 0.74 1.03 1.21 1.35 1.35
 Ireland [53][27] 1.48 1.51 1.51 1.31 1.12 1.58 1.66 1.97 1.25 1.35 1.35
 France [53][57] 1.74 1.72 1.82 1.60 1.59 1.55 1.40 1.30 1.31 1.31
 Andorra [50] 1.30 1.30
 Poland [53][57][7] 2.2 2.0 1.87 1.72 1.64 1.45 1.28 1.38 1.21 1.29 1.29
 Egypt [7] 0.66 0.44 0.70 0.39 0.87 1.01 1.24 1.24
 Portugal [7] 1.12 1.01 1.14 1.42 1.37 1.28 1.47 1.74 1.17 1.22 1.22
 Australia [7][67][68] 1.58 1.60 1.62 1.52 1.31 1.27 1.35 1.21 1.22 1.20 1.20
 Bhutan [7][69] 3.2 3.2 3.1 0.80 2.3 1.67 1.33 1.16 1.00 1.17 1.17
 United Kingdom [7] 1.71 1.79 2.1 1.75 1.60 1.38 1.42 1.46 1.26 1.17 1.17
 China [7] 2.0 1.89 1.90 1.59 1.37 1.22 1.12 1.12
 Croatia [7] 2.5 1.85 1.79 1.55 1.87 1.53 1.67 1.40 1.61 1.11 1.11
 Saudi Arabia [7] 0.86 1.11 1.33 1.12 1.30 1.24 1.03 1.04 1.04
 Denmark [53][57][29] 1.48 1.16 1.08 1.52 1.11 1.29 0.83 0.84 0.97 1.01 1.01
 Sweden [53][57][7] 1.00 0.95 1.11 0.93 1.21 0.90 1.03 1.25 0.89 1.00 1.00
 Italy [7] 1.31 1.24 1.12 1.24 1.23 1.04 1.06 1.06 1.03 0.98 0.98
 Malta [53][57][7] 1.05 1.28 1.27 0.00 1.75 0.99 0.00 0.98 1.46 0.97 0.97
 Netherlands [70] 1.13 1.26 1.21 1.25 1.17 1.07 0.78 0.87 0.91 0.93 0.93
 Qatar [7] 0.17 0.61 0.84 0.73 0.20 2.5 0.93 0.93
 United Arab Emirates [52] 1.12 0.63 1.36 0.92 0.92
 Spain [53][71][57][7] 1.38 1.43 1.38 1.41 1.23 1.20 1.09 1.08 0.90 0.87 0.87
 Germany [30] 1.25 1.14 1.17 1.06 1.06 1.06 0.98 0.92 0.88 0.86 0.86
 Bahrain [48][52][50] 0.43 0.98 0.55 0.94 0.53 0.77 0.77
 Switzerland [53][57] 0.96 1.19 1.19 1.00 1.07 1.01 0.80 0.68 0.71 0.71
 Slovenia [7] 1.81 1.41 1.81 1.05 1.40 1.00 0.60 1.24 0.55 0.64 0.64
 Norway [53][57] 1.07 0.82 1.02 1.12 0.78 0.71 0.71 0.64 0.72 0.60 0.60
 Singapore [7] 0.94 0.75 0.55 0.59 0.46 0.49 0.39 0.39 0.38 0.51 0.51
 Austria [53][57][72] 1.02 0.87 0.81 0.62 0.72 0.66 0.73 0.54 0.55 0.48 0.48
 Japan [7][73][74][75][76] 0.65 0.62 0.62 0.60 0.56 0.50 0.49 0.44 0.46 0.46
 Iceland [53][57][7] 1.79 0.35 1.40 0.00 1.03 1.02 0.00 0.65 0.00 0.31 0.31
 Monaco [50] 3.1 3.1 3.1 0.00 0.00 0.00

Country subdivisions

  • List of Brazilian states by murder rate
  • List of Russian federal subjects by murder rate
  • Crime in South Africa#Murder (includes a table with the homicide rates from April 1994 to March 2011)

See also

References

  1. ^ Richards, Patsy (1999-05-27). "Homicide statistics, research paper 99/56" (PDF). House of commons library, Social and general statistics section. p. 29. http://www.parliament.uk/commons/lib/research/rp99/rp99-056.pdf. Retrieved 2007-01-11. 
  2. ^ Harris, Anthony R.; Stephen H. Thomas; Gene A. Fisher; David J. Hirsch (05 2002). "Murder and medicine: the lethality of criminal assault 1960-1999" (fee required). Homicide studies 6 (2): 128–166. doi:10.1177/1088767902006002003. http://hsx.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/6/2/128. Retrieved 2006-12-08. 
  3. ^ Fry, Don. Believing the news ISBN 0935742115, ISBN 9780935742114
  4. ^ Vizzard, William J. Shots in the dark ISBN 0847695603, ISBN 9780847695607
  5. ^ a b Global Burden of Armed Violence Report. Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development.
  6. ^ a b Global Study on Homicide. UNODC.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df UNODC Homicide Statistics
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "Homicidios en Centroamérica" (in Spanish) (PDF). La Prensa Grafica de El Salvador. pp. 1, 3. http://multimedia.laprensagrafica.com/pdf/2011/03/20110322-PDF-Informe-0311-Homicidios-en-Centroamerica.pdf. Retrieved 2011-08-02. 
  9. ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/mundo/noticias/2011/02/110209_venezuela_asamblea_inseguridad_cifras_jp.shtml
  10. ^ Belize Crime Statistic
  11. ^ a b "Homicidio 2010" (in Spanish) (PDF). Instituto Nacional de Medicina Legal. pp. 4-5, 37. http://www.medicinalegal.gov.co/images/stories/root/FORENSIS/2010/HOMICIDIO.pdf. Retrieved 2011-09-11. 
  12. ^ a b Trinidad and Tobago Crime Statistic
  13. ^ South African Murder rates 2003-2010
  14. ^ http://www.lanacion.com.ar/1363697-la-extrana-violencia-carioca
  15. ^ a b "Homicidios dolosos 1997-2010" (in Spanish) (PDF). Instituto Ciudadano de Estudios Sobre la Inseguridad, A.C.. http://www.icesi.org.mx/documentos/estadisticas/estadisticasOfi/denuncias_homicidio_doloso_1997_2010.pdf. Retrieved 2011-04-02. 
  16. ^ a b "Vital statistics by the Subjects of the Russian Federation" (in Russian) (XLS). Rosstat. http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/2010/demo/edn12-10.htm. Retrieved 2011-04-03. 
  17. ^ a b Estonian Crime Statistic
  18. ^ Crime in the United States 2010
  19. ^ a b Latvian Crime Statistic
  20. ^ a b Murder and Nonnegligent Manslaughter Taiwan 1991-2010
  21. ^ a b Bangladesh Crime statistic
  22. ^ Israeli Crime Statistic (see table 11.3)
  23. ^ a b New Zealand Crime Statistic (see Homicide and related offences for details)
  24. ^ "Statistický přehled kriminality" (in cs). Ministerstvo vnitra ČR. http://www.policie.cz/clanek/statisticke-prehledy-kriminality-650295.aspx. Retrieved 9 August 2011. 
  25. ^ "Police-reported crime for selected offences, Canada, 2009 and 2010". Statistics Canada. 2011-07-21. http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/85-002-x/2011001/article/11523/tbl/tbl04-eng.htm. Retrieved 2011-07-22. 
  26. ^ a b "TASA (c/100 mil habs) DE DENUNCIAS POR DELITOS DE MAYOR CONNOTACIÓN SOCIAL" (XLS). Gobierno de Chile - Ministerio del Interior. http://www.seguridadciudadana.gob.cl/files/tasas_anual_2001_2010w.xls. Retrieved 2011-04-10. 
  27. ^ a b Irish Crime Statistic
  28. ^ Dutch homicide statistic 2010
  29. ^ a b Danish Crime Statistic
  30. ^ a b German Crime Statistic
  31. ^ Japan Crime Statistic
  32. ^ "47 Morde im Jahr 2010". ORF. http://oesterreich.orf.at/stories/488848/. 
  33. ^ "Número de Víctimas y Tasas de Homicidios Dolosos en Honduras (1999–2006)" (in Spanish) (PDF). Observatorio Centroamericano sobre Violencia. http://www.ocavi.com/docs_files/file_384.pdf. Retrieved 2007-12-26. 
  34. ^ "Mortalidad y Otros" (in Spanish) (PDF). Observatorio Centroamericano sobre Violencia. p. 3. http://www.ocavi.com/docs_files/file_480.pdf. Retrieved 2008-08-05. 
  35. ^ "Mortalidad y Otros Presentación" (in Spanish) (PDF). Observatorio Centroamericano sobre Violencia. pp. 4–5. http://www.ocavi.com/docs_files/file_661.pdf. Retrieved 2009-04-08. 
  36. ^ "Mortalidad Edicion 17" (in Spanish) (PDF). Instituto Universitario en Democracia, Paz y Seguridad. pp. 4–5. http://iudpas.org/pdfs/NEd17EneDic2009.pdf. Retrieved 2010-06-29. 
  37. ^ "Número de Víctimas y Tasas de Homicidios Dolosos en Guatemala (1999–2006)" (in Spanish) (PDF). Observatorio Centroamericano sobre Violencia. http://www.ocavi.com/docs_files/file_385.pdf. Retrieved 2007-12-26. 
  38. ^ "La Situación de Seguridad en Venezuela" (in Spanish) (PDF). Instituto de Investigaciones de Convivencia y Seguridad Ciudadana. p. 4. http://incosec.sumospace.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/04/informe-1-trimestre-2010-final-4.pdf. Retrieved 2010-07-01. 
  39. ^ "Colombian National Police crime report 2005" (PDF). Colombian National Police. pp. 4, 47-48. http://www.guncite.com/colombian_crime_rpt_2005. Retrieved 2006-12-23. 
  40. ^ "Murder in the RSA for the period January to December 1994-2002". Institute for Security Studies. http://www.issafrica.org/CJM/stats0903/murder.htm. Retrieved 2007-10-13. 
  41. ^ "Murder in RSA for April to March 2003/2004 to 2009/2010" (PDF). South African Police Service. http://www.saps.gov.za/statistics/reports/crimestats/2010/categories/murder.pdf. Retrieved 2010-09-22. 
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  43. ^ "Número de Víctimas y Tasas de Homicidios Dolosos en República Dominicana (1999–2006)" (in Spanish) (PDF). Observatorio Centroamericano sobre Violencia. http://www.ocavi.com/docs_files/file_387.pdf. Retrieved 2008-08-16. 
  44. ^ "Número de Víctimas y Tasas de Homicidios Dolosos en Panamá (1999 –2006)" (in Spanish) (PDF). Observatorio Centroamericano sobre Violencia. http://www.ocavi.com/docs_files/file_380.pdf. Retrieved 2008-08-14. 
  45. ^ Mortality rate for the main categories of causes of death in Russia 1992-2007 Rosstat Retrieved on Feb 04, 2010
  46. ^ Demographic statistics for the Russian Federation in 2009 Rosstat Retrieved on July 24, 2009
  47. ^ "Número de Víctimas y Tasas de Homicidios Dolosos en Nicaragua (1999–2006)" (in Spanish) (PDF). Observatorio Centroamericano sobre Violencia. http://www.ocavi.com/docs_files/file_383.pdf. Retrieved 2008-12-29. 
  48. ^ a b c d e "The Tenth United Nations Survey of Crime Trends and Operations of Criminal Justice Systems". United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/data-and-analysis/Tenth-United-Nations-Survey-on-Crime-Trends-and-the-Operations-of-Criminal-Justice-Systems.html. Retrieved 2009-08-25. 
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