The Ahoms established the Ahom kingdom (1228-1826) in parts of present-day Assam and ruled it for nearly 600 years. Historical documents do not call the kingdom "Ahom". They call it "Asam" (or Assam), and the subjects of this kingdom "Assamese" or "Axomiya". After the advent of the British, the meanings of these categories changed. "Ahom" as a term appears in the Buranjis to denote the collection of civil and military officers under the Ahom king, all of which were non-hereditary offices.

History of Ahom kingdom

"See: Ahom kingdom"


In early 13th century, Sukaphaa, a Shan ("Mong Mao") prince began his journey with about 9000 followers, mostly men. He crossed the Patkai hills, fought and defeated the Nagas and reached the Brahmaputra valley in 1228. He moved from place to place, searching for a seat. He decided not to attack the "Moran"s and "Borahi"s but befriend them instead. His followers, much depleted from the original 9000, married into the "Borahi" and the "Moran" ethnic groups. The Borahis, a Tibeto-Burman ethnic group, were subsumed into the Ahom fold, though the Moran maintained their independent ethnicity. Sukaphaa finally established his capital at Charaideo near present-day Sibsagar in 1253 and began the task of state formation.


The Ahom kingdom then consolidated its powers for the next 300 years or so. The first major expansion was at the cost of the Chutiya kingdom, which was annexed in 1522 under Suhungmung. The expansion was not just a success of Ahom military prowess, but also a result of changes in the Ahom social and political outlook. For example, Suhungmung was the first Ahom king to adopt a Hindu name: Swarga Narayan. The Chutiya region was placed under the "Sadiyakhowa Gohain" a new position that was created. In 1536 the Kacharis were uprooted from their capital at Dimapur. Thus by the middle of the 16th century, the Ahoms were in control over eastern Assam. In 17th century, after the Battle of Itakhuli in 1682 that marked the end of the Ahom-Mughal conflicts, much of the control of Koch Hajo fell into the hands of the Ahoms.

End of Ahom rule

Their power declined in later half of the 18th century. The capital city was taken for a short period during the Moamoria rebellion. In the first part of the 19th century, the Burmese army invaded their kingdom who set up a puppet Ahom king. The Burmese were defeated by the British in the First Anglo-Burmese War resulting in the Treaty of Yandaboo in 1826, which paved the way for the British to convert the Ahom kingdom into a principality and which marked the end of the Ahom rule.

The Ahom people

The Tai Ahoms who came into Assam followed their traditional religion and spoke the Tai language. They were a very small group numerically and after the first generation, the group was a mixture of the Tai and the local population. Over time the Ahom state adopted the Assamese language and kings and other high officials converted to Hinduism. Except for some special offices (the king and the "raj mantris"), other positions are open to members of all tribes and religion. They kept good records, and are known for their chronicles, called "Buranji"s.

One of its greatest achievements was the stemming of Mughal expansionism. In the celebrated battle of Saraighat, the Ahom general Lachit Borphukan defeated the Mughal forces on the outskirts of present day Guwahati in 1671.

Further reading

*"Fragment Histories:Struggling to be Tai-Ahom". Duke University Press.2004
*Gogoi, N. K. (2006). "Continuity and change among the Ahom". New Delhi: Concept Pub. Co. ISBN 8180692817
*Phukon, G. (1998). "State of Tai culture among the Ahoms". [Assam, India?] : G. Phukon.

ee also

* Ahom Dynasty
* Burmese invasion of Assam
* Ahom history

External links

* [http://www.india-seminar.com/2005/550/550%20yasmin%20saikia.htm The Tai-Ahom connection] by Yasmin Saikia in [http://www.india-seminar.com/2005/550.htm Gateway to the East] , June 2005.
* [http://www.epress.nus.edu.sg/msl/polities.html Polities mentioned in the Chinese Ming Shi-lu] , several references are made to a Tai Ahom kingdom in this translation of an important Ming dynasty historical source

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  • Ahom — Âhom Les Âhom ou Tai Âhoms sont un groupe de peuples de langue thaïe qui s installa dans la région de l Assam au XIIIe siècle. Ils sont à l origine d une dynastie de râjas qui régna sur une partie de ce qui est l état actuel de l Assam du… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Ahom — bezieht sich auf eine Ethnie in Süd und Südostasien, siehe Ahom (Ethnie) deren Königreich, siehe Königreich Ahom deren Sprache, siehe Ahom (Sprache) Diese Seite ist eine Begriffsklärung zur Unterscheidung mehrerer m …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Âhom — Les Âhom ou Tai Âhoms sont un groupe de peuples de langue thaïe qui s installa dans la région de l Assam au XIIIe siècle. Ils sont à l origine d une dynastie de râjas qui régna sur une partie de ce qui est l état actuel de l Assam du… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Ahom — Los Ahoms fundaron el reino de Ahom (1228 1826) en partes de lo que actualmente es Assam, India, gobernando por un período de casi 600 años. Los documentos históricos no llaman al reino como Ahom , sino que lo mencionan como Asam (o Assam), y los …   Wikipedia Español

  • ahom — ˈäˌhōm noun (plural ahom or ahoms) Usage: usually capitalized 1. a. : a people of the Tai race who settled in Assam b. : a member of such people 2 …   Useful english dictionary

  • Ahom — Ahọm,   Gruppe der Shan Völker, eroberte im 13. Jahrhundert von Oberbirma aus Assam (der Name des Landes ist von Ahom abgeleitet), ging nach Zerstörung ihres Reiches durch die Birmanen (Anfang 19. Jahrhundert) als eigene Kaste in der… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Ahom — /ah hohm/, n. an extinct Thai language of Assam. * * * ▪ people       tribe that ruled much of Assam from the 13th century until the establishment of British rule in 1838. Their power in Assam reached its peak during the reign of King Rudra Singh …   Universalium

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  • Ahom — ISO 639 3 Code : aho ISO 639 2/B Code : ISO 639 2/T Code : ISO 639 1 Code : Scope : Individual Language Type : Extinct …   Names of Languages ISO 639-3

  • AHOM — abbr. AMERICAN HOMEPATIENT INC NASDAQ …   Dictionary of abbreviations

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