- Tumbes Region
Peru region table
name = Tumbes
imagesize = 80px
image_caption = Regional logo
Wilmer Dios Benites
elevation = 7
area = 4,045.86
pop = 191,713
density = 47.4
provinces = 3 provinces and 12 districts
lowest = 0 m (sea level)
highest = 134 m (Cañaveral)
areacode = 72
Petroleum, tobacco, bananas and fishing.
poverty = 46.8%
GDPshare = 0.49%
website = [http://www.regiontumbes.gob.pe www.regiontumbes.gob.pe]
iso = TUM
ubigeo = 24
Tumbes is a
coastal region in northwestern Peru. Due to the region's location near the Equatorit has a warm climate, with beaches that are considered among the finest in Peru. Despite its small area, this region has been privileged with a great variety of ecosystems.
The name "Tumbes" originates from either "Tumpis", a group of native peoples from the area, the word "tumbos", a species of
Passiflorathat used to abound in the area, or the name of the Tumba cacique, whose son founded and populated the area.
The Tumbes Region is bordered by the
Ecuadorian provinces of El Oro and Loja on the east; Peru's Piura Regionon the south; and by the Pacific Oceanon the north and west.
Morphologically, four zones can be defined in the region: the delta of the Tumbes and Zarumilla rivers; an alluvial plain north of the Tumbes River, with dry, low-depth ravines; ancient terraces that have been strongly eroded in the Máncora area; and the Amotape mountain range in the east and south, ending at El Barco Mountain. The delta of the Tumbes river is shallow, and when the tide is low, little sandy keys show up, which get covered by
mangrovevegetation. Despite its small area— it is the second-smallest region in Peru— Tumbes has a great variety of ecosystems: mangroves, dry forests, the only coastal tropical forests in Peru, and a rich and warm sea. Around 50% of the region's territory is covered by three protected natural areas: the Manglares de Tumbes National Sanctuary(which is part of the Gulf of Guayaquil-Tumbes mangroves), the Cerros de Amotape National Parkand the Tumbes Reserved Zone.
Tumbes has a warm and humid
tropicalclimate in the north and center of its region and a dry tropical or tropical savannaclimate in the south. Temperatures range from a maximum high of 40°C (over 42° during El Niñoevents) a minimum low of 18°C and a yearly average of around 27°C. The rainy season, which is more severe during El Niño, is from December to March.
Basically composed of a large
mestizopopulation rooted in a mixture between the pre-incan Tumpisand Tallanestribes, the Spanish, creoles, the Africanslaves, including mulatosor zambos, and a smaller oriental Cantonese community.
According to the 1993 Census, the Tumbes Region has a population of 155,521 inhabitants, 53% of which (82,426) are male and 47% (73,095) are female.
As of 2005, the Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informáticaesimates the region's population to be 215,634.
The majority of the region's residents (98.3%) speak Spanish as their native tongue; other languages spoken are Quechua (0.4%), foreign languages (0.1%), Aymara (60 speakers, 0.0%), and other indigenous languages (0.1%).
Immigrants from other regions make up 29.4% of the population; 0.2% of residents were born in a foreign country. The largest immigrant groups are from the regions of Piura (16.9% of the total population), Lambayeque (3.7%), and the
Lima Province/ Lima Region(2.8%).
The population is spread out with 49.4% under the age of 20, 10.7% from 20 to 24, 26.6% from 25 to 44, 9.7% from 45 to 64, and 3.5% who are 65 years of age or older.
illiteracyrate in the region is 9.5%, while 90.4% of the population are able to read and write. Secondary educationhas been completed by 31.8% of the population and 4.5% also have graduated from non-university higher education, while 2.3% have complete university studies. 45.9% only have attended primary educationand 5.9% have not had any education.
The provinces, with their capitals in parenthesis, are:
Tumbes was a populated region well before the
Inca Empire. The first settlers were fishers and hunters. Most recent cultures that lived there have left evidence of the refinement in their ceramics, and "huacas" or ruins that still stand today.
Tumbes was integrated into the
Inca Empireduring the reign of Sapa Inca Pachacuti. He introduced a new way of organizing the empire, but the task of integration continued during Tupac Inca Yupanqui's reign. He made it a key departure point for his campaign to conquer the Cañaris.
The adventure of the Spanish "Conquistadores" had its beginning in Tumbes: at
Puerto Pizarro Francisco Pizarroand his men landed in search of gold. After overcoming countless difficulties, the conquerors were able to land in the empire of which they had heard many legends. Undoubtedly, the thought of such a rich empire had instilled in their spirit an unwavering will to go on. With the information gathered, the conquerors set off to the rest of the empire, founding cities and overpowering their people.
During colonial times, Tumbes was no more than a crossing point where
soldiers and adventurers stopped momentarily to restock themselves, and continue traveling. Tumbes, however, gained permanent importance after Peru's independence; with Ecuador's long-standing territorial claims over the Loreto Regionof Peru,Tumbes's closeness to the border exposed it as a resistance point in some episodes of the Ecuadorian-Peruvian War. This region's heroic acts of resistance against Ecuador were rewarded by the establishment of Tumbes, a former province of Piura, as a full-fledged Department of Peru.
As part of the
decentralization process in Peru, a referendumwas held on October 30, 2005to decide whether the region would merge with the regions of Piura and Lambayeque to create the new Northern Region ( _es. Región Norte). However, voters in the region voted against the merge.
The fact that Tumbes lies so close to the
Equatorhas determined its landscape, which teems in plantlife. The beaches of Tumbes and its warm sea are ideal for surfingand scuba diving. Its pure white sands, sun and warm weather all year long, and a sea ideal for water sports, make the beach of Punta Sal one of the finest on the Peruvian coast. North of the city of Tumbes lies Puerto Pizarro, the gateway to the National Mangroves Sanctuary. The mangroves have formed vast clumps of saltwater-tolerant coastal forests which have created a unique ecosystemlinking the river and the sea. The mangroves are the breeding grounds for black scallops, which are served up in Tumbes' most famous dish, the black scallop ceviche.
South of Tumbes lies Zorritos, the town which received its name from workers involved in drilling the first oilwell in the area, back in 1863. Not far from Zorritos lies the Bocapán beach, where visitors can swim in Hervideros, natural
hot springs bubbling with iodized salts.
Typical dishes and beverages
The typical dishes of the "Tumbesino" cuisine are based on seafood—
cevicheof black scallops, crab, or shrimps, or "cebiche mixto"— and Tumbiresascovered by yucca and banana balls broth with "dominicos", meat, red peppers, eggs, olives, raisins, flour, coriander and other herbs.
Other specialties include the shrimp omelette, "chupe de cangrejos", and crabmeat omelette.
A typical beverage in the region is the "chinguirito", which is obtained by combining "pipa" (the milk of a soft
coconut) with the famous grape brandy called pisco.
* [http://www.regiontumbes.gob.pe Portal del Gobierno Regional de Tumbes] - Tumbes Regional Government official portal
* [http://www.peru.com/peruinfo/ingles/info_dptos/tumbes/tumbes.htm Peru Information by Regions: Tumbes]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Tumbes (Region) — Tumbes Symbole … Deutsch Wikipedia
Region de Tumbes — Région de Tumbes Pour les articles homonymes, voir Tumbes. Region Tumbes … Wikipédia en Français
Tumbes — ist eine Stadt mit 91.988 Einwohnern (2005) im Nordwesten des südamerikanischen Anden Staates Peru. Sie ist Hauptstadt der gleichnamigen Region Tumbes. Die Stadt besitzt einen Flughafen, der von Lima aus angeflogen wird. Tumbes liegt in der Nähe… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Tumbes — can refer to: * Tumbes (city) in Peru * the Tumbes River in South America * the Tumbes Region in coastal Peru * the Tumbes Province, political subdivision of Peru * the Gulf of Guayaquil Tumbes mangroves ecoregion of Peru and Ecuador * the Tumbes … Wikipedia
Région de Tumbes — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Tumbes. Region Tumbes … Wikipédia en Français
Tumbes (city) — Infobox City official name = Tumbes other name = native name = nickname = motto = imagesize = 300px image caption = Tumbes Cathedral flag size =150px image seal size = 100px image shield = Escudo de Tumbes.jpg shield size =80px image blank emblem … Wikipedia
Tumbes Province — Infobox Province Peru province = Tumbes region = Tumbes founded = image size = image caption = cofarms = COA Tumbes Province in Tumbes Region.png capital = Tumbes elevation = 7 pop = 139,073 density = 77.2 area = 1,800.85 districts = 6 ubigeo =… … Wikipedia
Tumbes River — The Tumbes River (Spanish: Río Tumbes or Río Túmbez in Peru; Río Puyango in Ecuador), is a river in South America. The river s sources are located between Ecuadorian El Oro and Loja provinces. It is the border between El Oro and Loja, and… … Wikipedia
Tumbes (Bezirk) — Tumbes Basisdaten Staat Peru Region Piura Provinz … Deutsch Wikipedia
Tumbes (Provinz) — Tumbes Basisdaten Staat Peru … Deutsch Wikipedia