Inspiration of Ellen White

Seventh-day Adventists believe church co-founder Ellen G. White was inspired by God as a "prophet", understood today as a manifestation of the New Testament " [Spiritual gift| [spiritual] gift] of prophecy". Her inspiration (compare: Biblical inspiration) is considered "authoritative" yet not infallible (compare: Biblical infallibility) in the church today. Her works are officially considered to hold a secondary role to the Bible, but in practice there is wide variation among Adventists as to exactly how much authority should be attributed to her writings. With instruction she claimed was received in visions, White made administrative decisions, gave personal messages of encouragement or rebuke to church members, and played a major role in doctrinal development.

The debate concerning the validity of her prophetic gift has always been heated, both from within and outside the Adventist church. This debate reached a climax in the 1970s and 80s, and since then the church's position has modified somewhat to place greater emphasis on her humanity and fallibility. [Ellen G. White Estate, "But in recent decades, much has been learned regarding inspiration/revelation..." in Herbert Douglass, "Messenger of the Lord", ix ; ; Some of White's contemporaries believed that she was not only inerrant, but held to the even stronger view(s) of verbal inspiration or verbal dictation. White rejected these claims of all her writings being given by verbal dictation. Dr. D. Paulson wrote,:"I was led to conclude and most firmly believe, that "every" word that you ever spoke in public or private, that "every" letter you wrote under "any" and "all" circumstances, was as inspired as the ten commandments. I held that view with "absolute" tenacity against innumerable objections raised to it by many who were occupying prominent positions in the cause" (D. Paulson to E. G. White, April 19, 1906) [As quoted in George R. Knight, "Meeting Ellen White", 74] White replied,:"My brother, you have studied my writings diligently, and you have never found that I have made any such claims, neither will you find that the pioneers in our cause ever made such claims." [Ellen White, Selected Messages 1, p. 24]

A. T. Jones and S. N. Haskell caused problems for the church by teaching verbal inspiration and inerrancy.Knight, "A Brief History of Seventh-day Adventists", 129] Jones later rejected her writings. W. W. Prescott once held a verbal inspiration view, but before 1919 he adopted a moderate position. [Douglass, 438]

See the [http://www.dennispriebe.com/documents/Ellen%20White's%20Writings%20--%20Their%20Role%20and%20Function.html view] of Dennis Priebe.

Bradford argues that those with an unrealistically high view of Ellen White are most prone to rejecting her writings, such as J. H. Kellogg, A. T. Jones and others. [ [http://www.sdanet.org/atissue/books/bradford/prophet-01.htm#5! prophet-1-Ellen White under attack ] ]

According to evangelical Kenneth Samples,:While "making Ellen G. White the infallible interpreter of Scripture... has never been the official position of the church, in a practical way many leaders within Adventism have asserted this.", etc.) (Thompson, 163)
* different emphases on scripture, etc.

See above. Critics who hold to a strong form of inspiration such as inerrancy have accused Adventists of diminishing the inspiration of scripture in order to uphold Ellen White.

In 1981 the church hired Vincent L. Ramik, a Roman Catholic lawyer specializing in copyright law, to investigate the charge of plagiarism. He concluded strongly in " [http://www.whiteestate.org/issues/ramik.html The Ramik Report] " that Ellen White was not a plagiarist::"Based upon our review of the facts and legal precedents, we conclude that Ellen G. White was not a plagiarist and her works did not constitute copyright infringement/piracy."(See Adventist Review, Sept. 17, 1981 [http://www.adventistarchives.org/docs/RH/RH1981-38/index.djvu] )

Later editions of "The Great Controversy" had citations inserted.

Assistants

Ellen White made use of editors or literary assistants to help with her work. These included Marian Davis (1847–1904) [ [http://jewel.andrews.edu:82/search/dDavis+Marian+1847 Articles about Davis] in the Seventh-day Adventist Periodical Index] and Frances E. "Fannie" Bolton (1859–1926). [Her apparently sole published article is a poem, " [http://www.adventistarchives.org/docs/RH/RH1916-22/index.djvu?djvuopts&page=12 Comfort in the book] " (DjVu). "Advent Review and Sabbath Herald" v93 (4 May 1916), p12. She also composed hyms - http://www.adventistarchives.org/docs/RH/RH19850613-V162-24/index.djvu. Ruybalid, M. Keith, "Our heritage of Adventist hymnody". "Worker, Journal of Sabbath School Action" 1982, v98, Dec 1, p6]

Her son Willie White wrote about the literary assistants in 1900:"...But none of Mother's workers are authorized to add to the manuscripts by introducing thoughts of their own. They are instructed that it is the words and thoughts that Mother has written, or spoken, that are to be used." [Monday, May 7, 1900, W. C. White to G. A. Irwin, as quoted in http://www.whiteestate.org/issues/DA-HOW/DA-How.html]

Plagiarism debate

During the 1970s several scholars, including Adventist pastor Walter T. Rea, were researching White's dependence on other authors, such as Alfred Edersheim. The church commissioned Raymond Cottrell and Specht to study the literary dependence of "Desire of Ages"--they suggest a dependency of less than 2.6%. Later, Fred Veltman was commissioned to examine the book "Desire of Ages" in a scientific manner. His study, the "Life of Christ Research Project", was completed in 1988 and concluded that, of the 15 random chapters sampled, approximately 31% of sentences in the book showed a literary dependency of at least one word. Others such as Rea suggest that as much as 90% could exhibit parallels. However, this claim has never been verified or proven. See [http://dedication.www3.50megs.com/David/index.html here] for examples.

Some scholars have argued that many of the parallels consist of a single shared word only. Only a small number are large, verbatim quotations. Denis Fortin and Jerry Moon argue that parallels such as White's view on inspiration published in "Special Messages" vol. 1, 21 which parallels Calvin E. Stowe, "Origins and History of the Books of the Bible" (1867), 19-20 displays a different theological thought. Hence, they argue, words found in common do reflect original thoughts by White.

Tests of her inspiration

Tests cited by supporters... tests cited by critics... discussion of views of biblical tests...

Supportive arguments which are used include claims of miraculous physical signs which were present, the accuracy of her health message, predictions, character of her life, and so on.

A. G. Daniells did not think that miraculous signs were the best kind of evidence to produce, [http://spectrummagazine.org/spectrum/archive06-10/10-1prophecy1b.html] but rather the fruit of her ministry (see http://www.whiteestate.org/books/mol/Chapt38.html#reference8)

She mentioned the phrase, 'the truth as it is in Jesus' hundreds of times. The primary test that Bradford suggests in "Prophets are Human" is whether or not her writings point the reader to Jesus.

History of views concerning her inspiration

There has been much debate regarding the nature of her inspiration, both within and without the Adventist church. There have been many particularly significant developments since the 1970s when the discussion was particularly fierce. Throughout the history of the debate both more progressive/liberal and more conservative factions are clearly identifiable.

Most recently, "the information age has thoroughly democratized the discipline of Ellen White Studies." [Arthur Patrick, http://spectrummagazine.org/onlinecommunity/featuredcolumns/070405patrick.html] There exist a plethora of influential websites arguing both points of view.

View of inspiration of Scripture have tended to be linked to the view of inspiration of Ellen White [Thompson; Ellen White also held this view (?)]

White's lifetime

Even during Ellen White's lifetime Adventists had different views regarding the nature of her prophetic ministry. She corrected both people who downplayed her writings, and those who elevated them too highly. She rebuked both those who downplayed or rejected her writings, such as A. T. Jones and also those who elevated her writings too high, such as a Dr. D. Paulson letter to White:

:"I was led to conclude and most firmly believe, that "every" word that you ever spoke in public or private, that "every" letter you wrote under "any" and "all" circumstances, was as inspired as the ten commandments. I held that view with "absolute" tenacity against innumerable objections raised to it by many who were occupying prominent positions in the cause" [D. Paulson to E. G. White, April 19, 1906. As quoted in George R. Knight, "Meeting Ellen White", 74.]

White replied,:"My brother, you have studied my writings diligently, and you have never found that I have made any such claims, neither will you find that the pioneers in our cause ever made such claims." [Selected Messages 1, page 24]

During her life she constantly fought for her followers to focus on Scripture, and not to use her writings as the arbiter of truth.

In 1866, Snook and Brinkerhoff published the critical work " [http://www.ellenwhiteexposed.com/snook/visionsc.htm The Visions of E.G. White Not of God] ". Later in 1889 Dudley Canright, after his break with the church two years earlier, published " [http://members.tripod.com/~Help_for_SDAs/SDAism-RENOUNCED-by-D-M-Canright.html Seventh-day Adventism Renounced] ". [cite book
last = Canright
first = Dudley Marvin
authorlink = D. M. Canright
title = Seventh-day Adventism Renounced After an Experience of Twenty-eight Years by a Prominent Minister and Writer of That Faith
publisher = Revell
date = 1889
location = New York
url = http://members.tripod.com/~Help_for_SDAs/SDAism-RENOUNCED-by-D-M-Canright.html
id = OCLC 22972920
] It was the biggest attack on Ellen White's credibility in the nineteenth century, bringing together the accusations of previous critics. [Douglass, 564]

A. T. Jones and S. N. Haskell caused problems for the church by teaching verbal inspiration and inerrancy for not only the Bible but White's writings as well. Against them were Willie White and A. G. Daniells, who supported several statements from Ellen White advocating a more moderate view of thought inspiration.

Other claims of prophecy

Two Millerites claimed to have had visions prior to Ellen White – William Ellis Foy (1818–1893), and Hazen Foss (1818?–1893), Ellen White's brother-in-law. Adventists believe the prophetic gift offered to these two men was instead passed on to White. [cite journal
last = Nix
first = James R.
authorlink = James R. Nix
title = The third prophet spoke forth
journal = Adventist Review
volume = 163
issue =
pages = 22
publisher = Review and Herald
location = Washington, D.C.
issn = 0161-1119
date = 4 December 1986
url = http://www.adventistarchives.org/docs/RH/RH19861204-V163-49/index.djvu?djvuopts&page=22
format = DjVu
doi =
id =
accessdate = 2008-04-15
]

The 1888 Minneapolis General Conference provided "impetus" to those radically seeking God's presence. For example, W. W. Prescott sought miraculous spiritual gifts and supported Anna Rice Phillips, a claimed new prophetess. ["Seeking a Sanctuary", 79] Soon after White's death in 1915, Margaret Rowen claimed to receive visions, and formed the short-lived Reformed Seventh-day Adventist Church. ["Reformed Seventh-day Adventist Church" in "Historical Dictionary of Seventh-day Adventists" by Gary Land, p243] Many others such as Victor Houteff (founder of the Shepherd's Rod offshoot) and Jeanine Sautron also claimed the prophetic gift. [ [http://www.whiteestate.org/books/mol/Chapt47.html Chapter 47: Messenger and Message Inseparable] " in "Messenger of the Lord" by Herbert Douglass]

Struggle between fundamentalism and modernism

For much of the 20th century, the Adventist church had an unrealistically high expectation of Ellen White's writings, according to contemporary mainstream scholarship. Adventist views about Scripture and Ellen White were influenced by the wider debate within Protestantism regarding revelation and inspiration. A debate had been brewing between liberalism and fundamentalism, which reached a peak in the 1920s with the Fundamentalist-Modernist Controversy. This controversy saw a polarization between the two extremes, which saw Adventism lose its more moderate position. Impacted by the prevailing views of inspiration in the wider climate, the Adventist church took a fundamentalist stance towards Scripture and Ellen White. It continued to grapple with the struggle between fundamentalism and modernism from White's death in 1915 until about 1970. [http://www.sdanet.org/atissue/white/patrick/egw-intro.htm. See also George R. Knight, "Brief History", 130 and "Search for Identity", 128-159.]

While many scholars in the church have adopted a "thought inspiration" view of the Bible, and reject inerrancy, a poll taken in 2001 shows that 64% of the Seventh-day Adventist membership still believes that the Bible is totally accurate in all that it teaches. [ [http://storm.prohosting.com/dannywin/inerrant-bible.html Is the Bible Inerrant? ] ]

In 1926 the General Conference even published a college textbook which argued for so-called verbal inspiration, while rejecting verbal dictation and Ellen White's several statements of thought inspiration. [Benjamin L. House, ed. "Bible Doctrines for Seventh-day Adventist Colleges", Washington, DC: General Conference Department of Education, 1926, 66-67. Also p. 71 of 1928 edn.] Daniells, Prescott and Willie White were sidelined. The loss of the moderate position has caused problems for the church which continue to the present day. Prescott expressed some serious concerns in a [http://www.whiteestate.org/issues/Prescott-Lt.html#Prescott%20Letter%20of%20April%206 letter] to Willie in 1915. H. M. S. Richards saw her as fallible, and when accusations such as plagiarism arose decades later, he reported that he was not disturbed because he had heard them all before at the 1919 Conference. [Robert E. Edwards, "H. M. S. Richards". Hagerstown, MD: Review and Herald, 1998, 35-37, as cited by Bradford]

The 1919 Bible Conference [ [http://www.adventistarchives.org/documents.asp?CatID=19&SortBy=1&ShowDateOrder=True Report of 1919 Bible Conference] ] was a significant theological milestone in Adventist history, but the significance of the discussions about Ellen White were not recognized until the rediscovery of the conference transcripts in 1973. The discussion occurred within the context of issues related to prophetic interpretation, and how to relate to change after her death. The conference served to polarize Adventist theology into "liberal" and "conservative" camps which continue to impact the church today. [Michael Campbell's review of "More Than a Prophet" in "Ministry", February 2007] Today's views were evident at the 1919 Conference and remain today. [Douglass, 441 [http://www.whiteestate.org/books/mol/Chapt38.html#note1] ]

Also in 1919, D. M. Canright published the critical work " [http://ellenwhite.org/canright/egw16.htm Life of Mrs. E.G. White, Seventh-day Adventist prophet: her false claims refuted] ". [cite book
last = Canright
first = Dudley Marvin
authorlink = D. M. Canright
title = Life of Mrs. E.G. White, Seventh-day Adventist prophet: her false claims refuted
publisher = Standard Publishing Company
date = 1919
location = Cincinnati, Ohio
url = http://ellenwhite.org/canright/egw16.htm
id = OCLC 11075272
] He is the best known and most influential early critic, and his work has been the basis for much subsequent criticism. [Walter Martin says this somewhere.Fact|date=April 2007]

Other books published during this period include " [http://www.whiteestate.org/books/agp/agptoc.html The Abiding Gift of Prophecy] " ( [( [http://www.adventistarchives.org/doc_info.asp?DocID=42255 version] in DjVu) by A. G. Daniells (1936) and " [http://www.whiteestate.org/books/bhp/bhptoc.html Believe His Prophets] " by Denton E. Rebok (1956), which are both fully available online from the White Estate. In 1951 Francis D. Nichol published the classic apologetic work " [http://www.whiteestate.org/books/egwhc/egwhctoc.html Ellen G. White and Her Critics] " ( [http://www.adventistarchives.org/doc_info.asp?DocID=47779 DjVu version] ). [cite book
last = Nichol
first = Francis D.
authorlink = Francis D. Nichol
title = Ellen G. White and Her Critics
publisher = Review and Herald
date=1951
location = Takoma Park, Washington, D.C.
url = http://www.whiteestate.org/books/egwhc/egwhctoc.html
id = OCLC 2699734
] According to the White Estate, this book:"...after 50 years is still the most comprehensive response to various charges against Ellen G. White. Though on a few points it may not reflect the current state of our knowledge, its reasoning is incisive and its perspectives helpful."Walter Martin claims that Nichol argues masterfully, but in defending her so strongly, weakens his case.Fact|date=February 2007 In 1955 Thomas Jemison published " [http://www.whiteestate.org/books/pay/PAYTOC.HTML A Prophet Among You] ",cite book
last = Jemison
first = Thomas Housel
title = A Prophet Among You
publisher = Pacific Press
year = 1955
location = Mountain View, California
url = http://www.whiteestate.org/books/pay/PAYTOC.HTML
id = OCLC 2868632
] which became a standard college textbook for decades.

New information

The years 1970-1982 brought challenging information and heated discussion. While the Adventist church today still strongly upholds White's prophetic gift and personal spirituality, its views are more moderate and more emphasis is often placed on her human, fallible side.

In 1970, Adventist William Peterson wrote the article " [http://www.spectrummagazine.org/spectrum/archive01-05/2-4peterson.pdf A Textual and Historical Study of Ellen G. White's Account of the French Revolution] " in the journal "Spectrum". [cite journal
last = Peterson
first = William S.
title = A Textual and Historical Study of Ellen G. White's Account of the French Revolution
journal = Spectrum
volume = 2
issue = 4
pages = 57–69
publisher = Association of Adventist Forums
date = Autumn 1970
url = http://www.spectrummagazine.org/spectrum/archive01-05/2-4peterson.pdf
id = ISSN 0890-0264
accessdate = 2006-11-21
format = Dead link|date=June 2008 – [http://scholar.google.co.uk/scholar?hl=en&lr=&q=author%3A+intitle%3AA+Textual+and+Historical+Study+of+Ellen+G.+White%27s+Account+of+the+French+Revolution&as_publication=%5B%5BSpectrum+%28magazine%29%7CSpectrum%5D%5D&as_ylo=&as_yhi=&btnG=Search Scholar search]
] It acted as a catalyst for the study of Ellen White's use of other writings ("source criticism"). [A response is Jan Voerman, "Ellen White and the French Revolution". "Andrews University Seminary Studies" 45:2, p247–59] This has been termed "borrowing" by supporters, or "plagiarism" by critics. Arthur Patrick has written,:"Prior to that time, many had perceived her writings as the all-inclusive, authoritative encyclopedia of Adventist thought and practice." [http://spectrummagazine.org/onlinecommunity/featuredcolumns/070405patrick.html] F. D. Nichol's classic defense has since been found to be wanting in some respects. [ibid. c.f. White Estate comment above] Alden Thompson has rated this as one of the most influential "Spectrum" articles.

In 1973, Arthur L. White published " [http://www.whiteestate.org/books/egww/egwwtoc.html The Ellen G. White Writings] ".

In 1976, then-Adventist Ronald Numbers published "Prophetess of Health", which asserted her health messages actually came from contemporary sources, not from visions from God.cite book
last = Numbers
first = Ronald L.
authorlink = Ronald Numbers
coauthors = Janet S. Numbers
others = introduction by Jonathan M. Butler
title = Prophetess of Health: Ellen G. White and the Origins of Seventh-day Adventist Health Reform
publisher = The University of Tennessee Press
year = 1992 (first edition 1976 entitled "Prophetess of Health: A Study of Ellen G. White")
location = Knoxville
edition = enlarged edition
id = ISBN 0-87049-713-8 (paperback), ISBN 0-87049-712-X (cloth)
. See the reviews in "Spectrum" [http://www.spectrummagazine.org/spectrum/issue/vol_8_no_2_jan_1977 8:2 (January 1977)] . . See [http://www.adventistarchives.org/docs/SPECT/SPECT20011001-V29-04__B/index.djvu?djvuopts&page=25 review] (DjVu) by Gary Land. "Spectrum", and subsequent review by Herbert Douglass] An updated edition was published in 1992, and a third in 2008. [See also [http://www.spectrummagazine.org/articles/spectrum_interview/2008/08/10/emprophetess_healthem_hits_shelves_again interview] by Alita Byrd of "Spectrum"] Numbers was ultimately removed from church employment. [" [http://spectrummagazine.org/files/archive/archive21-25/23-2butler.pdf The Historian as Heretic] " by Jonathan Butler. "Spectrum" 23:2 (August 1993), 43–64]

In 1979, the [http://www.spectrummagazine.org/spectrum/archive06-10/index10-1.html minutes] from two days of the 1919 Bible Conference were published by the journal "Spectrum", ["Spectrum" 10:1 (May 1979), p.23-57 ( [http://www.spectrummagazine.org/spectrum/archive06-10/index10-1.html index] ). " [http://www.spectrummagazine.org/spectrum/archive06-10/10-1couperus.html The Bible Conference of 1919: Introduction] " by Molleurus Couperus, 23-26; " [http://www.spectrummagazine.org/spectrum/archive06-10/10-1prophecy1a.html The Use of the Spirit of Prophecy In Our Teaching of Bible and History: July 30, 1919] ", 27-44; " [http://www.spectrummagazine.org/spectrum/archive06-10/10-1prophecy2a.html Inspiration of the Spirit of Prophecy As Related to The Inspiration of the Bible: August 1, 1919] "] and are now available from an official church website. [cite web
last =
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = Report of 1919 Bible Conference
work =
publisher = General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists
date =
url = http://www.adventistarchives.org/documents.asp?CatID=19&SortBy=1&ShowDateOrder=True
format = DjVu
doi =
accessdate = 2007-02-26
] The complete minutes had been rediscovered in 1974. This information has since played a large part in the church's understanding. The key issue during those two days of the conference was the nature of the inspiration of Ellen White.

In 1980, the White Estate and the Biblical Research Institute decided to begin a study of White's inspiration and other topics. This was described by then General Conference President Neal C. Wilson in two articles in the "Adventist Review". ["Adventist Review" Mar. 20, 1980 " [http://www.adventistarchives.org/doc_info.asp?DocID=9545 This I believe about Ellen G. White] " p.8-10 and July 9, 1981 " [http://www.adventistarchives.org/doc_info.asp?DocID=9618 The Ellen G. White writings and the church] " p.4–7 DjVulink] A scholarly committee met at the Glendale Adventist Hospital in January 28 and 29 to discuss Rea's studies into White's use of sources. The committee members and its conclusions are reported in a [http://www.ellenwhite.org/rea/letter.htm letter] by Rea. Wilson reported,:"The initial report from this very competent committee indicates that in her writing Ellen White used sources more extensively than we have heretofore been aware of or recognized." [ibid. (1980 article)]

The controversial dismissal of Desmond Ford from ministry and teaching position following his reinterpretation of the investigative judgment, peaked with the meeting in August 1980. This event was influential in the perception of White's inspiration. Ford still accepts her gift of prophecy as legitimate.

In 1981 Robert W. Olson published a booklet "PDFlink|1= [http://maranathamedia.com.au/start/index.php?option=com_docman&task=doc_view&gid=1065 101 Questions on the Sanctuary and on Ellen White] |2=410 KB" [Washington, D.C.:Ellen G. White Estate, March 1981). Also supplement to Australasian Record - June 8, 1981] and " [http://www.whiteestate.org/issues/shutdoor.html The 'Shut Door' Documents] " in 1982.

In 1982, the first International Prophetic Guidance Workshop was held.

Also in 1982, Adventist Walter Rea published the critical book " [http://www.ellenwhite.org/egw17.htm The White Lie] ",cite book
last = Rea
first = Walter T.
authorlink = Walter Rea
title = The White Lie
year = 1982
publisher = M & R Publications
location = Turlock, CA
url = http://www.ellenwhite.org/egw17.htm
id = ISBN 0-9607424-1-7 (paperback edn.) ISBN 0-9607424-0-9 (hardback edn.)
] which documents literary parallels with other authors of her times, following several years of discussion with church leaders and scholars. He claimed to be tired of waiting for his views to be heard. The book elicited several responses. [In 1981, "The White Truth" was put out by the church, as a response to Rea's forthcoming book. See also " [http://www.egwtext.whiteestate.org/issues/whitelie.html The Truth About the White Lie] " by the Ellen G. White Estate with cooperation from the Biblical Research Institute and the Ministerial Association of the General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists; revised in January 1999. See also the very civil review by Alden Thompson. cite journal
last = Thompson
first = Alden
authorlink = Alden Thompson
quotes = no
title = "The Imperfect Speech of Inspiration" (Review of Walter Rea, "The White Lie")
journal = Spectrum
volume = 12
issue = 4
pages = 48–55
publisher = Association of Adventist Forums
year = 1982
month = June
url = http://people.wwc.edu/staff/thomal/writings/reviews/whitelie.htm
id = ISSN 0890-0264
accessdate = 2006-10-20
. See also the [http://www.equip.org/site/c.muI1LaMNJrE/b.2820123/k.C350/DW030.htm review] by the Christian Research Institute.
] Rea's employment by the church was terminated.

There has been diversity within the church since 1982.

In 1982, Walter T. Rea and Desmond Ford were guests on the evangelical John Ankerberg Show, for 3 programs. In 1985, William G. Johnsson (then editor of the "Adventist Review") appeared on 5 programs of the Show to debate with evangelical Walter Martin regarding Ellen White and other issues.Videos [http://www.exadventist.com/Home/Video/tabid/502/Default.aspx online] at ExAdventist.com] [The second debate is linked from the "Spectrum" blog: parts [http://www.spectrummagazine.org/blog/2007/12/30/cult_video_debate_walter_martin_v_william_johnsson 1–4] , [http://spectrummagazine.org/blog/2008/01/01/cult_video_debate_walter_martin_vs_william_johnsson_5_14 5–14] . The series may also be purchased online from the Show's website: "Seventh Daysic Adventism at the Crossroads" from [http://www.johnankerberg.org/catalog/SDA.html here] , and "Seventh Daysic Adventism: Who Is Telling the Truth?" from [http://www.johnankerberg.org/catalog/SDN.html here] ]

In 1988 Adventist Fred Veltman completed his study, the " [http://www.adventistarchives.org/documents.asp?CatID=13&SortBy=1&ShowDateOrder=True Life of Christ Research Project] " DjVulink, which investigated literary parallels between White's "Desire of Ages" (about the life of Christ) and contemporary literature.cite book
last = Veltman
first = Fred
title = Full report of the Life of Christ Research Project
publisher = Ellen G. White Estate
year = 1988
month = November
location = Washington, D.C.
url = http://www.adventistarchives.org/documents.asp?CatID=13&SortBy=1&ShowDateOrder=False
format = DjVu
id = OCLC 19256598
(4 volumes)] He had been commissioned by the church in 1982 to conduct this study, prompted by the challenges of Rea and others. Of the 15 random chapters sampled, it was found that approximately 31% of sentences in the book showed a literary dependency of at least one word. For Veltman's summary of the results, the two-part series in "Ministry" magazine may be helpful: "The "Desire of Ages" project: [http://www.adventistarchives.org/doc_info.asp?DocID=6710 the data] "cite journal
last = Veltman
first = Fred
title = The Desire of Ages project: the data
journal = Ministry: International Journal for Clergy
volume = 62
issue = 10
pages = 4–7
publisher = Review and Herald
date=October, 1990
url = http://www.adventistarchives.org/doc_info.asp?DocID=6710
id = ISSN 0026-5314
accessdate = 2006-11-20
] and " [http://www.adventistarchives.org/doc_info.asp?DocID=6712 the conclusions] ".cite journal
last = Veltman
first = Fred
title = "The Desire of Ages" project: the conclusions
journal = Ministry
volume = 62
issue = 12
pages = 11–15
publisher = Review and Herald
date=December, 1990
url = http://www.adventistarchives.org/doc_info.asp?DocID=6712
id = ISSN 0026-5314
accessdate = 2006-11-20
] One statement by him::"I am under the strong conviction, now more than before I began this research, that the issue is not one of deciding if Ellen White was a prophet or merely a religious leader. It is not a case of all or nothing, of either/or. Nor is it the problem of deciding which of her messages are inspired or when she exchanged her prophetic hat for an editorial cap." [p.15 of part 2] Dr. Roger W. Coon, [ [http://www.andrews.edu/~fortind/EGWPlagiarism-Coon-98.htm "Ellen G. White as a Writer: Part III - The Issue of Literary Borrowing"] ] David J. Conklin, [ [http://dedication.www3.50megs.com/David/index.html "An Analysis of the Literary Dependency of Ellen White"] ] Dr. Denis Fortin, [ [http://www.andrews.edu/~fortind/EGWWhite-Conybeare.htm "Ellen G. White as a Writer: Case Studies in the Issue of Literary Borrowing"] ] [ [http://www.andrews.edu/~fortind/EGWPlagiarism-Encyclopedia.htm "The Ellen G. White Encyclopedia"] ] among others, undertook the refutation of the accusations of plagiarism.

The church has increasingly become aware of the reality of the literary parallels. Of the currently known parallels, the next most dependent book is "The Great Controversy" with 20% dependency on sources. It is also the most historical of the set in the "Conflict of the Ages" series.

In 1991, Alden Thompson published "Inspiration: Hard Questions, Honest Answers".cite book
last = Thompson
first = Alden
authorlink = Alden Thompson
title = Inspiration: Hard Questions, Honest Answers
publisher = Review and Herald
year = 1991
location = Hagerstown, MD
id = ISBN 0-8280-0621-0
] It was published by the church press Review and Herald. See the review by evangelical Clark Pinnock. [cite journal
last = Pinnock
first = Clark
authorlink = Clark Pinnock
title = Alden Thompson's "Inspiration": Why Is It A Cause Célèbre?
journal = Spectrum
volume = 23
issue = 4
pages = 51–52
publisher = Association of Adventist Forums
date=January 1994
url = http://www.spectrummagazine.org/spectrum/archive21-25/23-4pinnock.pdf
format = PDF
id = ISSN 0890-0264
accessdate = 2006-11-21
] In 1992 a group of authors from the Adventist Theological Society published a conservative response, "Issues in Revelation and Inspiration". [cite book
editor = Frank Holbrook and Leo Van Dolson, eds.
title = Issues in Revelation and Inspiration
publisher = Adventist Theological Society Publications
year = 1992
location = Berrien Springs, MI
id = OCLC 25701461
] See also the article by Alberto Timm.cite journal
last = Timm
first = Alberto
title = A History of Seventh-day Adventist Views on Biblical and Prophetic Inspiration (1844-2000)
journal = Journal of the Adventist Theological Society
volume = 10
issue = 1-2
pages = 486–542
publisher = Adventist Theological Society
year = 1999
url = http://www.atsjats.org/publication_file.php?pub_id=156&journal=1&type=pdf
format = PDF
id = ISSN 1550-7378
accessdate = 2006-10-23
] Conservative scholar Samuel Koranteng-Pipim and Historic Adventists Colin and Russell Standish also produced self-published works around this time. The competing publications illustrate the internal debate within the church.

From 1996 to 1999 Adventist historian George Knight published a series of books on Ellen White - "Meeting Ellen White: A fresh look at her life, writings and major themes" (1996),cite book
last = Knight
first = George R.
authorlink = George R. Knight
title = Meeting Ellen White: A fresh look at her life, writings and major themes
year = 1996
publisher = Review and Herald
location = Hagerstown, MD
id = ISBN 0-8280-1089-7
] "Reading Ellen White: How to understand and apply her writings" (1997), [cite book
last = Knight
first = George R.
authorlink = George R. Knight
title = Reading Ellen White: How to understand and apply her writings
publisher = Review and Herald
date=1997
location = Hagerstown, MD
id = ISBN 0-8280-1263-6
] "Ellen White's World: A fascinating look at the times in which she lived" (1998), [cite book
last = Knight
first = George R.
authorlink = George R. Knight
title = Ellen White's World: A fascinating look at the times in which she lived
publisher = Review and Herald
date=1998
location = Hagerstown, MD
id = ISBN 0-8280-1356-X
] and "Walking With Ellen White: Her everyday life as a wife, mother, and friend" (1999). [cite book
last = Knight
first = George R.
authorlink = George R. Knight
title = Walking With Ellen White: Her everyday life as a wife, mother, and friend
publisher = Review and Herald
date=1999
location = Hagerstown, MD
id = ISBN 0-8280-1429-9
] These popular books are both informative and readable.

Several media productions have made an impact since the late 90s. In 1998 a critical video "Seventh-day Adventism: The Spirit Behind the Church" [cite video
people =
title = Seventh-day Adventism: The Spirit Behind the Church
medium = DVD
publisher = Grace Upon Grace Productions
location = Phoenix, Arizona
date=2004
Also VHS version: cite video
people =
title = Seventh-day Adventism: The Spirit Behind the Church
medium = VHS
publisher = Grace Upon Grace Productions
location = Phoenix, Arizona
date=1998
ISBN 1-57618-003-4 OCLC|40963187
] was released by Jeremiah Films. The video is critical of both Ellen White and the Seventh-day Adventist Church and features several former Adventist pastors. It elicited Adventist responses. [See the combined response by the Ellen G. White Estate and the Biblical Research Institute, " [http://www.whiteestate.org/issues/video.html Suggested Sources to Respond to Representations Made in the Video 'Seventh-day Adventism, the Spirit Behind the Church'] ". See also [http://www.adventistbiblicalresearch.org/documents/spiritbehindchurch.htm alternate url] . Bob Pickle published [http://www.pickle-publishing.com/books/response-to-video.htm a book response] . Alden Thompson and Dave Thomas also released a personal response. "Seventh-day Adventism: The Spirit Behind the Church: A Personal Response", by Alden Thompson and Dave Thomas (March, 2001), a one-hour video produced for and shown by Blue Mountain Television.] In 2005 a supportive video documentary "Keepers of the Flame" [http://www.adventistbookcenter.com/Detail.tpl?sku=0828020213] hosted by Dr. Allen Lindsay includes a discussion of Ellen White. [cite video
people =
year = 2005
title = Keepers of the Flame
url =
medium = DVD
location =
publisher = Adventist Media; Hagerstown, MD: CrossView Media, Review and Herald Publishing Association
ISBN 0-8280-2021-3 OCLC|74473326
] Videos from the 2005 [http://ellenwhitesummit.foxyresearch.com/ Ellen White Summit] held at Gladstone Park Conference Center, which featured numerous experts, are available online. In 2006 another supportive video, "Prophetic Inspiration" [http://www.adventistbookcenter.com/Detail.tpl?sku=1921198036] was produced by scholars from Avondale College.

In 1998 Herbert Douglass published " [http://www.whiteestate.org/books/mol/TOC.html Messenger of the Lord] ", after being commissioned by the Ellen G. White Estate to write the book. It is used as a textbook at some Adventist places of higher learning. See Alden Thompson's review, [cite journal
last = Thompson
first = Alden
authorlink = Alden Thompson
quotes = no
title = "A Kinder, Gentler Ellen White" (review of Herbert Douglass, "Messenger of the Lord")
journal = Spectrum
volume = 27
issue = 1
pages = 58–65
publisher = Association of Adventist Forums
year = 1999
month = Winter
url = http://people.wwc.edu/staff/thomal/writings/reviews/kinderegw.htm
id = ISSN 0890-0264
accessdate = 2006-10-22
] and a discussion with Douglass. [http://spectrummagazine.org/files/archive/archive26-30/27-1conversation.pdf] Also in 1998, Juan Carlos Viera published " [http://www.whiteestate.org/books/vots/vots.html The Voice of the Spirit] ".

Critical works include " [http://www.ellenwhite.org/kaspersen/index.html Ellen G. White: The Myth and the Truth] " by Asmund Kaspersen (1999) and " [http://www.ellenwhite.org/btc/ Beware This Cult! An insider exposes Seventh-day Adventism and their false Prophet, Ellen G. White] " by Gregory G. P. Hunt (chapters relating to Ellen White available online).

A summit was held. [cite journal
last = Patrick
first = Arthur
authorlink =
title = Summit on Ellen G. White Writings
journal = Adventist Today
volume = 12
issue = 2
pages =
publisher = Adventist Today Foundation
location = Loma Linda, CA
issn = 1079-5499
date = March 2004
url = http://www.atoday.com/magazine/2004/03/summit-ellen-g-white-writings
accessdate = 2008-10-10
]

In February 2004, a series of Australasian "Record" articles appeared featuring Arthur Patrick and Bruce Manners. [February 7 introduction by Bruce Manners " [http://www.adventist.org.au/ws/spdlive.nsf/vwDisplay/69A098AC94BDD8BECA256E38000F17A1/$file/Record%204_2.pdf An Ellen White reality check] " (p.2); and "Ellen White for today" part 1 (p.9-10). February 14 continues with " [http://www.adventist.org.au/ws/spdlive.nsf/vwDisplay/44BCC4AE8FDD563DCA256E3F00240684/$file/Record%205.pdf part 2] " (p.3-4). February 21 has " [http://www.adventist.org.au/ws/spdlive.nsf/vwDisplay/116CE666F6759DDDCA256E45007F419B/$file/Record%206-2.pdf part 3] " (p.9-10) (note "Prophets are Human" booklaunch on cover, with Graeme Bradford and Jon Paulien. Also "Church leaders reasses [sic] Ellen White" on p.5). The series concludes in the February 28 issue with " [http://www.adventist.org.au/ws/spdlive.nsf/vwDisplay/1F0191A0EC21D9E1CA256E4E000663E7/$file/R7.pdf part 4] " (p.10-11).]

In 2005, Alden Thompson published "Escape From the Flames", ["Escape from the flames"... See also an [http://apokalupto.blogspot.com/2006/02/book-escape-from-flames.html interview] on Adventist pastor David Hamstra's blog] which also incorporates a personal account of the author's journey.

Graeme Bradford has published three books on Ellen White starting with "Prophets are Human" in 2004.cite book
last = Bradford
first = Graeme
title = Prophets are Human
year = 2004
publisher = Signs Publishing Company
location = Victoria, Australia
id = ISBN 1-876010-69-X
] In the first he argues for a more realistic view of Ellen White as a godly woman and someone with the genuine prophetic gift, yet having human imperfections nonetheless. [See the review by Denis Fortin, " [http://www.andrews.edu/~fortind/EGWSmithurst.htm Ellen G. White as Messenger of the Lord: What Else Could Dr. Smithurst Say?] "] "People are Human" was the second title. The third in the series, " [http://www.sdanet.org/atissue/books/bradford/index.htm More Than a Prophet] " (2006) has been somewhat more controversial, [The White Estate issued a [http://www.whiteestate.org/issues/more-prophet.asp statement] and later a [http://whiteestate.org/issues/NTProphets.htm review] on its website by William Fagal, Associate Director of the White Estate, that it does not endorse all of the content in the book. Bradford has responded in turn - see "Ministry" April 2007 issue. Gerhard Pfandl from the The Biblical Research Institute issued an eight-page review. See also Michael Campbell's review of Bradford’s third book, in Feb 2007 "Ministry" magazine, p.29, and his [http://adventisthistorian.typepad.com/my_weblog/2006/10/more_than_a_pro.html personal blog entry] ). Arthur Patrick has also written a review " [http://spectrummagazine.org/onlinecommunity/featuredcolumns/070405patrick.html Graeme Bradford and Ellen White’s Inspiration] "] and is freely available online.

Since 2005, "Ellen White and Current Issues Symposium"s have been held. [Flyers for the [http://www.andrews.edu/library/car/2007EGWsymposium.pdf third (2007)] and [http://www.andrews.edu/library/car/Program_2008.pdf fourth (2008)] symposiums.]

In 2007, the play "Red Books" was produced, featuring a dialogue on views of White's inspiration drawn from interviews of over 200 individuals.

"Adventist World" has planned a two-year series, "Discovering the Spirit of Prophecy", with a feature article every second month, which started July 2008. ["Adventist World". July 2008, " [http://www.adventistworld.org/issue.php?issue=2008-1007&page=22 He Still Speaks: How does God communicate over the noise of modern society?] " by Alberto R. Timm. September 2008, " [http://www.adventistworld.org/issue.php?issue=2008-1009&page=22 Foundations for Ellen White’s Prophetic Call] " by Gerhard Pfandl]

The forthcoming "Encyclopedia of Ellen G. White" is expected for release in 2008. It is edited by [http://www.andrews.edu/~jmoon/ Jerry Moon] and [http://www.andrews.edu/~fortind/ Denis Fortin] of Andrews University, and will contain contributions by dozens of scholars. Keith Lockhart, coauthor of "Seeking a Sanctuary", expects it will be "very conservative." [ [http://progressiveadventism.com/2007/01/05/interlogue-3-keith-lockhart/ Interview] with Keith Lockhart by Julius Nam]

Parallels

Some reviewers have drawn parallels with other prophetic claimants, such as Joseph Smith [http://www.atoday.com/content/parallels-ellen-whites-and-joseph-smiths-writings - Joseph Smith parallels? 4:3 (May–June 1996), p10–11. According to Phyllis Watson] [Skip MacCarty, "A tale of two prophets". "Insight" 1974, v5, Oct 29, p24-25] and even Muhammad. [cite journal
last = Dunton
first = Hugh I.
title = Prophets in Parallel: Mohammed and Ellen G. White: Adventism and Islam share a respect for the prophetic gift
journal = Spectrum
volume = 22
issue = 4
pages = 40–51
publisher = Adventist Forums
location = Roseville, California
issn = 0890-0264
date = October 1992
url = http://spectrummagazine.org/files/archive/archive21-25/22-4dunton.pdf
format = PDF
accessdate = 2008-10-10
]

Critical views

:"Could borrow from Ellen G. White#Criticisms and Ellen G. White#Response to criticism"The validity of her prophetic ministry is typically denied by those outside the Adventist church, although there are exceptions. More positive criticism came from evangelical Walter Martin of the countercult Christian Research Institute, who "rejected White’s prophetic claims", yet saw her "as a genuine Christian believer", unlike her contemporaries Joseph Smith, Jr., Mary Baker Eddy, and Charles Taze Russell. Kenneth Samples, a successor of Martin in his interaction with Adventism, also denies White's prophetic claims yet "believe [s] she, at minimum, had some good biblical and theological instincts."Samples, Kenneth (2007). " [http://qod.andrews.edu/docs/08_kenneth_samples.pdf Evangelical Reflections on Seventh-day Adventism: Yesterday and Today] ". "Questions on Doctrine" 50th anniversary conference] Others view her in a more negative light, as deceptive.

The most prominent early critic of the Adventist church and Ellen White was D. M. Canright, an early leader who later left the movement. According to evangelical Walter Martin, most subsequent criticism of the church has been based on his work.

Contemporary critic former Adventist Dale Ratzlaff has been described as the "fountain head" of all critics. [Jud Lake, professor of preaching and Adventist studies at Southern Adventist University, at the 2005 Ellen White Summit.Fact|date=August 2007]

According to Samuele Bacchiocchi, most criticisms of White come from former Adventists, many of whom were church pastors. [ [http://www.sdanet.org/atissue/books/bradford/prophet-foreword.htm Foreword] by Samuele Bacchiocchi to " [http://www.sdanet.org/atissue/books/bradford/index.htm More Than A Prophet] " by Graeme Bradford] In the intense debates regarding her inspiration during the 1970s, Adventists Walter Rea and Ronald Numbers wrote material considered critical of Ellen White by much of the church, and subsequently left.

Physicians Molleurus Couperus and Delbert H. Hodder suggested White's visions were due to temporal lobe epilepsy or partial-complex or psychomotor seizures. Another physician, Donald Peterson, has [http://www.whiteestate.org/issues/visions.html responded] . [ [http://www.whiteestate.org/issues/visions.html Visions or Seizures: Was Ellen White the Victim of Epilepsy?] by Donald I. Peterson, MD]

Influence

According to evangelical author Kenneth Samples, "No Christian leader or theologian has exerted as great an influence on a particular denomination as Ellen White has on Adventism." According to the "Valuegenesis" studies, the percentage of self-identified Adventists studying in Adventist schools who read White's writings at least once a week was 13% in 1990 and 6% in 2000. [cite journal
last = Gillespie
first = Bailey
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = Adventist Schools DO Make a Difference!
journal = Journal of Adventist Education
volume =
issue =
pages = 12–16
publisher =
location =
date=October/November 2002
url = http://circle.adventist.org/files/jae/jae200265011205.pdf
doi =
id =
accessdate = 2007-10-14
]

A 2004 survey of American Protestant pastors by The Barna Group showed those under 40 "championed" Ellen White as an author who had influenced them. [ [http://www.barna.org/FlexPage.aspx?Page=BarnaUpdate&BarnaUpdateID=189 Survey Reveals The Books and Authors That Have Most Influenced Pastors] by The Barna Group. May 30, 2005. Accessed 2007-12-09]

See also

* Ellen G. White: life, teachings, writings, James White, Willie White, White Estate
* Biblical inspiration, Revelation, Prophet and Prophecy
* Seventh-day Adventist Church

References

Additional resources

* [http://www.sdanet.org/atissue/doctrines/au2002conference/guy/guy-past.htm Mapping the Past: Exploring the Development of Adventist Theology] by Fritz Guy, Ph.D.
* [http://www.whiteestate.org/issues/rev-insp.html Inspiration/Revelation: What It Is and How It Works] by Roger W. Coon from the "Journal of Adventist Education". [http://www.adventistbiblicalresearch.org/documents/Inspiration-Revelation.htm Alternative url] .
* [http://atoday.net/6.0.html?&tx_ttnews%5Btt_news%5D=70&tx_ttnews%5BbackPid%5D=1&cHash=0f9e105232 Raymond Cottrell article]
* [http://dedication.www3.50megs.com/David/index.html An Analysis of the Literary Dependency of Ellen White: We Analyse, You Decide] by David J. Conklin
* [http://www.andrews.edu/~fortind/EGWPlagiarism-Coon-98.htm Ellen G. White as a Writer: Part III - The Issue of Literary Borrowing] by Roger W. Coon
* [http://www.andrews.edu/~fortind/EGWWhite-Conybeare.htm Ellen G. White as a Writer: Case Studies in the Issue of Literary Borrowing] by Denis Fortin
* [http://www.andrews.edu/~fortind/EGWPlagiarism-Encyclopedia.htm The Ellen G. White Encyclopedia] Forthcoming publication in the Review and Herald, by Denis Fortin and Jerry Moon
* [http://www.sdanet.org/atissue/white/haloviak/index.htm Ellen White and the SDA Church] by Bert Haloviak, from a series of two presentations at the Sligo Adventist church, Oct. 22 and 29, 1980.
* Shifting Views of Inspiration: Ellen G. White Studies in the 1970s] by Donald R. McAdams in Spectrum magazine 10, no. 4. This is generally considered the best article on the '70s era.
* [http://ellenwhite.org/headinjury.htm The Significance of Ellen White's Head Injury] by Molleurus Couperus, "Adventist Currents", June 1985.
* cite web
last = Olson
first = Robert W.
authorlink = Robert W. Olson
title = The 'Shut Door' Documents
publisher =
date=1982-04-11
url = http://www.whiteestate.org/issues/shutdoor.html
accessdate = 2006-10-20

* Secondary reference: a helpful introductioncite web
last = Cameron
first = Bruce N.
title = What About Ellen White?
work = SabbathSchoolLessons.com
url = http://www.sabbathschoollessons.com/egw.php
accessdate = 2006-10-20

* Check comment ""There was no question in Ellen G. White's mind about the over all inspiration of The Great Controversy, although possibly 50 percent or more of the material in the book was drawn from other sources." (Ellen G. White's use of historical sources in The Great Controversy, by Robert W. Olson, Adventist Review, February 23, 1984.)" found on a webpage.
* McMahon, Don (1995). "Acquired or inspired: exploring the origins of the Adventist lifestyle". Warburton, Victoria: Signs Publishing Company. Asserts that White's health principles are largely accurate. [http://www.acquiredorinspired.com/ Book website]
* cite book
author = Leonard Brand, Don S. McMahon
title = The prophet and her critics: a striking new analysis refutes the charges that Ellen G. White "borrowed" the health message
publisher = Pacific Press
date=2005
location = Nampa, Idaho
pages =
id = ISBN 0-8163-2057-8, OCLC 56592480
. See also " [http://www.atoday.com/content/natural-or-supernatural-can-science-establish-supernatural-health-writings-ellen-g-white Natural or Supernatural? Can science establish the supernatural in the health writings of Ellen G. White?] " "Adventist Today" September/October 2008, and the followup discussion " [http://www.atoday.com/science-falsely-socalled-can-patina-science-be-used-prove-supernatural-health-writings-ellen-white Science Falsely So-Called: Can the Patina of Science be used to Prove the Supernatural in the Health Writings of Ellen White?] "
* " [http://dialogue.adventist.org/articles/17_2_brand_e.htm Ellen White and her critics] " by Leonard Brand. "Dialogue"
* George Knight. "Visions and the Word". "Adventist Today"
* Rene Noorbergen. "Prophet of Destiny" ( [http://www.amazingfacts.org/Store/Books/tabid/96/CategoryID/68/List/1/Level/a/ProductID/556/Default.aspx?SortField=ProductName%2CProductName publisher's page] )
* "Ellen G. White and the Protestant Historians" by Donald McAdams
* [http://www.atoday.com/node/3095 George Knight article] in "Adventist Today"
* [http://www.adventistbiblicalresearch.org/documents/plagiarist.pdf Was Ellen White a Plagiarist?] from the Biblical Research Institute
* [http://spectrummagazine.org/spectrum/archive16-20/index16-3.html Spectrum 1986 Aug issue] with special section on White
* " [http://www.sdanet.org/atissue/white/valentine-drifting.htm The Church 'drifting toward a crisis': Prescott's 1915 Letter to William White] " by Gilbert M. Valentine
* "The Inspired and Inspiring Ellen White" papers by Arthur Patrick: " [http://www.sdanet.org/atissue/white/patrick/egw-inspired.htm Part 1: 1982 in Historical Perspective] ", " [http://www.sdanet.org/atissue/white/patrick/egw-inspired2.htm Part 2: Assessing Five Examples of the Documented Evidence] "
* http://www.atoday.com/magazine/2004/03/summit-ellen-g-white-writings
* http://www.signsofthetimes.org.au/archives/2005/may/article10.shtm
* http://spectrummagazine.org/files/archive/archive26-30/27-1shearer.pdf Bibliography by Gary Shearer
* http://spectrummagazine.org/files/archive/archive26-30/27-1larson.pdf
* http://spectrummagazine.org/files/archive/archive06-10/10-4hackleman.pdf
* http://spectrummagazine.org/files/archive/archive11-15/11-3casebolt.pdf
* http://www.atoday.com/content/vol-6-no-2, special issue on Ellen White
* http://www.atoday.com/content/vol15-no3 debate over plagiarism

External links

Supportive

* [http://www.whiteestate.org/ Ellen G. White Estate] , the official Ellen White website
** [http://egwdatabase.whiteestate.org/nxt/gateway.dll?f=templates$fn=default.htm$vid=default The Complete Published Ellen G. White Writings] . Text version available [http://www.whiteestate.org/search/published_writings.asp here] .
** [http://www.whiteestate.org/issues/issues.html Issues & Answers Regarding Inspiration and the Life and Work of Ellen G. White] , a comprehensive list of online resources.
* [http://www.sdanet.org/atissue/white/index.htm Ellen White and Adventism] , from ATissue. A comprehensive list of articles
** [http://www.sdanet.org/atissue/white/patrick/index.htm Re-visioning the Role of Ellen White, and other papers] index of some of Arthur Patrick's papers, Avondale College research associate
* [http://www.andrews.edu/~jmoon/#Downloads Jerry Moon's lecture outlines]
* [http://www.ellenwhite.info Informative Rebuttals to Criticisms]
* [http://ellenwhitedefend.com/ Ellen White Defend.com]
* [http://ellenwhiteanswers.org/ EllenWhiteAnswers.org] by Jud Lake, professor of Preaching and Adventist Studies at Southern Adventist University
* " [http://www.sdanet.org/atissue/books/27/27-17.htm The Gift of Prophecy] ", chapter 17 in " [http://www.sdanet.org/atissue/books/27/index.htm Seventh-day Adventists Believe... A Biblical Exposition of 27 Fundamental Doctrines] ", by the Ministerial Association
* " [http://www.sdanet.org/atissue/books/qod/q09.htm Ellen G. White's Writings and Their Relation to the Bible] ", question 9 in "Questions on Doctrine"

Critical

* [http://www.ellenwhite.org/index.html The Ellen White Research Project] Independent source of information about Ellen White by Dirk Anderson, Dale Ratzlaff and others
* [http://www.exadventist.com/Home/Prophet/tabid/55/Default.aspx exAdventist Outreach (formerly SDAOutreach.org)] Former Seventh-day Adventist pastor Mark Martin's research: A true prophet?
* [http://www.lifeassuranceministries.com/ LAM Publishing] Source of books by former Adventist pastor Dale Ratzlaff
* [http://www.letusreason.org/7thAd23.htm Let Us Reason] 7th Day Adventism and Law Keepers Directory: Is there a prophet among you?
* [http://www.theotokos.co.za/adventism/white.html Theotokos] Seventh-day Adventism - A Catholic + Biblical perspective: Ellen White


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