Lincoln's Inn Fields


Lincoln's Inn Fields

Lincoln's Inn Fields is the largest public square in London, England. It is thought to have been one of the inspirations of Central Park, New York. It was laid out in part by Inigo Jones from the early 17th century and opened to the public after its acquisition by London County Council in 1895. It is today managed by the London Borough of Camden and forms part of the southern boundary of that borough with the City of Westminster.

It takes its name from the adjacent Lincoln's Inn, but should not be confused with the private gardens of Lincoln's Inn itself. Lincoln's Inn is separated from Lincoln's Inn Fields by a perimeter wall and a large gatehouse.

Notable premises

At number 13, on the north side of the square, is Sir John Soane's Museum, home of the architect. Organizations with premises on the south side of the square include Cancer Research UK, the Royal College of Surgeons (including the Hunterian Museum exhibiting the intriguing medical collections of John Hunter) and HM Land Registry. There is a blue plaque marking the home of the surgeon William Marsden at number 65. On the west side, the London School of Economics and Political Science has new premises at Stuart House, which opened in September 2008, as well as offices at Queen's House. [ [http://www.lse.ac.uk/collections/newAcademicBuilding/ "New academic building] (LSE) accessed 22 May 2008] There is a statue by Barry Flanagan, an abstract called "Camdonian", in the North East corner of the square.

The grassed area in the centre of the Fields contains a court for tennis and netball and a bandstand. It was previously used for corporate events, but these are no longer permitted.

The Lincoln's Inn Fields Theatre was located in the Fields from 1661 to 1848 when it was demolished. Originally called the Duke's Theatre, it was created by converting Lisle's Tennis Court, to become the Lincoln's Inn Fields Theatre in 1695. The theatre presented the first paid public performances of Purcell's "Dido and Aeneas" in 1700, most importantly John Gay's "The Beggar's Opera" in January 1728, and Handel's final two operas in1740 and 1741.

Lincoln's Inn Fields was the site, in 1683, of the public beheading of Lord William Russell, son of the First Duke of Bedford, following his implication in the Rye House Plot for the assassination of King Charles II. The executioner was Jack Ketch who made such a poor job of it that four axe blows were required before the head was separated from the body and, after the first stroke, Russell looked up and said to him "You dog, did I give you 10 guineas to use me so inhumanely?".

When originally laid out, Lincoln's Inn Fields was part of fashionable London. The oldest building from this period is Lindsey House, 59-60 Lincoln's Inn Fields, which was built in 1640 and has been attributed to Inigo Jones. The builder of the house was Sir David Cunningham of Auchenharvie, a friend of the mason Nicolas Stone, who supervised the rebuilding of Berkhamsted Place for Charles I. [Howard Colvin,"Essays", ix,(1999):NAS GD237/25/1/7] It derives its name from a period of ownership in the 18th century by the Earls of Lindsey. [ [http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=74160. "Lincoln's Inn Fields: Nos. 59 and 60 (Lindsey House)"] , Survey of London: volume 3: St Giles-in-the-Fields, pt I: Lincoln's Inn Fields (1912), pp. 96-103] accessed: 22 May 2008.] Another seventeenth century survival is now 66 Lincoln's Inn Fields, which was built for Lord Powis and known as Powis House. The charter of the Bank of England was sealed there on 27 July 1694. It was in 1705 acquired by the Duke of Newcastle (whereupon it became known as Newcastle House) who had it remodelled by Sir John Vanbrugh (following earlier work by Sir Christopher Wren after a fire in 1684). It remains substantially in its circa 1700 form although a remodelling in 1930 by Sir Edwin Lutyens gives it a curiously pastiche appearance.

As London fashion moved west, Lincoln's Inn Fields was left to rich lawyers who were held there by its proximity to the Inns of Court. Thus, the former Newcastle House became in 1790 the premises of the solicitors Farrer & Co who are still there: their clients include much of the landed gentry and also Queen Elizabeth II.

In Charles Dickens' novel "Bleak House", the sinister solicitor to the aristocracy Mr Tulkinghorn has his offices in Lincoln's Inn Fields, and one of its most dramatic scenes is set there. The description of his building corresponds most closely to Lindsey House. After a spell as a patent agents, Lindsey House, together with the neighbouring building at 57-58, which includes some features designed by Sir John Soane, including a geometric staircase, has become home to the leading civil liberties barristers' chambers, Garden Court Chambers.

From 1750-1992, the solicitors Frere Cholmeley were in premises on the north side of Lincoln's Inn Fields, after which their buildings were taken over by a leading set of commercial barristers' chambers, known as Essex Court Chambers after their own former premises at 4 Essex Court in the Temple. Essex Court Chambers now occupy five buildings between 24-28 Lincoln's Inn Fields. Other barristers' chambers have since then also set up in Lincoln's Inn Fields, although solicitors' firms still outnumber them there.

Cricket and several other sports are thought to have been played here in the 18th century.

Since 2007, Lincolns Inn Fields is also home to the Centre for Commercial Law Studies, Queen Mary, University of London.

Iftar with the Homeless

In September 2008 Muslim Flashmobs have been observed converging on the fields on Tuesdays at sunset to feed the local homeless. This seems to be related to the Muslim holy month of Ramadan, when Muslims fast by abstaining from food and drink from sunrise to sunset.

Nearest stations

References

Further reading

* Chancellor, Edwin Beresford, "The Romance of Lincoln's Inn Fields", London: Richards, 1932 (2nd edition)
* Plantamura, Carol, ‘’The Opera Lover's Guide to Europe’’, New York: Citadel Press, 1996. ISBN 0-8065-1842-1
* [http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45131 "Lincoln's Inn Fields"] , Old and New London: Volume 3 (1878), pp. 44-50
*Manzoor, Sarfraz. [http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/sep/22/religion.socialexclusion "How Muslim flashmobs can feed homeless people"] , "The Guardian", September 22, 2008.

External links

* [http://www.olivercromwell.org/lindsey_house.htm Early history of Lincoln's Inn Fields]
* [http://maps.google.com/maps?q=london&ll=51.516328,-0.116365&spn=0.008613,0.012863&hl=en Lincoln's Inn Fields] at Google Maps


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