- Frank Bunker Gilbreth, Sr.
Frank Bunker Gilbreth, Sr. (
July 7 1868- June 14, 1924) was an early advocate of scientific managementand a pioneer of motion study, but is perhaps best known as the father and central figure of " Cheaper by the Dozen".
Gilbreth had no formal education beyond high school. He began as a bricklayer, became a building contractor, an inventor, and evolved into management engineer. He eventually became an occasional lecturer at
Purdue University, which houses his papers. He married Lillian Moller Gilbrethin 1904; they had 12 children, 11 of whom survived him. Their names are Anne, Mary (died in 1912), Ernestine, Martha, Frank Jr., Bill, Lillian, Fred, Daniel, Jack, Robert and Jane.
Gilbreth discovered his vocation when, as a young building contractor, he sought ways to make bricklaying (his first trade) faster and easier. This grew into a collaboration with his eventual spouse,
Lillian Moller Gilbreth, that studied the work habits of manufacturing and clerical employees in all sorts of industries to find ways to increase output and make their jobs easier. He and Lillian founded a management consulting firm, Gilbreth, Inc., focusing on such endeavors.
According to Claude George (1968), Gilbreth reduced all motions of the hand into some combination of 18 basic motions. These included grasp, transport loaded, and hold. Gilbreth named the motions
therbligs, "Gilbreth" spelled backwards with the "th" transposed. He used a motion picture camera that was calibrated in fractions of minutes to time the smallest of motions in workers.
George noted that the Gilbreths were, above all, scientists who sought to teach managers that all aspects of the workplace should be constantly questioned, and improvements constantly adopted. Their emphasis on the "one best way" and the
therbligs predates the development of continuous quality improvement (CQI) (George 1968: 98), and the late 20th century understanding that repeated motions can lead to workers experiencing repetitive motion injuries.
Gilbreth was the first to propose that a surgical nurse serve as "caddy" (Gilbreth's term) to a surgeon, by handing surgical instruments to the surgeon as called for. Gilbreth also devised the standard techniques used by armies around the world to teach recruits how to rapidly disassemble and reassemble their weapons even when blindfolded or in total darkness.
Although the Gilbreths' work is often associated with that of
Frederick Winslow Taylor, there was a substantial philosophical difference between the Gilbreths and Taylor. The symbol of Taylorism was the stopwatch, and Taylorism was primarily concerned with reducing the time of processes. The Gilbreths sought to make processes more efficient by reducing the motions involved. They saw their approach as more concerned with workers' welfare than was Taylorism, which workers often perceived as primarily concerned with profit. This led to a personal rift between Taylor and the Gilbreths, which after Taylor's death turned into a feud between the Gilbreths and Taylor's followers. After Frank's death, Lillian Gilbreth took steps to heal the rift (Price 1990), although some friction remains over questions of history and intellectual property. [ [http://gilbrethnetwork.tripod.com/qv1n2.html The Gilbreth Network ] at gilbrethnetwork.tripod.com]
Frank and Lillian Gilbreth often used their large family (and Frank himself) as guinea pigs in experiments. Their family exploits are lovingly detailed in the 1948 book "
Cheaper by the Dozen", written by his son Frank Jr. and daughter Ernestine Gilbreth Carey. The book inspired two films of the same name, one (1950) starring Clifton Webband Myrna Loy, and the other (2003) starring comedians Steve Martinand Bonnie Hunt. The latter film bears no resemblance to the book except that both feature a family with twelve children. A 1950 sequel, titled " Belles on Their Toes", chronicles the adventures of the Gilbreth family after Frank's 1924 death. A second sequel, "Time Out For Happiness," was authored by Frank Jr. alone and published in 1971. It is out of print and considered rare.
Gilbreth died of
heart failureon June 14, 1924at age 55. He was at a railway station and was talking on a phone. Lillian outlived him by 48 years. [cite news |first= |last= |authorlink= |coauthors= |title=Maj. Frank B. Gilbreth. |url=http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/washingtonpost_historical/access/121737580.html?dids=121737580:121737580&FMT=CITE&FMTS=CITE:FT&date=JUN+15%2C+1924&author=&pub=The+Washington+Post&desc=Maj.+Frank+B.+Gilbreth.&pqatl=google |quote= |work= Washington Post|date= June 15, 1924|accessdate=2008-07-08 ] [cite news |first= |last= |authorlink= |coauthors= |title=Maj. Gilbreth Stricken With Heart Attack at Railway Station After Talking to His Wife. |url=http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F70B11FF3D5B12738DDDAC0994DE405B848EF1D3 |quote=Frank B. Gilbreth, 56 years old, known mechanical engineer and author, died of heart ... Gilbreth was born at Fairfield, Maine on July 7, 1868 and educated at Boston. ... |work= Washington Post|date= June 15, 1924|accessdate=2008-07-08 ]
Frederick Winslow Taylor
Time and motion study
* George, C. S. Jr., 1968. "The History of Management Thought". Prentice Hall.
* Gilbreth, Frank Jr., and
Ernestine Gilbreth Carey, 1948. " Cheaper by the Dozen". ISBN 0-06-008460-X
* ------, 1950. "
Belles on Their Toes". ISBN 0-06-059823-9
Lillian Moller Gilbreth, 1998. "As I Remember". Norcross, GA: Engineering & Management Press.
* Price, Brian, 1990, " [http://www.ohiostatepress.org/Books/Complete%20PDFs/Nelson%20Mental/04.pdf Frank and Lillian Gilbreth and the Motion Study Controversy, 1907-1930] " in " [http://www.ohiostatepress.org/Books/Complete%20PDFs/Nelson%20Mental/Nelson%20Mental.htm A Mental Revolution: Scientific Management since Taylor,] " Daniel Nelson, ed. The Ohio State University Press.
* [http://www.lib.purdue.edu/spcol/manuscripts/gilbreth.html Gilbreth archive] at
* [http://gilbrethnetwork.tripod.com/bio.html The Gilbreth Network.]
* [http://gilbrethnetwork.tripod.com/gbooks.html Bibliography] of books by and about Gilbreth.
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