Eike von Repgow

Eike von Repgow (Repchowe, Repichowe, Repkow) (* c. 1180; † c. 1235) from Repgow, now Reppichau in Saxony-Anhalt), was a medieval German administrator who compiled the "Sachsenspiegel" in the Thirteenth Century.

Works

The Sachsenspiegel

Eike von Repgow is thought to have written (or dictated) the Sachsenspiegel at the behest of Graf Hoyer von Falkenstein between 1220 and 1235. [Some sources give the period during which the Sachsenspiegel was written as 1220 to 1230, but 1220 to 1235 is given by others, such as sources at the Library of Congress ( [http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/world/rule.html] ), the European Court of Human Rights ( [http://www.echr.coe.int/NR/rdonlyres/227A68E9-89EA-46DF-A10C-1E81422C3E6E/0/2006OpeningofthejudicialyearWildhaberTugcuEnglish.pdf#search=%22Sachsenspiegel%201220%201235%22] ) and Tufts University ( [http://dca.tufts.edu/features/law/books/index.html] )] It was intended by its compiler to document existing, customary law, not to create new law. The work is of great significance not only as a legal code but also as the first major work of German prose.

"Vetus auctor de beneficiis"

As the author writes in the verse prologue of the Sachsenspiegel, he first wrote it in Latin and later, with some reluctance, at the wishes of Graf Hoyer von Falkenstein, translated it into German.

The Latin version of the first part, on "Landrecht" (common law), has been lost, but the second part, on "Lehensrecht" (feudal law) was, as is now believed, preserved. This is the Vetus auctor de beneficiis, which is written in verse. There was a debate as to whether this was the Latin original of the part of the Sachsenspiegel on feudal law or a later translation of it into Latin, and for some time the latter view prevailed. However, the current consensus is that the "Vetus auctor de beneficiis" is indeed the Latin original of the feudal law section of the Sachsenspiegel.cite book | author = Eike von Repgow| coauthors = translation of Landrecht by Ruth Schmidt-Wiegand; epilogue and translation of Lehenrecht by Clausdieter Schott | editor = Clausdieter Schott (ed.)
title = Der Sachsenspiegel / Eike von Repgow. edited by Clausdieter Schott
origyear = 1984 | edition = 3rd rev. edition | series = Manesse-Bibliothek der weltliteratur
year = 1996/2006 | publisher = Manesse (Random House) | location = Zürich | language = German
isbn = 3-7175-1656-6 | chapter = Der Verfasser
] [cite web
url = http://www.forhistiur.de/zitat/9804kroeschell.htm
title = Lehnrecht und Verfassung im deutschen Hochmittelalter
accessdate = 2007-02-28 | author = Karl Kroeschell | date = 1998-04-27
work = forum historiae iuris ISSN: 1860-5605
publisher = forum historiae iuris
language = German
] [cite web
url = http://www.digitale-sammlungen.de/~db/bsb00000673/images/index.html?seite=9
title = Auctor vetus de beneficiis I: Lateinische Texte
accessdate = 2007-02-28
author = Karl August Eckhardt (ed.)
year = 1964
work = Monumenta Germaniae Historica digital Fontes iuris Germanici antiqui, Nova series (Fontes iuris N. S.) 2,1, 1964)
publisher = Monumenta Germaniae Historica
pages = 9ff | language = German
]

Where did Eike von Repgow compile the Sachsenspiegel?

Where the original was compiled is unclear. It was thought to have been written at Quedlinburg or Burg Falkenstein in the Harz Mountains, but Peter Landau, an expert in medieval canon law recently suggested that it may have been written at the monastery of Altzelle (now Altzella). [The suggestion that the Sachsenspiegel was written at Altzelle was made in a paper given by Professor Landau at the "Deutscher Rechtshistorikertag" 2004 and later published in an article (Landau, Peter: "Die Entstehungsgeschichte des Sachsenspiegels: Eike von Repgow, Altzelle und die anglo-normannische Kanonistik"; "Monumenta Germaniae Historica: Deutsches Archiv für Erforschung des Mittelalters " 2005, Vol 61, No. 1, pp 73-101), cited at the German Wikipedia article on "Kloster Altzella" and [http://www.rechtsbuchforschung.de http://www.rechtsbuchforschung.de] .]

Other works by Eike von Repgow

Another work, the "Sächsische Weltchronik" has also been attributed to Eike von Repgow, but this is now thought unlikely.cite book | author = Eike von Repgow| coauthors = translation of Landrecht by Ruth Schmidt-Wiegand; epilogue and translation of Lehenrecht by Clausdieter Schott | editor = Clausdieter Schott (ed.)
title = Der Sachsenspiegel / Eike von Repgow. edited by Clausdieter Schott
origyear = 1984 | edition = 3rd rev. edition | series = Manesse-Bibliothek der weltliteratur
year = 1996/2006 | publisher = Manesse (Random House) | location = Zürich | language = German
isbn = 3-7175-1656-6 | chapter = Der Verfasser
]

Life

Little is known about Eike von Repgow, but he is mentioned in several documents dating from the period between 1209 and 1233. [According to the [http://www.reppichau.de/Eike.html Reppicau Web site] Eike von Repgow is mentioned in 7 documents:
*1156: On December 28 "Eico and Arnolt de Ripechowe" as witnesses at the "Landgericht" held by Margrave Albrecht the Bear in Wörbzig
*1209: "Eico de Ripichowe" named as a witness in a document in which Johann and Walter von Giebichenstein transfer ownership of a castle to the Bishop of Naumburg.
*1215: Graf Hoyer von Falkenstein and "Hecco de Repechowe" listed as witnesses to legal transactions between the Kollegatstift Coswig and Count Henry of Aschersleben, who later became Prince of Anhalt.
*1218: On May 1 "Heiko von Repchowe" witnessed the transfer of property from the Margrave Dietrich von Meißen to the Altzelle Monastery.
*1219: The name "Eico von Repechowe" is mentioned, together with Graf Hoyer von Falkenstein in a document in which Prince Henry of Anhalt ended a legal dispute with the Stift Goslar.
*1224: "Eico von Ribecowe" is names as a withness at the Landding of the County of Eilenburg in Delitzsch, which concened under the presidenc# of Landgraf Louis of Thüringen.
*1233: "Eico von Repechowe" is mentioned on a deed of gift by Margraves Johann and Otto of Brandenburg to the benefit of Berge Monastery.
]

Family

It is thought that his family moved to the district of Serimunt, south of Magdeburg, in the Twelfth Century and acquired land in the village of Reppichau. Other members of the family are mentioned in 1156 and 1159.cite book | | author = Eike von Repgow| coauthors = translation of Landrecht by Ruth Schmidt-Wiegand; epilogue and translation of Lehenrecht by Clausdieter Schott | editor = Clausdieter Schott (ed.)
title = Der Sachsenspiegel / Eike von Repgow. edited by Clausdieter Schott
origyear = 1984 | edition = 3rd rev. edition | series = Manesse-Bibliothek der weltliteratur
year = 1996/2006 | publisher = Manesse (Random House) | location = Zürich | language = German | isbn = 3-7175-1656-6 | chapter = Der Verfasser
] From his mention in court proceedings in 1209 it is inferred that he was born around 1180. Lack of mentions after 1233 suggests that he died shortly after that.cite book | | author = Eike von Repgow| coauthors = translation of Landrecht by Ruth Schmidt-Wiegand; epilogue and translation of Lehenrecht by Clausdieter Schott | editor = Clausdieter Schott (ed.)
title = Der Sachsenspiegel / Eike von Repgow. edited by Clausdieter Schott
origyear = 1984 | edition = 3rd rev. edition | series = Manesse-Bibliothek der weltliteratur
year = 1996/2006 | publisher = Manesse (Random House) | location = Zürich | language = German
isbn = 3-7175-1656-6 | chapter = Der Verfasser
]

Education

From the prologue to the "Sachsenspiegel" it is clear that Eike could read Latin, as well as German. It is not actually known if he could write, since it was quite common, at the time, to employ scribes.He was versed in canon law; so it is thought that he was educated at a cathedral school, possibly under Bishop Wichmann von Seeburg at Halberstadt, or more likely at Magdeburg.cite web | url = http://rechtsgeschichte-life.jura.uni-sb.de/Diederich_Repgow.htm
title = Laudatio für Eike von Repgow anläßlich der Festveranstaltung zu Ehren Eike von Repgow aus Anlass des 60. Geburtstages von Prof. Dr. Krause am 15.0ktober 1999 (Eulogy to Eike von Repgow on the occasion of the sixtieth birthday of Professor Krause on October 15, 1999)| accessdate = 2007-02-26
author= Mathilde Diederich (Staatssekretärin im Ministerium der Justiz Sachsen-Anhalt)
date = 1999-10-15| publisher = Rechtsgeschichte-life| language = German
]

tatus

It is clear that he was a respected personage, but his precise place in the feudal hierarchy is not known with certainty, since he is sometimes listed among the free nobles and sometimes among the bondsmen ("Dienstmannen"). He may have been a bondsman of Count Henry I. of Anhalt or of Graf Hoyer von Falkenstein but he was probably a free noble, one of the so-called "schöffenbar freie", which entitled him to sit in the Thing (baron's court). One theory is that he was of noble birth, but like many others, became a ministerialis or bondsman, while retaining his noble status.cite book | | author = Eike von Repgow| coauthors = translation of Landrecht by Ruth Schmidt-Wiegand; epilogue and translation of Lehenrecht by Clausdieter Schott | editor = Clausdieter Schott (ed.)
title = Der Sachsenspiegel / Eike von Repgow. edited by Clausdieter Schott
origyear = 1984 | edition = 3rd rev. edition | series = Manesse-Bibliothek der weltliteratur
year = 1996/2006 | publisher = Manesse (Random House) | location = Zürich | language = German | isbn = 3-7175-1656-6 | chapter = Der Verfasser
]

Commemoration

There are monuments to Eike von Repgow in Magdeburg, Dessau, Reppichau and Halberstadt and at Falkenstein Castle in the Harz Mountains. There is a square named after him in Berlin, and there is an open-air museum devoted to him and the "Sachsenspiegel" in his village of Reppichau. There are also schools named after Eike von Repgow School in Halberstadt and Magdeburg.

The Eike von Repgow prize, which comes with a statuette of Eike von Repgow, a certificate, and 5000 euros, is awarded jointly by awarded annually by the city of Magdeburg and the Otto von Guericke University of Magdeburg for academic work of a historical or legal nature. [ [http://www.magdeburg.de/index.phtml?sNavID=1.100&NavID=698.12&La=1 Eike von Repgow Preis] De icon]

Famous words

The origin of the modern German saying "Wer zuerst kommt, mahlt zuerst" ("first come, first served", literally "he who comes first, grinds first") can be traced to Eike von Repgow, who wrote (in the "Sachsenspiegel') "Die ok irst to der molen kumt, die sal erst malen" (in modern English: "He who comes to the mill first shall grind first").

References

Additional sources

*cite book
last = | first = | editor =
title = Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon, Volume XXIV
accessdate = 2007-03-02| edition =
series = | year = 2005
publisher = Verlag Traugott Bautz | location = Nordhausen
language = German | isbn =3-88309-247-9
chapter = REPGOW, Eike von
chapterurl = http://www.bautz.de/bbkl/r/repgow_e.shtml

* [http://www.mdr.de/geschichte/personen/116863.html Article on Eike von Repgow by radio station MDR] De icon

Further reading

*cite book | last = | first = Eike| authorlink =
coauthors = | others = Dobozy, Maria (translator)
title = The Saxon mirror: a Sachsenspiegel of the fourteenth century / [Eike von Repgow] . Transl. by Maria Dobozy | series = The Middle Ages series | year = 1999
publisher = University of Pennsylvania Press | location = Pennsylvania
language = | isbn =0-8122-3487-1

External links

Persondata
NAME=Repgow, Eike von
ALTERNATIVE NAMES= Repkow, Eike von
SHORT DESCRIPTION= Author of the Sachsenspiegel, the oldest legal book in German
DATE OF BIRTH=c. 1180
PLACE OF BIRTH=Repgow (now Reppichau)
DATE OF DEATH=c. 1235
PLACE OF DEATH=


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Eike von Repgow — aus dem Oldenburger Sachsenspiegel Eike von Repgow (auch von Repkow, von Repchow, von Repgau oder von Repchau; * zwischen 1180 und 1190] in Repgow; † nach 1233) war der Verfasser des Sachsenspiegels und damit prägend für die deutsche… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Eike von Repgow — (Eiko oder Eyke), ein Edelmann in der Grafschaft Billingshöhe nahe bei Magdeburg, 1209–33 urkundlich erwähnt, ist Verfasser des Sachsenspiegels (s. d.) und des sächsischen Lehnrechts. Vgl. F. Winter, E. und der Sachsenspiegel (in den »Forschungen …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Eike von Repgow — Eike von Rẹpgow   [ go], Eike von Rẹpgau, Eike von Rẹpegouw [ gaʊ], Rechtskundiger, * Reppichau (bei Dessau) um 1180, ✝ nach 1233. Als Ratgeber der Fürsten von Nieder und Obersachsen, Thüringen und Anhalt schrieb er um 1225 den Sachsenspiegel …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Eike-von-Repgow-Preis — Der Eike von Repgow Preis ist ein jährlich zu Ehren von Eike von Repgow von der Landeshauptstadt Magdeburg und der Otto von Guericke Universität Magdeburg verliehener Kulturpreis. Der Eike von Repgow Preis wird an Persönlichkeiten verliehen, die… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Justizzentrum Eike von Repgow — Das Justizzentrum Eike von Repgow ist der gemeinsame Sitz mehrere Gerichte sowie der Staatsanwaltschaft in Magdeburg. Im Justizzentrum ist das Amtsgericht Magdeburg, Sozialgericht Magdeburg, Arbeitsgericht Magdeburg, Verwaltungsgericht Magdeburg …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Eike von Repkow — Eike von Repgow aus dem Oldenburger Sachsenspiegel Eike von Repgow Denkmal in Reppichau …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Eyke von Repgow — Eyke von Repgow, s. Eike von Repgow …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Eike — von Repgow aus dem Oldenburger Sachsenspiegel Eike ( Eike?/ …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Repgow — (Rebkow), s. Eike von Repgow …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

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