:"Witch trial" redirects here. For the song by Rush, see
Fear series. For the novel by Ian Rankin, see Witch Hunt (novel)."
A witch-hunt is a search for
witches or evidence of witchcraft, often involving moral panic, mass hysteriaand mob lynching, but in historical instances also legally sanctioned and involving official witchcraft trials.
The classical period of witch-hunts in Europe falls into the
Early Modern periodor about 1450 to 1700, spanning the upheavals of the Reformation and the Thirty Years' War, resulting in tens of thousands of executions.
Many cultures throughout the world, both ancient and modern, have reacted to allegations of witchcraft either with superstitious fear and awe, and killed any alleged practitioners of witchcraft outright; or, shunned it as quackery, extortion or fraud. Witch-hunts still occur in the modern era in many communities where religious values condemn the practice of witchcraft and the occult.
The term "witch-hunt" is often used to refer to similarly panic-induced searches for perceived wrong-doers other than witches. The best known example is probably the
McCarthyistsearch for communists during the Cold War,cite book |first=Gary F. |last=Jensen |title=The Path of the Devil |pages=Ch. 8 |publisher=Rowman & Littlefield |year=2007 |isbn=0742546977] cite book |last=Murphy |first=Brenda |title=Congressional Theatre |pages=Ch. 4 |publisher=Cambridge University Press |year=1999 |isbn=0521891663] although in contemporary political discourse the framing of McCarthyism as a witch-hunt is mostly applied in a strategy to discredit McCarthyism. (Jensen p229)
Punishment for sorcery is addressed in the earliest law codes preserved; both in ancient
Egyptand in Babyloniait played a conspicuous part. The Code of Hammurabi(18th century BC short chronology) prescribes that:"If a man has put a spell upon another man and it is not justified, he upon whom the spell is laid shall go to the holy river; into the holy river shall he plunge. If the holy river overcome him and he is drowned, the man who put the spell upon him shall take possession of his house. If the holy river declares him innocent and he remains unharmed the man who laid the spell shall be put to death. He that plunged into the river shall take possession of the house of him who laid the spell upon him." ["International Standard Bible Encyclopedia" [http://www.bible-history.com/isbe/W/WITCH%3B+WITCHCRAFT/ article on Witchcraft] , last accessed 31 March 2006. There is some discrepancy between translations; compare with that given in the "Catholic Encyclopedia" [http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/15674a.htm article on Witchcraft] (accessed 31 March 2006), and the [http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/medieval/hamframe.htm L. W. King translation] (accessed 31 March 2006)]
The pre-Christian Twelve Tables of pagan
Roman lawhas provisions against evil incantations and spells intended to damage cereal crops.
Hebrew Biblecondemns sorcery. Deuteronomy18:11-12 calls it an "abomination" and Exodus22:18 prescribes "thou shalt not suffer a witch to live" ["witch" here translates the Hebrew _he. מכשפה, and is rendered _gr. φαρμακός in the Septuagint.] , and tales like that of 1 Samuel28, reporting how Saul"hath cut off those that have familiar spirits, and the wizards, out of the land" ["those that have familiar spirits": Hebrew _he. אוב, or _gr. ἐγγαστρίμυθος "ventriloquist, soothsayer" in the Septuagint; "wizards": Hebrew _he. ידעני or _gr. γνώστης "diviner" in the Septuagint.] suggesting that in practice, sorcery could at least lead to exile.
In later Jewish history, Rabbi
Simeon ben Shetach- Phariseescholar and Nasiof the Sanhedrinin the First Century B.C. - is reported to have on a single day sentenced to death eighty women in Ashkelon, who had been charged with witchcraft. Later, the women's relatives took revenge by bringing false witnesses against Simeon's son and causing him to be executed in turn. Fact|date=July 2008
The 6th Century "
Getica" of Jordanesrecords a mythical persecution and expulsion of witches among the Gothsin an account of the origin of the Huns. The ancient fabled King Filimeris said to have :"found among his people certain witches, whom he called in his native tongue "Haliurunnae". Suspecting these women, he expelled them from the midst of his race and compelled them to wander in solitary exile afar from his army. There the unclean spirits, who beheld them as they wandered through the wilderness, bestowed their embraces upon them and begat this savage race, which dwelt at first in the swamps, a stunted, foul and puny tribe, scarcely human, and having no language save one which bore but slight resemblance to human speech."cite book |last=Jordanes |authorlink=Jordanes |title=The Origin and Deeds of the Goths |coauthors=Charles C. Mierow (transl.) |pages=§ 24]
Early Middle Ages, the Church did not conduct witch trials. Canon law, in Canon Episcopi, followed the views of the church father Augustine of Hippo(AD 400) that belief in the existence of witchcraft was heresy, since according to Augustine "a heretic is one who either devises or follows false and new opinions, for the sake of some temporal profit". Fact|date=March 2007 The Council of Paderbornin 785 explicitly outlawed the very belief in witches, and Charlemagnelater confirmed the law. The firstFact|date=March 2007 medieval trials against witches date to the 13th century with the institution of the Inquisition, but they were a side issue, as the Church was concentrating on the persecution of heresy, and witchcraft, alleged or real, was treated as any other sort of heresy.
There were still secular laws against witchcraft, such as that promulgated by King
Athelstan(924-999):"And we have ordained respecting witch-crafts, and "lybacs", and "morthdaeds": if any one should be thereby killed, and he could not deny it, that he be liable in his life. But if he will deny it, and at threefold ordeal shall be guilty; that he be 120 days in prison: and after that let kindred take him out, and give to the king 120 shillings, and pay the wer to his kindred, and enter into borh for him, that he evermore desist from the like." [ [http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/560-975dooms.html Medieval Sourcebook: The Anglo-Saxon Dooms, 560-975 ] ]
It had been proposed that the witch-hunt developed in Europe after the
Cathars and the Templar Knightswere exterminated and the Inquisition had to turn to persecution of witches to remain active. In the middle of 1970s, this hypothesis was independently disproved by two historians (Cohn 1975; Kieckhefer 1976). It was shown that the pursuit originated amongst common people in Switzerlandand in Croatiathat pressed on the civil courtsto support them. Inquisitorial courts became systematically involved in the witch-hunt only in the 15th century: in the case of the Madonna Oriente, the Inquisition of Milanwas not sure what to do with two women who in 1384 and in 1390 confessed to have participated in a type of white magic.
Early Modern Europe
The period of witch trials in
Early Modern Europecame in waves and then subsided. There were early trials in the 15th and early 16th centuries, but then the witch scare went into decline, before becoming a big issue again and peaking in the 17th century. Some scholars argue that a fear of witchcraft started among intellectuals who believed in "maleficium"; that is, bad deeds. What had previously been a belief that some people possessed supernatural abilities (which sometimes resulted in protecting the people), now became a sign of a pact between these people with supernatural abilities and the devil. Witchcraft became associated with wild Satanic ritual parties in which there was much naked dancing, orgy sex, and cannibalistic infanticide.
Witch-hunts were seen across early modern Europe, but the most significant area of witch-hunting in modern Europe is often considered to be southwestern GermanyFact|date=February 2007. In Germany the number of trials compared to other regions of Europe shows it to have been a late starter. Witch-hunts first appeared in large numbers in southern France and Switzerland during the 14th and 15th centuries. The peak years of witch-hunts in southwest Germany were from 1561 to 1670. [H.C.
Erik Midelfort, Witch Hunting in Southwestern Germany 1562-1684,1972,71] The first major persecution in Europe, that caught, tried, convicted, and burned witches in the imperial lordship of Wiesensteig in southwestern Germany, is recorded in 1563 in a pamphlet called “True and Horrifying Deeds of 63 Witches” [Wolfgang Behringer, Witches and Witch-Hunts,2004,83]
Current scholarly estimates of the number of people executed for witchcraft vary between about 40,000 and 100,000. [
Brian Levack("The Witch Hunt in Early Modern Europe") multiplied the number of known European witch trials by the average rate of conviction and execution, to arrive at a figure of around 60,000 deaths. Anne Lewellyn Barstow("Witchcraze") adjusted Levack's estimate to account for lost records, estimating 100,000 deaths. Ronald Hutton ("Triumph of the Moon") argues that Levack's estimate had already been adjusted for these, and revises the figure to approximately 40,000.] The total number of witch trials in Europe which are known for certain to have ended in executions is around 12,000. [cite web |title = Estimates of executions |url=http://www.summerlands.com/crossroads/remembrance/current.htm Based on Ronald Hutton's essay "Counting the Witch Hunt".] During early 18th century, the practice subsided. The last execution for witchcraft in England took place in 1716, when Mary Hicks and her daughter Elizabeth were hanged. Jane Wenhamwas among the last subjects of a typical witch trial in England in 1712, but was pardoned after her conviction and set free. The Witchcraft Actof 1734 saw the end of the traditional form of witchcraft as a legal offence in Britain, those accused under the new act were restricted to people who falsely pretended to be able to procure spirits, generally being the most dubious professional fortune tellers and mediums, and punishment was light. Helena Curtensand Agnes Olmanns were the last women to be executed as witches in Germany, in 1738. In Switzerland Anna Göldiwas executed in 1782. Polandsaw the burning of two women in 1793 and a third, Barbara Zdunk, as late as 1811.
Critics of witch hunts in this time period included
Friedrich von Spee, Gianfrancesco Ponzinibio, Cornelius Loos, Reginald Scot, Johann Mayfurth, and Alonzo Salazar de Frias.
Witch-hunts against children were reported by the BBC in 1999 in the Congo [cite news |title=Congo witch-hunt's child victims |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/575178.stm |date=
1999-12-22|accessdate=2007-04-16 |work=BBC News] and in Tanzania older women are killed as witches if they have red eyes.cite news |title=Tanzania arrests 'witch killers' |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/3209047.stm |date= 2003-10-23|accessdate=2007-04-16 |work=BBC News |quote=It is believed that any aged, old woman with red eyes is a witch] A lawsuit was launched in 2001 in Ghana, where witch-hunts are also common, by a woman accused of being a witch. Witch-hunts in Africa are often led by relatives seeking the property of the accused victim.
In December 1999 a student in Oklahoma, USA was suspended from school for 15 days for allegedly casting spells. [ [http://www.aclu.org/religion/schools/16295prs20001026.html ACLU of Oklahoma Files Federal Lawsuit on Behalf of Student Accused of "Hexing" a Teacher] ]
On February 16, 2008 a Saudi woman Fawzi Falih was arrested and convicted of witchcraft and now faces imminent beheading for sorcery unless the King issues a rare pardon. [ [http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/middle_east/article3378460.ece King Abdullah urged to spare Saudi ‘witchcraft’ woman’s life] ]
There have been alleged-witch persecution and public trials in Indonesia, even in the 2000s. Hundreds have died because of persecution. [ [http://www.insideindonesia.org/edit62/jason.htm Inside Indonesia 62 - Aceh's pain - The Banyuwangi murders ] ]
There continued to be occasional prosecutions under the
Witchcraft Actin the 19th and 20th century. The most well remembered is that of the medium Helen Duncanin 1944, the last person to be imprisoned under the Act. Supposedly the authorities feared that by her alleged clairvoyant powers she could betray details of the D-Daypreparations, but the accusations in court centred round defrauding the public. She spent nine months in prison. The last conviction under the act was that of Jane Rebecca Yorke. The Act was repealed in 1951.
African societies the fear of witches drives periodic witchhunts during which specialist witch finders identify suspects, even today, with death by mobs often the result. Audrey I. Richards, in the journal "Africa" relates in 1935 an instance when a new wave of witchfinders, the "Bamucapi", appeared in the villages of the Bembapeople. ["A Modern Movement of Witch Finders" Audrey I Richards (Africa: Journal of the International Institute of African Languages and Cultures, Ed. Diedrich Westermann.) Vol VIII, 1935, published by Oxford University Press, London] They dressed in European clothing, and would summon the headman to prepare a ritual meal for the village. When the villagers arrived they would view them all in a mirror, and claimed they could identify witches with this method. These witches would then have to "yield up his horns"; i.e. give over the horn containers for curses and evil potions to the witch-finders. The bamucapi then made all drink a potion called "kucapa" which would cause a witch to die and swell up if he ever tried such things again. The villagers related that the witchfinders were always right because the witches they found were always the people whom the village had feared all along. The bamucapi utilised a mixture of Christian and native religious traditions to account for their powers and said that God (not specifying which God) helped them prepare their medicine. In addition, all witches who did not attend the meal to be identified would be called to account later on by their master, who had risen from the dead, and who would force the witches by means of drums to go to the graveyard, where they would die. Richards noted that the bamucapi created the sense of danger in the villages by rounding up "all" the horns in the village, whether they were used for anti-witchcraft charms, potions, snuff or were indeed receptacles of black magic.
The Bemba people believed misfortunes such as
hauntings and famines to be just actions sanctioned by the High-God Lesa. The only agency which caused unjust harm was a witch, who had enormous powers and was hard to detect. After white rule of Africa beliefs in sorcery and witchcraft grew, possibly because of the social strain caused by new ideas, customs and laws, and also because the courts no longer allowed witches to be tried.
Amongst the Bantu tribes of
Southern Africathe witch smellers were responsible for detecting witches. In parts of Southern Africa several hundred people have been killed in witch hunts since 1990 [ [http://hayesfam.bravehost.com/WITCH1.HTM Christian responses to witchcraft and sorcery] ]
Several African states,
Cameroon, Togofor example, have reestablished witchcraft-accusations in courts. A person can be imprisoned or fined for the account of a witch-doctor.
It was reported on 21 May 2008 that in
Kenyaa mob had burnt to death at least 11 people accused of witchcraft [ [http://www.reuters.com/article/latestCrisis/idUSL21301127 Mob burns to death 11 Kenyan "witches"] ] .
Christian fundamentalistsin the United Statesreact to Neopaganism, and Wiccain particular, with rhetorics reminiscent of the European witch-hunts. [ [http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3944/is_199907/ai_n8876849 "Georgia congressman launches 'witch hunt' in U.S. military"] , Church & State, Jul/Aug 1999, Retrieved on 20 January 2008 - "God says, 'Suffer not a witch to live,'" the Rev. Jack Harvey of the Tabernacle Baptist Church in Killeen told The Washington Post. "We would like to see them saved, but God doesn't change his mind. We're not going to quit until they're gone." See also religious discrimination against Wiccans.]
In August 1999, Jack Harvey, pastor of
Tabernacle Independent Baptist Churchin Killeen, Texas allegedly arranged for at least one member of his church to carry a handgun during religious services, "in case a warlock tries to grab one of our kids...I've heard they drink blood, eat babies. They have fires, they probably cook them..." During speeches which preceded his church's demonstration against Wiccans, Rev. Harvey allegedly stated that the U.S. Army should napalm Witches. One of the protesters carried a sign which read "Witchcraft is an abomination" on one side and "Burn the witches off Ft. Hood" on the other. A Wiccan faith group is active at Ft. Hood, a large army base near Killeen. [Barry Shlachter, "Bothered and bewildered; Wiccans at Hood shrug off media hubbub," " Fort Worth Star Telegram", Aug. 7, 1999.]
In 2008 Jim Piculas, a substitute teacher at
Charles S. Rushe Middle Schoolin Land O' Lakes, Florida, was reported to have lost his job for "wizardry." Piculas performed a sleight of handtrick in front of students, making a toothpick seem to disappear using concealed adhesive tape. In a phone conversation with Piculas, an administrator is claimed to have told Piculas that he had been "accused of wizardry." School officials later informed reporters that wizardry was "just one of the reasons Piculas was let go." [ [http://www.cfnews13.com/News/Local/2008/5/6/teacher_accused_of_wizardry.html Teacher Accused Of Wizardry - Central Florida News 13 ] ]
= Causes and sociology of witch-hunts= One theory for the number of Early Modern witchcraft trials connects the
counter-reformationto witchcraft. In south-western Germany between 1561 and 1670 there were 480 witch trials. Of the 480 trials that took place in southwestern Germany, 317 occurred in Catholic areas, while Protestant territories accounted for 163 of them.H.C. Erik Midelfort, Witch Hunting in Southwestern Germany 1562-1684,1972,31] During the period from 1561 to 1670, at least 3,229 persons were executed for witchcraft in the German Southwest. Of this number 702 were tried and executed in Protestant territories, while 2,527 were tried and executed in Catholic territories. [H.C. Erik Midelfort, Witch Hunting in Southwestern Germany 1562-1684,1972,31-32] Nineteenth-century historians today dispute the comparative severity of witch hunting in Protestantand Catholicterritories. “Protestants blamed the witch trials on the methods of the Catholic Inquisition and the theology of Catholic scholasticism, while Catholic scholars indignantly retorted that Lutheran preachers drew more witchcraft theory from Luther and the Bible than from medieval Catholic thinkers.”
Other theories have pointed that the massive changes in law allowed for the outbreak in witch trials. Such laws pointed out heretical nature, and punished all aspects. Another theory is that rising number of devil literature popularized witchcraft trials, in which the German market saw nearly 100,000 devil-books during the 1560’s. [H.C. Erik Midelfort, Witch Hunting in Southwestern Germany 1562-1684,1972,69-0] Another assumption is that climate-induced crop failure and harsh weather was a direct link to witch-hunts. This theory follows the idea that witchcraft in Europe was traditionally associated with weather-making. [
Wolfgang Behringer, Witches and Witch-Hunts,2004,88] Scholars also imply that a connection between witchcraft trials and the Thirty Years’ Warmay also have a direct correlation. [H.C. Erik Midelfort, Witch Hunting in Southwestern Germany 1562-1684,1972]
While the previously mentioned theories mainly rely on micro level psychological interpretations, another theory has been put forward that provides an alternative macroeconomic explanation. [Gunnar Heinsohn/Otto Steiger: "Witchcraft, Population Catastrophe and Economic Crisis in Renaissance Europe: An Alternative Macroeconomic Explanation.", University of Bremen 2004 [http://www.geocities.com/funnyguy_35/6IKSF31.heins-steiger.witchcraft.pdf (download)] ] According to this theory, the witches, who often had highly developed
midwiferyskills, were prosecuted in order to extinguish knowledge about birth controlin an effort to repopulate Europe after the population catastrophe triggered by the plague pandemic of the 14th century (also known as the Black Death). [Gunnar Heinsohn/Otto Steiger: The Elimination of Medieval Birth Control and the Witch Trials of Modern Times, International Journal of Women's Studies, 3, May 1982, 193-214] Citing from Jean Bodin´s "On Witchcraft", this view holds that the witch hunts were not only promoted by the church but also by prominent secular thinkers to repopulate the European continent. [Gunnar Heinsohn/Otto Steiger: "Birth Control: The Political-Economic Rationale Behind Jean Bodin's "Démonomanie"", in: History of Political Economy, 31, No. 3, 423-448] By these authors, the witch hunts are seen as an attempt to eliminate female midwifery skills and as a historical explanation why modern gynecology - surprisingly enough - came to be practiced almost exclusively by males in state run hospitals. In this view, the witch hunts began a process of criminalizationof birth control that eventually lead to an enormous increase in birth rates that are described as the " population explosion" of early modern Europe. This population explosion produced an enormous youth bulgewhich supplied the extra manpower that would enable Europe's nations, during the period of colonialismand imperialism, to conquer and colonize 90% of the world. [Heinsohn, G.(2005): "Population, Conquest and Terror in the 21st Century." [http://www.geocities.com/funnyguy_35/HeinsohnPopulation.PDF] ] While historians specializing in the history of the witch hunts have generally remained critical of this macroeconomic approach and continue to favor micro level perspectives and explanations [Walter Rummel: 'Weise' Frauen und 'weise' Männer im Kampf gegen Hexerei. Die Widerlegung einer modernen Fabel. In: Christof Dipper, Lutz Klinkhammer und Alexander Nützenadel: Europäische Sozialgeschichte. Festschrift für Wolfgang Schieder (= Historische Forschungen 68), Berlin 2000, S. 353-375, [http://www.historicum.net/themen/hexenforschung/thementexte/rezeption/art/Weise_Frauen/html/ca/b14c768f43/] ] , prominent historian of birth control John M. Riddle has expressed agreement. [see John M. Riddle: "The Great Witch-Hunt and the Suppression of Birth Control: Heinsohn and Steiger's Theory from the Perspective of an Historian", Appendix to: Gunnar Heinsohn/Otto Steiger: "Witchcraft, Population Catastrophe and Economic Crisis in Renaissance Europe: An Alternative Macroeconomic Explanation.", University of Bremen 2004 [http://www.iksf.uni-bremen.de/publikationen/discussion/papers/dp31/31iksf-6heins-steiger.witchcraft.pdf (download)] ; also see John M. Riddle: "Eve's Herbs: A History of Contraception and Abortion in the West", Princeton: Harvard University Press 1999, ISBN-10: 0674270266, esp. Chapters 5-7]
As this theory has an alternative macroeconomic explanation some scholars oppose it.
Diane Purkissargues "that there is no evidence that the majority of those accused were healers and midwives; in England and also some parts of the Continent, midwives were more than likely to be found helping witch-hunters. [Diane Purkiss, "A Holocaust of one's own," 8] Also the fact remains that most women used herbal medicines as part of their household skills, and a large part of witches were accused by women. [Diane Purkis, "A Holocaust of one's own," 8]
Some sociologists have attributed the occurrence of witchhunts to the prevalent human tendency to blame unexplainable occurrences on someone or something familiar. For example, Europe relied heavily upon agriculture during the period of the witch hunts; if there were large scale crop failures, the consequences would very likely be disastrous. Crop failures often correlated with the occurrence of witchhunts, leading some sociologists to suggest that communities often took out their anger about a lack of food on community members who were unpopular (witches.) This can be paralleled in more recent examples such as the Nazi use of
anti-semitismto apportion blame for economic problems. A perception of moral righteousness, by the community, is a necessary element that enables rationalization. This, however, is only one element in a complex tapestry of factors leading to the events in question.
The modern notion of a "witchhunt" has little to do with
gender, the historical notion often did. In general, supposed "witches" were female. Noted Judge Nicholas Rémy(c.1595), " [It is] not unreasonable that this scum of humanity, [witches] , should be drawn chiefly from the feminine sex." Concurred another judge, "The Deviluses them so, because he knows that women love carnal pleasures, and he means to bind them to his allegiance by such agreeable provocations." [Klaits, Joseph — Servants of Satan: The Age of the Witch Hunts (1985) p.68]
In modern terminology 'witch-hunt' has acquired usage referring to the act of seeking and persecuting any perceived enemy, particularly when the search is conducted using extreme measures and with little regard to actual guilt or innocence.
Homage to Catalonia
The Oxford English Dictionary describes the first recorded use of the term in its metaphorical sense in
George Orwell's "Homage to Catalonia" (1938). The term is used by Orwell to describe how, in the Spanish Civil War, political persecutions became a regular occurrence.
The term 'witch-hunt' was widely popularized in a political context through
Arthur Miller's play " The Crucible", ostensibly about the Salem witch trials, but actually a criticism of the McCarthy hearings as well as the general atmosphere of paranoia and persecution that accompanied them. [ Arthur Miller, 'Why I Wrote "The Crucible"', "New Yorker", October 21 & October 28, 1996, p.158.] The hearings, held by anti-Communistcommittees, panels and "loyalty review boards" across the United States, became the most famous 'witch-hunt' of the 20th century. Later deemed unconstitutional, they represented a major breakdown in civil libertiesand civil discourse, and for tens of thousands of people resulted in ostracism, ruined careers or even imprisonmentfix|link=Wikipedia:Contents|text=citation needed.
Christian views on witchcraft
Trial by ordeal
Pierre de Lancre(conductor of a bloody witch-hunt in Labourd)
Salem witch trials
Torsåker witch trials
Basque witch trials
Würzburg witch trial
Ramsele witch trial
North Berwick witch trials
Bideford witch trial
*Parma witch hunt
*Behringer, Wolfgang. "Witches and Witch Hunts: A Global History." Malden Massachusetts: Polity Press, 2004.
*Briggs, Robin. 'Many reasons why': witchcraft and the problem of multiple explanation, in "Witchcraft in Early Modern Europe. Studies in Culture and Belief", ed. Jonathan Barry, Marianne Hester, and Gareth Roberts, Cambridge University Press, 1996.
*Levack, Brian P. "The Great Scottish Witch Hunt of 1661-1662", The
Journal of British Studies, Vol.20, No, 1. (Autumn, 1980), pp. 90-108.
*Levack, Brian P. "The witch hunt in early modern Europe, Second Edition". London and New York: Longman, 1995.
*Macfarlane, Alan. "Witchcraft in Tudor and Stuart England: A regional and Comparative Study". New York and Evanston: Harper & Row Publishers, 1970.
*Midlefort, Erick H.C. "Witch Hunting in Southeastern Germany 1562-1684: The Social and Intellectual Foundation." California: Stanford University Press, 1972. ISBN 0804708053
*Oberman, H. A., J. D. Tracy, Thomas A. Brady (eds.), "Handbook of European History, 1400-1600: Visions, Programs, Outcomes" (1995) ISBN 9004097619
*Oldridge, Darren (ed.), "The Witchcraft Reader" (2002) ISBN 0415214920
*Poole, Robert. "The Lancashire Witches: Histories and Stories" (2002) ISBN 0719062047
*Purkiss, Diane. "A Holocaust of One's Own: The Myth of the Burning Times." Chapter in "The Witch and History: Early Modern and Twentieth Century Representatives" New York, NY: Routledge, 1996, pp. 7-29.
*Sagan, Carl. "The Demon-Haunted World", Random House, 1996. ISBN 039453512X
*Thurston, Robert. "The Witch Hunts: A History of the Witch Persecutions in Europe and North America". Pearson/Longman, 2007.
*Purkiss, Diane. "The Bottom of the Garden, Dark History of Fairies, Hobgoblins, and Other Troublesome Things." Chapter 3 "Brith and Death: Fairies in Scottish Witch-trials" New York, NY: New York University Press, 2000, pp. 85-115.
*West, Robert H. "Reginald Scot and Renaissance Writings". Boston: Twayne Publishers,1984.
*Briggs, K.M. "Pale Hecate’s Team, an Examination of the Beliefs on Witchcraft and Magic among Shakespeare’s Contemporaries and His Immediate Successors". New York: The Humanities Press, 1962.
* [http://www.summerlands.com/crossroads/remembrance/_remembrance/stages_witch_trial.htm The Stages of a Witch Trial] — a series of articles by Jenny Gibbons.
* [http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/15674a.htm 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia entry on "Witchcraft"]
* [http://web.archive.org/web/20060206211452/http://wicca.timerift.net/burning.html The Burning Times] A Wiccan discusses what she considers the three myths of "The Burning Times"
*Jenny Gibbons (1998). [http://draeconin.com/database/witchhunt.htm] . Retrieved 21 November 2006.
* [http://www.crisismagazine.com/october2001/feature1.htm Crises: Witch hunt]
* [http://www.bede.org.uk/decline.htm The Decline and End of Witch Trials in Europe] by James Hannam
* [http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/salem/witchcraft/Salem Witch Trials Documentary Archive and Transcription Project]
* [http://www.cornishwitchcraft.com/Witch%20Trials.htm Cornish witch-trials]
* [http://www.visualstatistics.net/East-West/Witch%20Trials/Witch%20Trials.htm Witch Trials]
* [http://www.geocities.com/stevenedw/alicekyteler.html Dame Alice le Kyteler, convicted of witchcraft in Kilkenny, Ireland, 1324]
* [http://www.elizabethan-era.org.uk/elizabethan-superstitions.htm Elizabethan Superstitions in the Elizabethan Period] by Linda Alchin
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Witch hunt — may refer to: * Witch hunt, a search for suspected or alleged witches, or similar political accusations * Witch Hunt , the Ian Rankin novel (writing as Jack Harvey) * Witch Hunt , the movie, starring Dennis Hopper, loosely based on the work of H … Wikipedia
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witch-hunt — n an attempt to find and punish people in a society or organization whose opinions are regarded as wrong or dangerous used to show disapproval ▪ anti Communist witch hunts … Dictionary of contemporary English
witch hunt — 1640 in the literal sense; the extended sense is attested from 1932 (in witch hunting), popularized in Cold War anti Communist hysteria … Etymology dictionary
witch-hunt — witch hunts N COUNT: oft N against n (disapproval) A witch hunt is an attempt to find and punish a particular group of people who are being blamed for something, often simply because of their opinions and not because they have actually done… … English dictionary
witch hunt — n. [so named in allusion to persecutions of persons alleged to be witches] an investigation carried out ostensibly to uncover disloyalty, subversive political activity, etc., usually conducted with much publicity and often relying upon… … English World dictionary
witch-hunt — ► NOUN ▪ a campaign directed against a person or group holding views considered unorthodox or a threat to society … English terms dictionary