- José Zorrilla y Moral
José Zorrilla y Moral (
February 21, 1817- January 23, 1893), was a Spanish Romantic poetand dramatist.
He was born in
Valladolidto a magistratein whom Ferdinand VII placed special confidence,. He was educated by the Jesuitsat the Real Seminario de Nobles in Madrid, wrote verses when he was twelve, became an enthusiastic admirer of Walter Scott and Chateaubriand, and took part in the school performances of plays by Lope de Vega and Calderón de la Barca.
In 1833 he was sent to study law at the University of Toledo, but after a year of idleness, he fled to Madrid, where he horrified the friends of his absolutist father by making violent speeches and by founding a newspaper which was promptly suppressed by the government. He narrowly escaped transportation to the
Philippines, and passed the next few years in poverty.
The death of the satirist
Mariano José de Larrabrought Zorrilla into notice. His elegiac poem, read at Larra's funeral in February 1837, introduced him to the leading men of letters. In 1837 he published a book of verses, mostly imitations of Alphonse de Lamartineand Victor Hugo, which was so favourably received that he printed six more volumes within three years.
After collaborating with
Antonio García Gutiérrezon the play "Juán Dondolo" (1839) Zorrilla began his individual career as a dramatist with "Cada cual con su razón" (1840), and during the next five years he wrote twenty-two plays, many of them extremely successful. His "Cantos del trovador" (1841), a collection of national legends written in verse, made Zorilla second only to José de Esproncedain popular esteem.
National legends also supply the themes of his dramas, which Zorilla often constructed by adapting older plays that had fallen out of fashion. For example, in "El Zapatero y el Rey" he recasts "El montanés Juan Pascual" by Juan de la Hoz y Mota; in "La mejor Talon la espada" he borrows from
Agustín Moreto y Cavana's "Travesuras del estudiante Pa-atoja". His famous play " Don Juan Tenorio" is a combination of elements from Tirso de Molina's "Burlador de Sevilla" and from Alexandre Dumas, père's "Don Juan de Marana" (which itself derives from "Les dames du purgatoire" by Prosper Mérimée] ). However, plays like "Sancho García," "El Rey loco," and "El Alcalde Ronquillo" are much more original. He considered his last play, "Traidor, inconfeso y mártir" (1845) his best play.
Upon the death of his mother in 1847 Zorrilla left Spain, resided for a while at
Bordeaux, and settled in Paris, where his incomplete poem "Granada" was published in 1852. In a fit of depression, he emigrated to America three years later, hoping, he claimed, that yellow feveror smallpoxwould kill him. During eleven years in Mexicohe wrote very little. He returned to Spain in 1866, to find himself half-forgotten and considered old-fashioned.
Friends helped Zorilla obtain a small post, but the republican minister later abolished it. He was always poor, especially for the 12 years after 1871. The publication of his autobiography, "Recuerdos del tiempo viejo" in 1880, did nothing to alleviate his poverty. Though his plays were still being performed, he received no money from them.
Finally, in his old age, critics began to reappraise his work, and brought him new fame. He received a pension of 30,000 reales, a gold medal of honor from the Spanish Academy, and, in 1889, the title of National Laureate. He died in Madrid on January 23, 1893.
In his early years, Zorrilla was known as an extraordinarily fast writer. He claimed he wrote"El Caballo del Rey Don Sancho" in three weeks, and that he put together "El Puñal del Godo" in two days. This may account for some of the technical faults--redundancy and verbosity--in his works. His plays often appeal to Spanish patriotic pride, and actors and audiences have enjoyed his effective dramaturgy. "Don Juan Tenorio" is his best-known work.
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
José Zorrilla y Moral — José Zorrilla José Zorrilla y Moral Valladolid, 21 février 1817 Madrid, 23 janvier 1893. Est un écrivain, dramaturge et poète. est l un des principaux … Wikipédia en Français
Jose Zorrilla y Moral — Der spanische Dichter und Dramenautor José Zorrilla y Moral José Zorrilla y Moral (* 21. Februar 1817 in Valladolid; † 23. Januar 1893 in Madrid) war ein spanischer Dichter und Dramatiker. Inhaltsverzeichnis … Deutsch Wikipedia
José Zorrilla y Moral — Der spanische Dichter und Dramenautor José Zorrilla y Moral José Zorrilla y Moral (* 21. Februar 1817 in Valladolid; † 23. Januar 1893 in Madrid) war ein spanischer Dichter und Dramatiker. Inhaltsverzeichnis … Deutsch Wikipedia
José Zorrilla — Nacimiento 21 de febrero de 1817 Valladolid Defunción … Wikipedia Español
José-Zorrilla-Stadion — Daten Ort Spain … Deutsch Wikipedia
José Zorrilla — y Moral Valladolid, 21 février 1817 Madrid, 23 janvier 1893. Est un écrivain, dramaturge et poète. est l un des principaux dramaturges espagn … Wikipédia en Français
José Zorrilla — y Moral (Valladolid, 1817 Madrid, 1893). Poeta y dramaturgo español. Desde muy joven fue aficionado a la literatura de autores como Walter Scott, Fenimore Cooper, Chateubriand, Alejandro Dumas, Victor Hugo, el duque de Rivas o … Enciclopedia Universal
Jose Zorrilla — Der spanische Dichter und Dramenautor José Zorrilla y Moral José Zorrilla y Moral (* 21. Februar 1817 in Valladolid; † 23. Januar 1893 in Madrid) war ein spanischer Dichter und Dramatiker. Inhaltsverzeichnis … Deutsch Wikipedia
Zorrilla y Moral — Zorrilla y Moral, Don José, geb. 21. Febr. 1817 in Valladolid, lebte einige Zeit im Auslande u. sollte dann nach dem Willen seines Vaters, eines Rechtsgelehrten, ebenfalls Jurist werden, weshalb er auch nach Toledo u. Valladolid ging; indeß er… … Pierer's Universal-Lexikon
Zorrilla y Moral — Zorrilla y Moral, Don José, geb. 1817 zu Valladolid, span. Dichter, Lyriker,. Epiker und Dramatiker. (Werke, 3 Bde., 2. Aufl., Par. 1853.) … Herders Conversations-Lexikon