- Nasal polyp
Nasal polyps Classification and external resources ICD-10 J33 ICD-9 471 MedlinePlus 001641 eMedicine ent/334 ent/335 MeSH C09.603.557
Nasal polyps are polypoidal masses arising mainly from the mucous membranes of the nose and paranasal sinuses. They are overgrowths of the mucosa that frequently accompany allergic rhinitis. They are freely movable and nontender.
Nasal polyps are usually classified into antrochoanal polyps and ethmoidal polyps. Antrochoanal polyps arise from the maxillary sinuses and are the much less common, ethmoidal polyps arise from the ethmoidal sinuses. Antrochoanal polyps are usually single and unilateral whereas ethmoidal polyps are multiple and bilateral.
Symptoms of polyps include nasal block, sinusitis, anosmia (loss of smell), and secondary infection leading to headache. Despite removal by surgery, nasal polyps are found to reoccur in about 70% of cases. Sinus surgery requires great amount of precision as this involves risk of damage to orbit matter.
The tendency to manifest multiple polyps is referred to as “polyposis”.
There are 2 major types of nasal polyps.
- 1. Antrochoanal
- a. Single, Unilateral
- b. Can originate from maxillary sinus.
- c. Usually found in children.
- a. Single, Unilateral
- 2. Ethmoidal
- a. Bilateral
- b. Usually found in adults.
- a. Bilateral
The pathogenesis of nasal polyps is unknown. Nasal polyps are most commonly thought to be caused by allergy and rarely by cystic fibrosis although a significant number are associated with non-allergic adult asthma or no respiratory or allergic trigger that can be demonstrated.
These polyps have no relationship with colonic or uterine polyps. Irregular unilateral polyps particularly associated with pain or bleeding will require urgent investigation as they may represent an intranasal tumour.
There are various diseases associated with polyp formation:
- Chronic rhinosinusitis
- Aspirin intolerance
- Cystic fibrosis
- Kartagener's syndrome
- Young's syndrome
- Churg-strauss syndrome
- Nasal mastocytosis
Exposure to some forms of chromium can cause nasal polyps and associated diseases.
They are also linked to salicylate sensitivity.
Nasal polyps are most often treated with steroids or topical, but can also be treated with surgical methods.
Pre-post surgery, sinus rinses with a warm water (240 ml / 8 oz) mixed with a small amount (teaspoon) of salts (sodium chloride & sodium bicarbonate) can be very helpful to clear the sinuses. This method can be also used as a preventative measure to discourage the polyps from growing back and should be used in combination with a nasal steroid.
The removal of nasal polyps via surgery lasts approximately 45 minutes to 1 hour. The surgery can be done under general or local anaesthesia, and the polyps are removed using endoscopic surgery. Recovery from this type of surgery is anywhere from 1 to 3 weeks.
Pathology of respiratory system (J, 460–519), respiratory diseases Upper RT
Common cold)Headvocal folds: Laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) · Vocal fold nodule · Vocal cord paresis · Vocal cord dysfunction
Lower RT/lung disease
(including LRTIs)acute: Acute bronchitischronic: COPD (Chronic bronchitis, Acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis, Acute exacerbation of COPD, Emphysema) · Asthma (Status asthmaticus, Aspirin-induced, Exercise-induced) · BronchiectasisInterstitial/
restrictiveBy pathogenBy vector/routeBy distributionBroncho- · LobarOther
- 1. Antrochoanal
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