- Timeline of black hole physics
Timeline ofblack hole physics *

1640 -Ismael Bullialdus suggests an inverse-square gravitational force law

*1684 -Isaac Newton writes down his inverse-square Law of universal gravitation

*1758 -Rudjer Josip Boscovich develops his Theory of forces, wheregravity can be repulsive on small distances. So according to him such strange classical bodies, similar towhite hole s, can exist, which won't let other bodies to reach their surfaces

*1784 -John Michell discusses classical bodies which have escape velocities greater than thespeed of light

*1795 - Pierre Laplace discusses classical bodies which have escape velocities greater than the speed of light

*1798 -Henry Cavendish measures thegravitational constant "G"

*1876 -William Kingdon Clifford suggests that the motion of matter may be due to changes in the geometry of space

*1909 -Albert Einstein together withMarcel Grossmann starts to develop a theory which would bindmetric tensor "g"_{ik}, which defines aspace geometry , with a source of gravity, that is withmass

*1910 -Hans Reissner andGunnar Nordström defines Reissner-Nordström singularity,Hermann Weyl solves special case for a point-body source

*1916 -Karl Schwarzschild solves the Einsteinvacuum field equation s for uncharged spherically-symmetric non-rotating systems

*1917 -Paul Ehrenfest gives conditional principle a three dimensional space

*1918 - Hans Reissner and Gunnar Nordström solve the Einstein-Maxwell field equations for charged spherically-symmetric non-rotating systems

*1918 -Friedrich Kottler gets Schwarzschild solution without Einstein vacuum field equations

*1923 -George David Birkhoff proves that the Schwarzschildspacetime geometry is the unique spherically symmetric solution of the Einstein vacuum field equations

*1939 -Robert Oppenheimer andHartland Snyder calculate thegravitational collapse of a pressure-free homogeneous fluid sphere and find that it cuts itself off from communication with the rest of theUniverse

*1963 -Roy Kerr solves the Einstein vacuum field equations for uncharged symmetric rotating systems, deriving theKerr metric

*1964 -Roger Penrose proves that an imploding star will necessarily produce a singularity once it has formed anevent horizon

*1965 -Ezra T. Newman , E. Couch, K. Chinnapared, A. Exton, A. Prakash, and Robert Torrence solve the Einstein-Maxwell field equations for charged rotating systems

*1967 -Werner Israel presented the proof of theno hair theorem at King's College inLondon

*1967 - John Wheeler coins the term "black hole"

*1968 -Brandon Carter usesHamilton-Jacobi theory to derive first-order equations of motion for a charged particle moving in the external fields of a Kerr-Newman black hole

*1969 -Roger Penrose discusses thePenrose process for the extraction of the spinenergy from a Kerr black hole

*1969 -Roger Penrose proposes thecosmic censorship hypothesis

*1971 - Identification ofCygnus X-1 /HDE 226868 as a binary black hole candidate system

*1972 -Stephen Hawking proves that the area of a classical black hole's event horizon cannot decrease

*1972 - James Bardeen, Brandon Carter, andStephen Hawking propose four laws of black holemechanics in analogy with the laws ofthermodynamics

*1972 -Jacob Bekenstein suggests that black holes have anentropy proportional to their surface area due to information loss effects

*1974 -Stephen Hawking appliesquantum field theory to black hole spacetimes and shows that black holes will radiate particles with ablack-body spectrum which can cause black hole evaporation

*1989 - Identification of GS2023+338/V404 Cygni as a binary black hole candidate system

*1996 -Andrew Strominger andCumrun Vafa use string theory to calculate the entropy of a black hole, getting the same answer as Hawking and Bekenstein

*2002 - Astronomers at theMax Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics present evidence for the hypothesis thatSagittarius A* is asupermassive black hole at the centre of theMilky Way galaxy

*2002 -NASA 's Chandra X-ray Observatory identifies double galactic black holes system in merging galaxiesNGC 6240

*2004 - Calculations in quantum mechanics and string theory suggest that information can escape from black holes. Models of black holes from string theory cast doubt on the idea of the singularity. SeeFuzzballs .

*2004 - Further observations by a team fromUCLA present even stronger evidence supporting Sagittarius A* as a black hole.**ee also***

Timeline of gravitational physics and relativity

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